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1.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9607-9619, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500759

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 virus spread worldwide, infecting millions of people. Infectious diseases induced by pathogenic microorganisms such as the influenza virus, hepatitis virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also a major threat to public health. The high mortality caused by infectious pathogenic microorganisms is due to their strong virulence, which leads to the excessive counterattack by the host immune system and severe inflammatory damage of the immune system. This paper reviews the efficacy, mechanism and related immune regulation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an anti-pathogenic microorganism drug. EGCG mainly shows both direct and indirect anti-infection effects. EGCG directly inhibits early infection by interfering with the adsorption on host cells, inhibiting virus replication and reducing bacterial biofilm formation and toxin release; EGCG indirectly inhibits infection by regulating immune inflammation and antioxidation. At the same time, we reviewed the bioavailability and safety of EGCG in vivo. At present, the bioavailability of EGCG can be improved to some extent using nanostructured drug delivery systems and molecular modification technology in combination with other drugs. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of EGCG as an adjuvant drug for anti-pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495800

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 199: 111551, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492370

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols are chemopreventive through the induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated proteins and anti-inflammatory pathways. These pathways, encoding cytoprotective vitagenes, include heat shock proteins, such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as glutathione redox system to protect against cancer initiation and progression. Phytochemicals exhibit biphasic dose responses on cancer cells, activating at low dose, signaling pathways resulting in upregulation of vitagenes, as in the case of the Nrf2 pathway upregulated by hydroxytyrosol (HT) or curcumin and NAD/NADH-sirtuin-1 activated by resveratrol. Here, the importance of vitagenes in redox stress response and autophagy mechanisms, as well as the potential use of dietary antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of multiple types of cancer are discussed. We also discuss the possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2, inflammation and cancer, exploiting innovative therapeutic approaches with HT-rich aqueous olive pulp extract (Hidrox®), a natural polyphenolic formulation, as well as the rationale of Vitamin D supplementation. Finally, we describe innovative approaches with organoids technology to study human carcinogenesis in preclinical models from basic cancer research to clinical practice, suggesting patient-derived organoids as an innovative tool to test drug toxicity and drive personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drug Development , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Organoids/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Organoids/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress/genetics
4.
Redox Rep ; 26(1): 184-189, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is characterized by the presence of oxidative stress. Vitamin D status has been reviewed as one of the factors that may affect disease severity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D levels, oxidative stress markers and disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Vitamin D levels were measured in 33 patients with COVID-19. The total antioxidant power and plasma peroxides were determined in serum. RESULTS: Severe COVID-19 patients have lower vitamin D levels (18.39 ± 2.29 ng/mL vs. 28.47 ± 3.05 ng/mL, p < .05) and higher oxidative stress compared to the moderate group. When divided according to serum vitamin D levels, significantly higher values of LDH (604.8 ± 76.98 IU/mL vs. 261.57 ± 47.33 IU/mL) and D-dimer (5978 ± 2028ng/mL vs. 977.7 ± 172 ng/mL) were obtained in the group with vitamin D below 30 ng/mL, followed with significantly higher levels of plasma peroxides (d-ROMs: 414.9 ± 15.82 U.Carr vs. 352.4 ± 18.77 U.Carr; p < .05) and oxidative stress index (OSI: 92.25 ± 6.60 vs. 51.89 ± 6.45; p < .001). CONCLUSION: The presented data provide a justification to consider vitamin D as an important factor that could ameliorate disease severity through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Oxidative Stress , Vitamin D/blood , Adult , Aged , Antioxidants , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of North Macedonia
5.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(5): 672-682, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493295

ABSTRACT

While the use of vitamin C as a therapeutic agent has been investigated since the 1950s, there has been substantial recent interest in the role of vitamin C supplementation in critical illness and particularly, sepsis and septic shock. Humans cannot synthesize vitamin C and rely on exogenous intake to maintain a plasma concentration of approximately 70 to 80 µmol/L. Vitamin C, in healthy humans, is involved with antioxidant function, wound healing, endothelial function, and catecholamine synthesis. Its function in the human body informs the theoretical basis for why vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial in sepsis/septic shock.Critically ill patients can be vitamin C deficient due to low dietary intake, increased metabolic demands, inefficient recycling of vitamin C metabolites, and loss due to renal replacement therapy. Intravenous supplementation is required to achieve supraphysiologic serum levels of vitamin C. While some clinical studies of intravenous vitamin C supplementation in sepsis have shown improvements in secondary outcome measures, none of the randomized clinical trials have shown differences between vitamin C supplementation and standard of care and/or placebo in the primary outcome measures of the trials. There are some ongoing studies of high-dose vitamin C administration in patients with sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019; the majority of evidence so far does not support the routine supplementation of vitamin C in patients with sepsis or septic shock.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Critical Illness , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21075, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493212

ABSTRACT

Bats are potential natural reservoirs for emerging viruses, causing deadly human diseases, such as COVID-19, MERS, SARS, Nipah, Hendra, and Ebola infections. The fundamental mechanisms by which bats are considered "living bioreactors" for emerging viruses are not fully understood. Some studies suggest that tolerance to viruses is linked to suppressing antiviral immune and inflammatory responses due to DNA damage by energy generated to fly. Our study reveals that bats' gut bacteria could also be involved in the host and its microbiota's DNA damage. We performed screening of lactic acid bacteria and bacilli isolated from bats' feces for mutagenic and oxidative activity by lux-biosensors. The pro-mutagenic activity was determined when expression of recA increased with the appearance of double-strand breaks in the cell DNA, while an increase of katG expression in the presence of hydroxyl radicals indicated antioxidant activity. We identified that most of the isolated bacteria have pro-mutagenic and antioxidant properties at the same time. This study reveals new insights into bat gut microbiota's potential involvement in antiviral response and opens new frontiers in preventing emerging diseases originating from bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mutagens , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Bacillus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , DNA , DNA Damage , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Feces , Immune System , Inflammation , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Mutagenesis , Oxidative Stress , Rec A Recombinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/virology
7.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(9): 145-151, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485582

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to consider features of pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from the viewpoint of neurologist. The mechanisms of emerging injury of the central nervous system, including neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with TBI, and correlations between clinical manifestations and severity of TBI are discussed. Special attention is paid to the description of certain TBI consequences, e.g. structural drug-resistant epilepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder. We provide evidence for difficulties and lesser availability of rehabilitation programs to patients with TBI during COVID-19 pandemics. One should mention a need for administration of Mexidol as the antioxidant/antihypoxant drug into complex therapy of TBI in such patients. In the period of COVID-19 pandemics, the role of neurologist in management of TBI patients still increases, especially, at the outpatient treatment stage, and when carrying out therapy and medical rehabilitation programs.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480885

ABSTRACT

In our in vitro and in vivo studies, we used Acalypha indica root methanolic extract (AIRME), and investigated their free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primarily, phytochemical analysis showed rich content of phenols (70.92 mg of gallic acid/g) and flavonoids (16.01 mg of rutin/g) in AIRME. We then performed HR-LC-MS and GC-MS analyses, and identified 101 and 14 phytochemical compounds, respectively. Among them, ramipril glucuronide (1.563%), antimycin A (1.324%), swietenine (1.134%), quinone (1.152%), oxprenolol (1.118%), choline (0.847%), bumetanide (0.847%) and fenofibrate (0.711%) are the predominant phytomolecules. Evidence from in vitro studies revealed that AIRME scavenges DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner (10-50 µg/mL). Similarly, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were also remarkably inhibited by AIRME as concentration increases (20-100 µg/mL). In vitro antioxidant activity of AIRME was comparable to ascorbic acid treatment. For in vivo studies, carrageenan (1%, sub-plantar) was injected to rats to induce localized inflammation. Acute inflammation was represented by paw-edema, and significantly elevated (p < 0.05) WBC, platelets and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, AIRME pretreatment (150/300 mg/kg bodyweight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased edema volume. This was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of WBC, platelets and CRP with both doses of AIRME. The decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue were restored (p < 0.05 / p < 0.01) with AIRME in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AIRME attenuated carrageenan-induced neutrophil infiltrations and vascular dilation in paw tissue. For the first time, our findings demonstrated the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of AIRME, which could be considered to develop novel anti-inflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Acalypha/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/drug therapy , Edema/enzymology , Edema/pathology , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar
9.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(12): 2471-2474, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473989

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiological process of the disease, Covid-19, is mediated by innate immunity, with the presence of macrophages responsible for secreting type 1 and 6 interleukins (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leading to dilation of endothelial cells with a consequent increase in capillary permeability. The treatment of this disease has been much discussed, but the variability in the clinical picture, the difficulties for diagnosis and treatment, especially of those patients who have the most severe clinical condition of the disease. Immunization is an effective tool for controlling the spread and overload of health services, but its effectiveness involves high investments in the acquisition of inputs, development of vaccines, and logistics of storage and distribution. These factors can be obstacles for countries with lower economic, technological, and infrastructure indexes. Reflecting on these difficulties, we raised the possibility of adjuvant therapies with imminent research feasibility, as is the case with the use of carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol whose has biological properties that serve as a barrier to processes mediated by free radicals, such as irritation and inflammation, due to its antioxidant action. Many authors highlighted the activity of carvacrol as a potent suppressor of COX-2 expression minimizing the acute inflammatory process, decreasing the release of some pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, PGE2. Anyway, the benefits of carvacrol are numerous and the therapeutic possibilities too. With this description, the question arises: would carvacrol be a supporting treatment option, effective in minimizing the deleterious effects of Covid-19? There is still a lot to discover and research.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cymenes/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cymenes/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(1 Suppl 3): E34-E45, 2021 Mar.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464079
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448904

ABSTRACT

An economic experiment was conducted in France in 2020 to evaluate consumer attitudes toward two ham products associated with different colorectal cancer risks. We focused specifically on comparing a conventional ham and a new hypothetical antioxidant-enriched ham with a reduced risk of provoking colorectal cancer. Study participants were given descriptions of the two hams before carrying out successive rounds of willingness-to-pay (WTP) assessments. The results show that WTP was higher for the antioxidant-enriched ham than for the conventional ham. WTP estimates were also impacted by providing additional information about the reduction in colorectal cancer risk associated with the antioxidant-enriched ham. Based on the participants' WTP, we came up with ex ante estimates for the social impacts of introducing the antioxidant-enriched ham onto the market, and we suggest that it would be socially optimal to promote the product. Competition arising from pre-existing product labelling and marketing assertions could greatly limit the market potential of antioxidant-enriched ham, which suggests that alternative approaches may be necessary, such as regulations mandating antioxidant enrichment. These results also concern all countries with high levels of meat consumption.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Consumer Behavior/economics , Food Preferences/psychology , Food, Fortified/economics , Pork Meat/economics , Adult , Antioxidants , Choice Behavior , Commerce , Diet, Healthy/economics , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Female , Food, Fortified/analysis , France , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pork Meat/analysis , Young Adult
12.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(9): 693-699, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437630

ABSTRACT

A chemical investigation on the fermentation products of Sanghuangporus sanghuang led to the isolation and identification of fourteen secondary metabolites (1-14) including eight sesquiterpenoids (1-8) and six polyphenols (9-14). Compounds 1-3 were sesquiterpenes with new structures which were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolates were tested for their stimulation effects on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and cellular antioxidant activity. Compounds 9-12 were subjected to molecular docking experiment to primarily evaluate their anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) activity. As a result, compounds 9-12 were found to increase the glucose uptake of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by 18.1%, 62.7%, 33.7% and 21.4% at the dose of 50 µmol·L-1, respectively. Compounds 9-12 also showed good cellular antioxidant activities with CAA50 values of 12.23, 23.11, 5.31 and 16.04 µmol·L-1, respectively. Molecular docking between COVID-19 Mpro and compounds 9-12 indicated potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory activity of these four compounds. This work provides new insights for the potential role of the medicinal mushroom S. sanghuang as drugs and functional foods.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , COVID-19 , Polyphenols , Sesquiterpenes , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Basidiomycota , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112221, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432982

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global epidemic caused by coronavirus has affected the health and other aspects of life for more than one year. Despite the current pharmacotherapies, there is still no specific treatment, and studies are in progress to find a proper therapy with high efficacy and low side effects. In this way, Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), due to its holistic view, can provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of new diseases such as COVID-19. The muco-obstruction of the airway, which occurs in SARS-CoV-2, has similar features in TPM textbooks that can lead us to new treatment approaches. Based on TPM and pharmacological studies, Cinnamomum verum (Darchini)'s potential effective functions can contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection treatment and has been known to be effective in corona disease in Public beliefs. From the viewpoint of TPM theories, Cinnamon can be effective in SARS-CoV-2 improvement and treatment through its anti-obstructive, diuretic, tonic and antidote effects. In addition, there is pharmacological evidence on anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, organ-o-protective and anti-depression effects of Cinnamon that are in line with the therapeutic functions mentioned in TPM.Overall, Cinnamon and its ingredients can be recommended for SARS-CoV2 management due to multi-targeting therapies. This review provides basic information for future studies on this drug's effectiveness in preventing and treating COVID-19 and similar diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Treatment Outcome
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430893

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. The cardioprotective effects of natural polyphenols such as resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) have been extensively investigated throughout recent decades. Many studies of RES have focused on its favorable effects on pathological conditions related to cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The aim of this review was to summarize the wide beneficial effects of resveratrol on the cardiovascular system, including signal transduction pathways of cell longevity, energy metabolism of cardiomyocytes or cardiac remodeling, and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In addition, this paper discusses the significant preclinical and human clinical trials of recent years with resveratrol on cardiovascular system. Finally, we present a short overview of antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties and possible future perspectives on RES against COVID-19 in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(34): 5682-5699, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411116

ABSTRACT

Varying degrees of liver injuries have been reported in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In general, oxidative stress is actively involved in initiation and progression of liver damage. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals. Maintaining the oxidative/antioxidative balance is important in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Antioxidant vitamins, essential trace elements and food compounds, such as polyphenols, appear to be promising agents, with effects in oxidative burst. Deficiency of these nutrients suppresses immune function and increases susceptibility to COVID-19. Daily micronutrient intake is necessary to support anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects but for immune function may be higher than current recommended dietary intake. Antioxidant supplements (ß-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) could have a potential role in patients with liver damage. Available evidence suggests that supplementing the diet with a combination of micronutrients may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. Clinical trials based on the associations of diet and SARS-CoV-2 infection are lacking. Unfortunately, it is not possible to definitively determine the dose, route of administration and best timing to intervene with antioxidants in COVID-19 patients because clinical trials are still ongoing. Until then, hopefully, this review will enable clinicians to understand the impact of micronutrient dietary intake and liver status assessment in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153736, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quercetin is a natural flavonoid, which widely exists in nature, such as tea, coffee, apples, and onions. Numerous studies have showed that quercetin has multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging. Hence, quercetin has a significant therapeutic effect on cancers, obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. In the past decades, a large number of studies have shown that quercetin combined with other agents can significantly improve the overall therapeutic effect, compared to single use. PURPOSE: This work reviews the pharmacological activities of quercetin and its derivatives. In addition, this work also summarizes both in vivo and in vitro experimental evidence for the synergistic effect of quercetin against cancers and metabolic diseases. METHODS: An extensive systematic search for pharmacological activities and synergistic effect of quercetin was performed considering all the relevant literatures published until August 2021 through the databases including NCBI PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The relevant literatures were extracted from the databases with following keyword combinations: "pharmacological activities" OR "biological activities" OR "synergistic effect" OR "combined" OR "combination" AND "quercetin" as well as free-text words. RESULTS: Quercetin and its derivatives possess multiple pharmacological activities including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cardiovascular, anti-aging, and neuroprotective activities. In addition, the synergistic effect of quercetin with small molecule agents against cancers and metabolic diseases has also been confirmed. CONCLUSION: Quercetin cooperates with agents to improve the therapeutic effect by regulating signal molecules and blocking cell cycle. Synergistic therapy can reduce the dose of agents and avoid the possible toxic and side effects in the treatment process. Although quercetin treatment has some potential side effects, it is safe under the expected use conditions. Hence, quercetin has application value and potential strength as a clinical drug. Furthermore, quercetin, as the main effective therapeutic ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, may effectively treat and prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quercetin , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Humans , Plant Extracts , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108127, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of oxidant-antioxidant levels and special care in severe patients are important in combating the COVID-19 epidemic. However, this process is costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need for faster, reliable and economical methods. METHODS: In this study, antioxidant/oxidant levels of patients were estimated by Expert-models using biomarkers, which are effective in the diagnosis/prognosis of COVID-19 disease. For this purpose, Expert-models were trained and created between the white-blood-cell-count (WBC), lymphocyte-count (LYM), C-reactive-protein (CRP), D-dimer, ferritin values of 35 patients with COVID-19 and antioxidant/oxidant parameter values of the same patients. Error criteria and R2 ratio were taken into account for the performance of the models. The validity of the all models was checked by the Box-Jenkis-method. RESULTS: Antioxidant/Oxidant levels were estimated with 95% confidence-coefficient using the values of WBC, LYM, CRP, D-dimer, ferritin of different 500 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with the trained models. The error rate of all models was low and the coefficients of determination were sufficient. In the first data set, there was no significant difference between measured antioxidant/oxidant levels and predicted antioxidant/oxidant levels. This result showed that the models are accurate and reliable. In determining antioxidant/oxidant levels, LYM and ferritin biomarkers had the most effect on models, while WBC and CRP biomarkers had the least effect. The antioxidant/oxidant parameter estimated with the highest accuracy was Native-Thiol divided by Total-Thiol. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the antioxidant/oxidant levels of infected patients can be estimated accurately and reliably with LYM, ferritin, D-dimer, WBC, CRP biomarkers in the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidants/metabolism , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
18.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2214-2227, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398027

ABSTRACT

An oral antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 that also attenuates inflammatory instigators of severe COVID-19 is not available to date. Herein, we show that the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4 F inhibits Spike mediated viral entry and has antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial Calu3 and Vero-E6 cells. In SARS-CoV-2 infected Calu3 cells, 4 F upregulated inducers of the interferon pathway such as MX-1 and Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and downregulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS) and CD147, a host protein that mediates viral entry. 4 F also reduced associated cellular apoptosis and secretion of IL-6 in both SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero-E6 and Calu3 cells. Thus, 4 F attenuates in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication, associated apoptosis in epithelial cells and secretion of IL-6, a major cytokine related to COVID-19 morbidity. Given established safety of 4 F in humans, clinical studies are warranted to establish 4 F as therapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Basigin/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111419, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis, inflammatory disease, is a major reason for cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Kaempferol (Kae) has been well-documented to have pharmacological activities in the previous studies. However, the detailed mechanisms by which Kae regulates inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to measure expression levels of circNOL12, nucleolar protein 12 (NOL12), miR-6873-3p, and Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) in HUVECs treated with either oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) alone or in combination with Kae. The cells viability was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazol-3-ium bromide (MTT) assay. The inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed by checking inflammatory factors, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in ox-LDL-induced HUVECs. The apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometry assay. The western blot assay was used for measuring protein expression. The interaction relationship between miR-6873-3p and circNOL12 or FRS2 was analyzed by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA pull-down assays. Treatment with Kae could inhibit ox-LDL-induced the upregulation of circNOL12 in HUVECs. Importantly, Kae weakened ox-LDL-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in HUVECs, which was abolished by overexpression of circNOL12. What's more, miR-6873-3p was a target of circNOL12 in HUVECs, and the upregulation of miR-6873-3p overturned circNOL12 overexpression-induced effects on HUVECs treated with ox-LDL and Kae. FRS2 was negatively regulated by miR-6873-3p in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Kae alleviated ox-LDL-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in HUVECs by regulating circNOL12/miR-6873-3p/FRS2 axis.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , MicroRNAs/drug effects , Nuclear Proteins/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Female , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
20.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390161

ABSTRACT

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cinnamates/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxybenzoates/therapeutic use , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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