Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 356
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090203

ABSTRACT

Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (MIS-C) is characterized by persistent fever and evidence of single or multiorgan dysfunction, and laboratory evidence of inflammation, elevated neutrophils, reduced lymphocytes, and low albumin. The pathophysiological mechanisms of MIS-C are still unknown. Proinflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species and decreased antioxidant enzymes, seems to play a central role. Virus entry activates NOXs and inhibits Nrf-2 antioxidant response inducing free radicals. The biological functions of nonphagocytic NOXs are still under study and appear to include: defense of epithelia, intracellular signaling mechanisms for growth regulation and cell differentiation, and post-translational modifications of proteins. This educational review has the aim of analyzing the newest evidence on the role of oxidative stress (OS) in MIS-C. Only by relating inflammatory mediators to OS evaluation in children following SARS-CoV-2 infection will it be possible to achieve a better understanding of these mechanisms and to reduce long-term morbidity. The link between inflammation and OS is key to developing effective prevention strategies with antioxidants to protect children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Syndrome , Oxidative Stress
2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 280, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bersama abyssinica is a common herb in Africa, with diverse medical uses in different areas. The plant is well-known in Tanzania for treating respiratory disorders such as TB, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and asthma, and it has lately been utilized to treat COVID-19 symptoms. Water extract of leaf and stem bark has been registered as an herbal medication known as 'Coviba Dawa' in Tanzania for the relief of bacterial respiratory infections. The extracts, however, have not been scientifically tested for their anti-viral activities. The aim of this work was to test for the cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of bioactive ingredients from B. abyssinica extracts against the Delta variant of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. METHODS: B. abyssinica leaves and stem bark were dried under shade in room temperature and then pulverized to obtain small pieces before soaking into different solvents. One hundred grams of each, leaves and stem bark, were extracted in petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Water extract was obtained by decoction of stem bark and leaves into water. Phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and antioxidants were confirmed as components of the extracts. Analysis of polar extracts of bark stem bark and leaves was done. Antiviral screening and cytotoxicity experiments were conducted in a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) Laboratory facility according to International Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). RESULTS: By the use of LC-MS/MS analysis, this study confirmed the existence of four phenolic compounds in B. abyssinica water extract; 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl propionate, 7,8-Dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and 2,3, 6-trimethoxyflavone with antioxidant activity. This study showed that, while the water extracts of B. abyssinica had significant antiviral activity against SARS Cov2 virus, it showed no cytotoxicity effect on Vero E6 cells. In particular, the water extract (Coviba dawa) showed 75% while ethylacetate fraction of B. abyssinica leaves showed a 50% in vitro viral inhibition, indicating that these substances may be useful for the development of future anti-viral agents. CONCLUSION: We therefore recommend isolation of compounds for further profiling and development with a broader concentration range. We further recommend studies that determine the antiviral activity of extracts of B.abyssinica on other viral pathogens of clinical concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnoliopsida , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Water , SARS-CoV-2 , Methylene Chloride/analysis , Methanol , Chromatography, Liquid , Propionates , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phenols/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Tannins , Solvents/analysis , Tanzania
3.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071653

ABSTRACT

The tracing of an alternative drug, Phytochemicals is a promising approach to the viral threats that have emerged over the past two years. Across the world, herbal medicine is a better solution against anti-viral diseases during pandemic periods. Goniothalamus wightii is an herbal plant, which has diverse bioactive compounds with anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-viral properties. The aim of the study was to isolate the compound by chromatography studies and functionalization by FT-IR, LC-MS, and NMR (C-NMR, H-NMR). As a result, the current work focuses on whether (S)-Goniathalamin and its analogue could act as natural anti-viral molecules for multiple target proteins viz., MPro, RdRp, and SPro, which are required for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 954 compounds were examined and the molecular-docking studies were performed on the maestro platform of Schrodinger software. Molecular-dynamics simulation studies were performed on two complex major compounds to confirm their affinity across 150 simulations. This research suggests that plant-based drugs have high levels of antiviral properties against coronavirus. However, more research is needed to verify its antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Goniothalamus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Antioxidants , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
4.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071652

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant (B.529) of COVID-19 caused disease outbreaks worldwide because of its contagious and diverse mutations. To reduce these outbreaks, therapeutic drugs and adjuvant vaccines have been applied for the treatment of the disease. However, these drugs have not shown high efficacy in reducing COVID-19 severity, and even antiviral drugs have not shown to be effective. Researchers thus continue to search for an effective adjuvant therapy with a combination of drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19 disease. We were motivated to consider melatonin as a defensive agent against SARS-CoV-2 because of its various unique properties. Over 200 scientific publications have shown the significant effects of melatonin in treating diseases, with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Melatonin has a high safety profile, but it needs further clinical trials and experiments for use as a therapeutic agent against the Omicron variant of COVID-19. It might immediately be able to prevent the development of severe symptoms caused by the coronavirus and can reduce the severity of the infection by improving immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071649

ABSTRACT

With technological advancements in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries, numerous research studies have focused on the propolis produced by stingless bees (Meliponini tribe) and Apis mellifera honeybees as alternative complementary medicines for the potential treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. Propolis can be found in tropical and subtropical forests throughout the world. The composition of phytochemical constituents in propolis varies depending on the bee species, geographical location, botanical source, and environmental conditions. Typically, propolis contains lipid, beeswax, essential oils, pollen, and organic components. The latter include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, polyphenols, terpenes, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids, amino acids, and aromatic acids. The biologically active constituents of propolis, which include countless organic compounds such as artepillin C, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, chrysin, galangin, kaempferol, luteolin, genistein, naringin, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, and quercetin, have a broad spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstruct pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract-related diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, as well as neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and immuno-inflammatory agents. Therefore, this review aims to provide a summary of recent studies on the role of propolis, its constituents, its biologically active compounds, and their efficacy in the medicinal and pharmaceutical treatment of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Propolis , Amino Acids , Animals , Antioxidants , Apigenin , Caffeic Acids , Coumaric Acids , Coumarins , Flavonoids/chemistry , Genistein , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Kaempferols , Lipids , Luteolin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Propolis/chemistry , Quercetin , Terpenes
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071513

ABSTRACT

Platelet hyperreactivity and oxidative stress are the important causes of thrombotic disorders in patients with COVID-19. Oxidative stress, induced by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), could increase platelet function and the risk of thrombus formation. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), exhibits strong antioxidative activity and anti-platelet effect. However, the effects and mechanisms of CoQ10 on attenuating platelet aggregation induced by spike protein have never been studied. This study aims to investigate whether the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein potentiates human platelet function via ROS signaling and the protective effect of CoQ10 in vitro. Using a series of platelet function assays, we found that spike protein potentiated platelet aggregation and oxidative stress, such as ROS level, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and lipid damage level (MDA and 8-iso-PGF2α) in vitro. Furthermore, CoQ10 attenuated platelet aggregation induced by spike protein. As an anti-platelet mechanism, we showed that CoQ10 significantly decreased the excess production of ROS induced by spike protein. Our findings show that the protective effect of CoQ10 on spike protein-potentiated platelet aggregation is probably associated with its strong antioxidative ability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquinone/pharmacology , Ubiquinone/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Lipids/pharmacology
7.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066277

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, since ages and nowadays, traditional medicine is well known, owing to its biodiversity, which immensely contributed to the advancement and development of complementary and alternative medicines. There is a wide range of spices, herbs, and trees known for their medicinal uses. Chilli peppers, a vegetable cum spice crop, are bestowed with natural bioactive compounds, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, phytochemicals, phytonutrients, and pharmacologically active compounds with potential health benefits. Such compounds manifest their functionality over solo-treatment by operating in synergy and consortium. Co-action of these compounds and nutrients make them potentially effective against coagulation, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, dreadful diseases, such as cancer, and microbial diseases, alongside having good anti-oxidants with scavenging ability to free radicals and oxygen. In recent times, capsaicinoids especially capsaicin can ameliorate important viral diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2. In addition, capsaicin provides an ability to chilli peppers to ramify as topical agents in pain-relief and also benefitting man as a potential effective anesthetic agent. Such phytochemicals involved not only make them useful and a much economical substitute to wonder/artificial drugs but can be exploited as obscene drugs for the production of novel stuffs. The responsibility of the TRPV1 receptor in association with capsaicin in mitigating chronic diseases has also been justified in this study. Nonetheless, medicinal studies pertaining to consumption of chilli peppers are limited and demand confirmation of the findings from animal studies. In this artifact, an effort has been made to address in an accessible format the nutritional and biomedical perspectives of chilli pepper, which could precisely upgrade and enrich our pharmaceutical industries towards human well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capsicum , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Capsaicin/pharmacology , Capsicum/chemistry , Flavonoids , Humans , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066270

ABSTRACT

Andrographis paniculata is a well-known Asian medicinal plant with a major phytoconstituent of diterpene lactones, such as andrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, and neoandrographolide. A World Health Organization (WHO) monograph on selected medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata extracts and its major diterpene lactones have promising anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic activities. However, these active phytochemicals have poor water solubility and bioavailability when delivered in a conventional dosage form. These biological barriers can be mitigated if the extract or isolated compound are delivered as nanoparticles. This review discusses existing studies and marketed products of A. paniculata in solid, liquid, semi-solid, and gaseous dosage forms, either as an extract or isolated pure compounds, as well as their deficits in reaching maximum bioavailability. The pharmaceutics and pharmacological activity of A. paniculata as a nano-delivery system are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Antimalarials , Diterpenes , Plants, Medicinal , Andrographis/chemistry , Andrographis paniculata , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents , Antioxidants , Diterpenes/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents , Lactones , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Water
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066118

ABSTRACT

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is one of the most economically important medicinal plants, cultivated worldwide for its high medicinal value and with several industrial applications in both pharmaceutical and food industries. Thanks to its various phytochemical contents, including caffeic acid derivatives (CADs), E. purpurea extracts have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-stimulating properties. Among CADs, chicoric acid is one of the most important compounds which have shown important pharmacological properties. The present research was aimed at optimizing the production of chicoric acid in E. purpurea cell culture. Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) at different concentrations and for different duration of treatments was utilized as elicitor, and the content of total polyphenols and chicoric acid was measured. Several genes involved in the chicoric acid biosynthetic pathway were selected, and their expression evaluated at different time points of cell culture growth. This was performed with the aim of identifying the most suitable putative molecular markers to be used as a proxy for the early prediction of chicoric acid contents, without the need of expensive quantification methods. A correlation between the production of chicoric acid in response to MeJa and an increased response to oxidative stress was also proposed.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Echinacea , Acetates , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , Caffeic Acids , Cell Culture Techniques , Cyclopentanes , Echinacea/chemistry , Echinacea/metabolism , Oxylipins , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Succinates
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 964741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065648

ABSTRACT

Arisaema jacquemontii Blume is a highly medicinal and poisonous plant belong to the family Araceae. It is used to treat several deadly diseases, including viral infections. It has antioxidant, anti-cancerous, antimalarial, anti-vermicidal, and antiviral activities. Therefore, five parts of the Arisaema jacquemontii Blume plant, such as leaf, seed, stem, pulp, and rhizome extract, were evaluated for metabolic and in silico characterization of probable compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 22 compounds were isolated from the methanolic extracts of A. jacquemontii Blume. A selected antiviral COVID-19 protein i.e., protease (6LU7) was docked against the obtained compounds. Different affinities were obtained through various compounds. The best results were shown by three different compounds identified in the rhizome. The maximum binding affinity of these compounds is 8.1 kJ/mol. Molecular docking (MD) indicate that these molecules have the highest binding energies and hydrogen bonding interactions. The binding mode of interaction was discovered to be reasonably effective for counteracting the SARS virus COVID-19. The findings of this study could be extremely useful in the development of more phytochemical-based COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Arisaema , COVID-19 , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arisaema/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
11.
Life Sci ; 309: 121048, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061633

ABSTRACT

Pirfenidone (PFD) is a non-peptide synthetic chemical that inhibits the production of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), and collagen 1 (COL1A1), all of which have been linked to the prevention or removal of excessive scar tissue deposition in many organs. PFD has been demonstrated to decrease apoptosis, downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptor expression, reduce inflammation through many routes, and alleviate oxidative stress in pneumocytes and other cells while protecting them from COVID-19 invasion and cytokine storm. Based on the mechanism of action of PFD and the known pathophysiology of COVID-19, it was recommended to treat COVID-19 patients. The use of PFD as a treatment for a range of disorders is currently being studied, with an emphasis on outcomes related to reduced inflammation and fibrogenesis. As a result, rather than exploring the molecule's chemical characteristics, this review focuses on innovative PFD efficacy data. Briefly, herein we tried to investigate, discuss, and illustrate the possible mechanisms of actions for PFD to be targeted as a promising anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor, and/or anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-1beta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Inflammation/drug therapy , Transforming Growth Factors , Angiotensins
12.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(12): 5013-5021, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060053

ABSTRACT

Our study aims to determine the relationship between hepcidin, aquaporin (AQP-1), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) levels, and oxidative stress in the sera of seriously ill COVID-19 patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. Ninety persons with and without COVID-19 were taken up and separated into two groups. The first group included seriously COVID-19 inpatients having endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit (n = 45). The second group included individuals who had negative PCR tests and had no chronic disease (the healthy control group n = 45). AQP-1, hepcidin, Zn, Cu, Fe, total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) were studied in the sera of both groups, and the relations of these levels with oxidative stress were determined. When the COVID-19 patient and the control groups were compared, all studied parameters were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). Total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and AQP-1, hepcidin, and Cu levels were increased in patients with COVID-19 compared to healthy people. Serum TAC, Zn, and Fe levels were found to be lower in the patient group than in the control group. Significant correlations were detected between the studied parameters in COVID-19 patients. Results indicated that oxidative stress may play an important role in viral infection due to SARS-CoV-2. We think that oxidative stress parameters as well as some trace elements at the onset of COVID-19 disease will provide a better triage in terms of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trace Elements , Antioxidants/metabolism , Copper , Critical Illness , Hepcidins , Humans , Iron , Oxidants , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
13.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 173(5): 606-610, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059913

ABSTRACT

The indicators of spermatogenesis and the state of LPO and antioxidant protection in men with pathozoospermia after COVID-19 were assessed before and after treatment an antioxidant complex. Blood plasma served as the material for biochemical studies. In the examined patients, the parameters of spermatogenesis, as well as blood concentration of LPO components (diene conjugates and TBA-reactive substances) were analyzed. The total antioxidant activity of the blood was determined as an indicator characterizing the total activity of LPO inhibitors and determining its buffer capacity. In patients recovered from COVID-19, an increase in spermatogenesis disorders and shifts towards the predominance of prooxidant factors were observed. After a course (1 month) of antioxidant complex, patients showed increased sperm motility, decreased leukocyte count in the ejaculate, and restored balance in the prooxidant-antioxidant system towards antioxidant components. The effectiveness of correction of post-COVID disorders largely depends on the degree of damage to the structure and function of cell membranes caused by oxidative stress. The use of the antioxidant complex is a promising option, because it reduces the level of LPO, enhances antioxidant protection of the body, and also normalizes some parameters of spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , COVID-19 , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis
14.
Acta Chim Slov ; 69(3): 564-570, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056607

ABSTRACT

Disbalance balance between oxidants and antioxidants is called oxidative stress and could be presented as oxidative stress index (OSI). OSI is determined by the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM test) to assess oxidants and the plasma antioxidant capacity test (PAT test) to measure antioxidants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of OSI in the disease COVID-19. d-ROMs results were the highest in the SARS-CoV-2 POSITIVE group (365+/-112), lower in the SARS-CoV-2 NEGATIVE group (314+/-72.4), and the lowest in an INTENSIVE CARE UNIT group (ICU) (277+/-142) U.Carr. PAT test values were the lowest in the SARS-CoV-2 POSITIVE group (2762+/-387), higher in the ICU group (2772 +/-786), and the highest in the SARS-CoV-2 NEGATIVE group (2808+/-470), and are not statistically significantly different (P>0.05), while OSI was: healthy with average value of 49 and the critical ill with average value of 109 (P = 0.016). Cut-offs for predicting ICUs admission was at OSI 62, with 80.0% sensitivity and 68.2% specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Oxidants , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 30(1): 57-58, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046604

ABSTRACT

Proper hand hygiene is one of the top preventive measures against the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we report the cases of four patients who presented with blonde discoloration of hair of the dorsal hands and distal forearms during the COVID-19 pandemic. The mean age of participants was 41.25±4.35 years, and 75% percent of them were men. Three patients were medical staff who had to use antiseptics frequently, and one of them was a housewife. In all participants, the primary color of hand hair was black. The duration of sanitizer use was approximately four months (Table 1). One of the patients, a 42-year-old male ophthalmologist, was examined due to the blonde discoloration of hairs of the dorsal hands and distal forearms (Figure 1). The color of the hand and forearms hair had changed to blonde. However, the underlying skin was unaffected. A dermoscopy examination showed lighter hair compared with the natural black hair of unaffected parts. In addition, the hair color of the scalp, upper arms, and other body parts was normal. The patient had frequently used a hand sanitizer that contained 70% ethanol and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) for the past five months. The three other patients also had blonde discoloration observable on the hair of dorsal hands. They all reported excessive use of various alcoholic sanitizers. However, they were unaware of other ingredients. In addition, the examination of hair shafts and underlying skin was normal. The COVID-19 pandemic caused an abrupt increase in the use of sanitizers. Hand disinfectants consist of two main categories: non-alcohol-based hand sanitizers and alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The alcohol-based type is an effective measure for the inactivation of enveloped viruses such as coronaviruses (1). It has been shown that percutaneous absorption of alcohol is possible through intact skin. The use of ethanol as a penetration enhancer for pharmaceutical purposes also confirms that ethanol can be absorbed via the skin and be systematically distributed in the body (2). Reisfield et al. observed that intensive use of ethanol-based sanitizers led to an increase in urinary ethanol biomarkers concentrations (3). Alcohols used in various types of gels and solutions are easily released during hand rubbing (4). Ethanol absorption by inhalation should therefore also be taken into account (5). Different pathways of ethanol metabolism can produce free radicals, which affect the antioxidant system (6). In addition, DDAC is also associated with cell growth inhibition and stress oxidative induction (7). Hair discoloration may be a voluntary cosmetic change or a result of chemical or metal exposure. Most unwanted hair discolorations are blonde or white (8). Previous data suggested that an increase in pro-oxidants and a decrease in antioxidants play an important role in hair discoloration. A study performed by Akin Belli et al. demonstrated that hair discoloration is closely related to factors such as emotional stress and alcohol consumption, which cause oxidative stress (9). Hair discoloration might therefore result from oxidative stress induced by ethanol and DDAC used in sanitizers. Golden hair discoloration has been associated with chloride in water. Hypochlorous acid in swimming pool water can penetrate the hair cortex through the cuticle, where it can oxidize and degenerate melanosomes (10). Another possible hypothesis is that the chloride compound in DDAC might be the culprit in sanitizer hair discoloration. Additionally, the bleaching compounds used in some hand disinfectants could be another possible cause of hair discoloration. To the best of our knowledge, this observation of hair discoloration was not previously reported during the COVID-19 outbreak. It is also noteworthy that most hair discoloration normalizes over time (8). The limitations of our study included the fact that the hand sanitizers used by the patients were unavailable and thus their ingredients could not be examined. Furthermore, as most of the sanitizers in this current pandemic are not standardized, they may have unknown ingredients with discoloration properties. Due to the overzealous use of various antiseptics during the pandemic, it is expected that this side-effect will be observed more and more often. Therefore, physicians must be aware of this presentation and reassure the patient regarding this phenomenon. Additionally, products free of such agents should be prescribed to avoid hair discoloration.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Hair Diseases , Hand Sanitizers , Adult , Ammonium Chloride , Antioxidants , Chlorides , Ethanol/adverse effects , Female , Gels , Hair , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Hand Sanitizers/chemistry , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Water
16.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043880

ABSTRACT

Melatonin has become a popular dietary supplement, most known as a chronobiotic, and for establishing healthy sleep. Research over the last decade into cancer, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, fertility, PCOS, and many other conditions, combined with the COVID-19 pandemic, has led to greater awareness of melatonin because of its ability to act as a potent antioxidant, immune-active agent, and mitochondrial regulator. There are distinct similarities between melatonin and vitamin D in the depth and breadth of their impact on health. Both act as hormones, affect multiple systems through their immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory functions, are found in the skin, and are responsive to sunlight and darkness. In fact, there may be similarities between the widespread concern about vitamin D deficiency as a "sunlight deficiency" and reduced melatonin secretion as a result of "darkness deficiency" from overexposure to artificial blue light. The trend toward greater use of melatonin supplements has resulted in concern about its safety, especially higher doses, long-term use, and application in certain populations (e.g., children). This review aims to evaluate the recent data on melatonin's mechanisms, its clinical uses beyond sleep, safety concerns, and a thorough summary of therapeutic considerations concerning dietary supplementation, including the different formats available (animal, synthetic, and phytomelatonin), dosing, timing, contraindications, and nutrient combinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Animals , Antioxidants , Circadian Rhythm , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamins
17.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043868

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, Brassica species are widely used in traditional medicine, human food, and animal feed. Recently, special attention has been dedicated to Brassica seeds as source of health-promoting phytochemicals. This review provides a summary of recent research on the Brassica seed phytochemistry, bioactivity, dietary importance, and toxicity by screening the major online scientific database sources and papers published in recent decades by Elsevier, Springer, and John Wiley. The search was conducted covering the period from January 1964 to July 2022. Phytochemically, polyphenols, glucosinolates, and their degradation products were the predominant secondary metabolites in seeds. Different extracts and their purified constituents from seeds of Brassica species have been found to possess a wide range of biological properties including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and neuroprotective activities. These valuable functional properties of Brassica seeds are related to their richness in active compounds responsible for the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and COVID-19. Currently, the potential properties of Brassica seeds and their components are the main focus of research, but their toxicity and health risks must also be accounted for.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Brassica , COVID-19 , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brassica/chemistry , Ethnopharmacology , Glucosinolates , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Seeds
18.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 249, 2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening disease caused by the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lungs. There is a dearth of drug applications that can be used to prevent cytokine storms in ARDS treatment. This study was designed to investigate the effects of tocilizumab and dexamethasone on oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and cytokine storms in acute lung injury caused by oleic acid in rats. METHODS: Adult male rats were divided into five groups: the CN (healthy rats, n = 6), OA (oleic acid administration, n = 6), OA + TCZ-2 (oleic acid and tocilizumab at 2 mg/kg, n = 6), OA + TCZ-4 (oleic acid and tocilizumab at 4 mg/kg, n = 6), and OA + DEX-10 (oleic acid and dexamethasone at 10 mg/kg, n = 6) groups. All animals were euthanized after treatment for histopathological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, PCR, and SEM analyses. RESULTS: Expressions of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 cytokines in rats with acute lung injury induced by oleic acid were downregulated in the TCZ and DEX groups compared to the OA group (P < 0.05). The MDA level in lung tissues was statistically lower in the OA + TCZ-4 group compared to the OA group. It was further determined that SOD, GSH, and CAT levels were decreased in the OA group and increased in the TCZ and DEX groups (P < 0.05). Histopathological findings such as thickening of the alveoli, hyperemia, and peribronchial cell infiltration were found to be similar when lung tissues of the TCZ and DEX groups were compared to the control group. With SEM imaging of the lung tissues, it was found that the alveolar lining layer had become indistinct in the OA, OA + TCZ-2, and OA + TCZ-4 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this model of acute lung injury caused by oleic acid, tocilizumab and dexamethasone were effective in preventing cytokine storms by downregulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8. Against the downregulation of antioxidant parameters such as SOD and GSH in the lung tissues caused by oleic acid, tocilizumab and dexamethasone upregulated them and showed protective effects against cell damage.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Lung , Male , Oleic Acid/toxicity , Rats , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Up-Regulation
19.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 190: 247-263, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036015

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies have shown a significant positive correlation between age and the likelihood of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. This increased susceptibility is positively correlated with chronic inflammation and compromised neurocognitive functions. Postmortem analyses suggest that acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with systemic and lung hyperinflammation, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Supraphysiological supplemental oxygen, also known as hyperoxia, is commonly used to treat decreased blood oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia alone can cause oxygen toxicity, due to an excessive increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can overwhelm the cellular antioxidant capacity. Subsequently, this causes oxidative cellular damage and increased levels of aging biomarkers, such as telomere shortening and inflammaging. The oxidative stress in the lungs and brain can compromise innate immunity, resulting in an increased susceptibility to secondary lung infections, impaired neurocognitive functions, and dysregulated hyperinflammation, which can lead to ALI/ARDS, and even death. Studies indicate that lung inflammation is regulated by the central nervous system, notably, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP), which is innervated by the vagus nerve and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) on lung cells, particularly lung macrophages. The activation of α7nAChRs attenuates oxygen toxicity in the lungs and improves clinical outcomes by restoring hyperoxia-compromised innate immunity. Mechanistically, α7nAChR agonist (e.g., GAT 107 and GTS-21) can regulate redox signaling by 1) activating Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response and a cytoprotective defense system, which can decrease cellular damage caused by ROS and 2) inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. Notably, GTS-21 has been shown to be safe and it improves neurocognitive functions in humans. Therefore, targeting the α7nAChR may represent a viable therapeutic approach for attenuating dysregulated hyperinflammation-mediated ARDS and sepsis in COVID-19 patients receiving prolonged oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperoxia , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Aging , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hyperoxia/complications , Hyperoxia/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism
20.
J Med Chem ; 65(19): 12562-12593, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036741

ABSTRACT

Viral pathologies encompass activation of pro-oxidative pathways and inflammatory burst. Alleviating overproduction of reactive oxygen species and cytokine storm in COVID-19 is essential to counteract the immunogenic damage in endothelium and alveolar membranes. Antioxidants alleviate oxidative stress, cytokine storm, hyperinflammation, and diminish the risk of organ failure. Direct antiviral roles imply: impact on viral spike protein, interference with the ACE2 receptor, inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, transmembrane protease serine 2 or furin, and impact on of helicase, papain-like protease, 3-chyomotrypsin like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Prooxidative environment favors conformational changes in the receptor binding domain, promoting the affinity of the spike protein for the host receptor. Viral pathologies imply a vicious cycle, oxidative stress promoting inflammatory responses, and vice versa. The same was noticed with respect to the relationship antioxidant impairment-viral replication. Timing, dosage, pro-oxidative activities, mutual influences, and interference with other antioxidants should be carefully regarded. Deficiency is linked to illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Furin , Humans , Papain , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Reactive Oxygen Species , Serine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL