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1.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(12): 15-28, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775507

ABSTRACT

A significant knowledge gap currently exists in the literature on the emerging interventions and bioactivity of aqueous extracts of mushrooms. Different solvents and techniques used in the extraction of mushroom metabolites have been discussed. Here, data obtained were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and presented in charts. The results showed that methanol was the most commonly reported extraction solvent (29.70%), followed by water (26.73%). Extracted metabolites of mushrooms were mostly reported for their antioxidant activity (33%). Investigations on the use of mushroom metabolites to treat tropical diseases, their application in novel coronavirus disease-COVID 19 management, and other beneficial effects (antiplasmodial, antimalarial, antityrosinase, analgesic, anticoagulation, and antiasthmatic) on health are emerging and reported rarely to date. It is a notable conclusion that water extracts from mushrooms are effective in the treatment of diverse health conditions, however, further studies are necessary. Modern water extraction techniques are essential for better yield and process optimization but are currently less applied and less frequently reported.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , COVID-19 , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Solvents , Water
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736897

ABSTRACT

The impact of globalization on beekeeping brings new economic, scientific, ecological and social dimensions to this field The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical compositions of eight propolis extracts from Romania, and their antioxidant action and antimicrobial activity against seven species of bacteria, including pathogenic ones: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of propolis extracts were quantified; the presence of flavones and aromatic acids was determined. Quercetin and rutin were identified by HPLC analysis and characterized using molecular descriptors. All propolis samples exhibited antibacterial effects, especially against P. aeruginosa and L. monocytogenes. A two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate correlations among the diameters of the inhibition zones, the bacteria used and propolis extracts used. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the diameter of the inhibition zone was influenced by the strain type, but no association between the propolis origin and the microbial activity was found.


Subject(s)
Propolis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Romania
3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5589089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736165

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused relatively high mortality in patients, especially in those with concomitant diseases (i.e., diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In most of aforementioned comorbidities, the oxidative stress appears to be an important player in their pathogenesis. The direct cause of death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is still far from being elucidated. Although some preliminary data suggests that the lung vasculature injury and the loss of the functioning part of pulmonary alveolar population are crucial, the precise mechanism is still unclear. On the other hand, at least two classes of medications used with some clinical benefits in COVID-19 treatment seem to have a major influence on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) production. However, oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms in the antiviral immune response and innate immunity. Therefore, it would be of interest to summarize the data regarding the oxidative stress in severe COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative and antioxidant mechanisms in severe COVID-19 based on available studies. We also present the role of ROS and RNS in other viral infections in humans and in animal models. Although reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play an important role in the innate antiviral immune response, in some situations, they might have a deleterious effect, e.g., in some coronaviral infections. The understanding of the redox mechanisms in severe COVID-19 disease may have an impact on its treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Nitrogen Species/immunology , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e936292, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732487

ABSTRACT

In the past 2 years, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has driven investigational studies and controlled clinical trials on antiviral treatments and vaccines that have undergone regulatory approval. Now that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants may become endemic over time, there remains a need to identify drugs that treat the symptoms of COVID-19 and prevent progression toward severe cases, hospitalization, and death. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection is extremely important for the development of effective therapies against COVID-19. This review outlines the key pathways involved in the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and discusses the potential role of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pharmacological approaches for the management of early mild-to-moderate COVID-19, using the examples of combined indomethacin, low-dose aspirin, omeprazole, hesperidin, quercetin, and vitamin C. The pharmacological targets of these substances are described here for their possible synergism in counteracting SARS-CoV-2 replication and progression of the infection from the upper respiratory airways to the blood, avoiding vascular complications and cytokine and bradykinin storms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Pharmacological Phenomena/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715393

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of human mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation are pathophysiological processes involved in the development of CVD. That is why bioactive food ingredients, including lycopene, are so important in their prevention, which seems to be a compound increasingly promoted in the diet of people with cardiovascular problems. Lycopene present in tomatoes and tomato products is responsible not only for their red color but also for health-promoting properties. It is characterized by a high antioxidant potential, the highest among carotenoid pigments. Mainly for this reason, epidemiological studies show a number of favorable properties between the consumption of lycopene in the diet and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. While there is also some controversy in research into its protective effects on the cardiovascular system, growing evidence supports its beneficial role for the heart, endothelium, blood vessels, and health. The mechanisms of action of lycopene are now being discovered and may explain some of the contradictions observed in the literature. This review aims to present the current knowledge in recent years on the preventive role of lycopene cardiovascular disorders.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Lycopene/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Humans , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112767, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712467

ABSTRACT

With an increased transmissibility but milder form of disease of the omicron variant of COVID-19 and the newer antivirals often still out of reach of many populations, a refocus of the current treatment regimens is required. Safe, affordable, and available adjuvant treatments should also be considered and known drugs and substances need to be repurposed and tested. Resveratrol, a well-known antioxidant of natural origin, shown to act as an antiviral as well as playing a role in immune stimulation, down regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine release and reducing lung injury by reducing oxidative stress, is such an option. New initiatives and collaborations will however need to be found to unleash resveratrol's full potential in the pharmaceutical market.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Down-Regulation , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
7.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 44(2): 141-146, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671877

ABSTRACT

Over the last twenty months, the attention of the world has been focusing on managing the unprecedented and devastating wave of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV 2) and mitigating its impacts. Recent findings indicated that high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are leading cause of poor prognosis in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Presently, the multiple variants and highly contagious nature of virus makes challenge humongous. The shortage and vaccine hesitancy also prompted to develop antiviral therapeutic agents to manage this pandemic. Nanocurcumin has potential antiviral activities and also beneficial in post COVID inflammatory complications. We have developed nanocurcumin based formulation using pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) which protects cardio-pulmonary function and mitochondrial homeostasis in hypobaric hypoxia induced right ventricular hypertrophy in animal model and human ventricular cardiomyocytes. Nanocurcumin based formulation (NCF) with improved bioavailability, has proven several holistic therapeutic effects including myocardial protection, and prevents edema formation, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, maintaining metabolic and mitochondrial homeostasis under hypoxic condition. The post COVID-inflammatory syndrome also reported to cause impaired heart function, lung injuries and increased C-reactive protein level in severely ill patients. Thus, we speculate that NCF could be a new treatment option to manage post COVID-19 inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/metabolism , Mitochondria , Pandemics
8.
Mar Drugs ; 20(1)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667236

ABSTRACT

The underexplored biodiversity of seaweeds has recently drawn great attention from researchers to find the bioactive compounds that might contribute to the growth of the blue economy. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of seasonal growth (from May to September) on the in vitro antioxidant (FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC) and antimicrobial effects (MIC and MBC) of Cystoseira compressa collected in the Central Adriatic Sea. Algal compounds were analyzed by UPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF, and TPC and TTC were determined. Fatty acids, among which oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, and palmitic acid were the dominant compounds in samples. The highest TPC, TTC and FRAP were obtained for June extract, 83.4 ± 4.0 mg GAE/g, 8.8 ± 0.8 mg CE/g and 2.7 ± 0.1 mM TE, respectively. The highest ORAC value of 72.1 ± 1.2 µM TE was obtained for the August samples, and all samples showed extremely high free radical scavenging activity and DPPH inhibition (>80%). The MIC and MBC results showed the best antibacterial activity for the June, July and August samples, when sea temperature was the highest, against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enteritidis. The results show C. compressa as a potential species for the industrial production of nutraceuticals or functional food ingredients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Seaweed , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Aquatic Organisms , Biphenyl Compounds , Mediterranean Sea , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Picrates , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Salmonella enteritidis/drug effects , Seasons , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 232: 114175, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664879

ABSTRACT

oxidative stress is caused by an abundant generation of reactive oxygen species, associated to a diminished capacity of the endogenous systems of the organism to counteract them. Activation of pro-oxidative pathways and boosting of inflammatory cytokines are always encountered in viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. So, the importance of counteracting cytokine storm in COVID-19 pathology is highly important, to hamper the immunogenic damage of the endothelium and alveolar membranes. Antioxidants prevent oxidative processes, by impeding radical species generation. It has been proved that vitamin intake lowers oxidative stress markers, alleviates cytokine storm and has a potential role in reducing disease severity, by lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines, hampering hyperinflammation and organ failure. For the approached compounds, direct antiviral roles are also discussed in this review, as these activities encompass secretion of antiviral peptides, modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor expression and interaction with spike protein, inactivation of furin protease, or inhibition of pathogen replication by nucleic acid impairment induction. Vitamin administration results in beneficial effects. Nevertheless, timing, dosage and mutual influences of these micronutrients should be carefullly regarded.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , COVID-19 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 4882-4891, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649372

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is seriously threatening human health. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, immune cell infiltration creates an inflammatory and oxidative microenvironment, which can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. Clinically, a safe and effective treatment strategy remains to be established. Herein, a nano-bait strategy for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection by redirecting viral attack while simultaneously relieving inflammation is developed. Specifically, the nano-bait was based on the exosome-sheathed polydopamine (PDA@Exosome) nanoparticles, which were generated by exocytosis of the PDA nanoparticles from H293T cells. In this approach, PDA@Exosome inherits from the source cells of H293T cells a surface display of ACE2 through pre-engineered expression. The resulting PDA@Exosome can compete with ACE2-expressing epithelial cells for S protein binding, in either the pre-exposure or post-exposure route. Moreover, relying on the ability of PDA to intercept and deactivate radical species, the PDA@Exosome can significantly attenuate the level of inflammatory cytokines by mediating oxidative stress, a major cause of organ injury. Due to its high trapping, multiple antioxidant ability, and good biocompatibility, the HACE2-exosome based nano-bait is a promising robust antiviral nanotherapeutics for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Exosomes/drug effects , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Metab Brain Dis ; 37(3): 711-728, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606836

ABSTRACT

The overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx-mediated excessive generation of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological conditions induces neuronal and cellular injury via the activation of cation channels. TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels are activated by oxidative stress, and their specific antagonists have not been discovered yet. The antioxidant and anti-Covid-19 properties of carvacrol (CARV) were recently reported. Hence, I suspected possible antagonist properties of CARV against oxidative stress (OS)/ADP-ribose (ADPR)-induced TRPM2 and GSK1016790A (GSK)-mediated TRPV4 activations in neuronal and kidney cells. I investigated the antagonist role of CARV on the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in SH-SY5Y neuronal, BV-2 microglial, and HEK293 cells. The OS/ADPR and GSK in the cells caused to increase of TRPM2/TRPV4 current densities and overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx with an increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic (cROS), and mitochondrial (mROS) ROS. The changes were not observed in the absence of TRPM2 and TRPV4 or the presence of Ca2+ free extracellular buffer and PARP-1 inhibitors (PJ34 and DPQ). When OS-induced TRPM2 and GSK-induced TRPV4 activations were inhibited by the treatment of CARV, the increase of cROS, mROS, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, cell death, cCa2+ concentration, caspase -3, and caspase -9 levels were restored via upregulation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. In conclusion, the treatment of CARV modulated the TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated overload Ca2+ influx and may provide an avenue for protecting TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated neurodegenerative diseases associated with the increase of mROS and cCa2+. The possible TRPM2 and TRPV4 blocker action of carvacrol (CARV) via the modulation oxidative stress and apoptosis in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. TRPM2 is activated by DNA damage-induced (via PARP-1 activation) ADP-ribose (ADPR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2), although it is inhibited by nonspecific inhibitors (ACA and 2-APB). TRPV4 is activated by the treatments of GSK1016790A (GSK), although it is inhibited by a nonspecific inhibitor (ruthenium red, RuRe). The treatment of GSK induces excessive generation of ROS. The accumulation of free cytosolic Ca2+ (cCa2+) via the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in the mitochondria causes the increase of mitochondrial membrane depolarization (ΔΨm). In turn, the increase of ΔΨm causes the excessive generation of ROS. The TRPM2 and TRPV4-induced the excessive generations of ROS result in the increase of apoptosis and cell death via the activations of caspase -3 (Casp-3) and caspase -9 (Casp-9) in the neuronal cells, although their oxidant actions decrease the glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) levels. The oxidant and apoptotic adverse actions of TRPM2 and TRPV4 are modulated by the treatment of CARV.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cymenes/pharmacology , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPV Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Apoptosis/drug effects , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species
12.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(9): 693-699, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576003

ABSTRACT

A chemical investigation on the fermentation products of Sanghuangporus sanghuang led to the isolation and identification of fourteen secondary metabolites (1-14) including eight sesquiterpenoids (1-8) and six polyphenols (9-14). Compounds 1-3 were sesquiterpenes with new structures which were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolates were tested for their stimulation effects on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and cellular antioxidant activity. Compounds 9-12 were subjected to molecular docking experiment to primarily evaluate their anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) activity. As a result, compounds 9-12 were found to increase the glucose uptake of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by 18.1%, 62.7%, 33.7% and 21.4% at the dose of 50 µmol·L-1, respectively. Compounds 9-12 also showed good cellular antioxidant activities with CAA50 values of 12.23, 23.11, 5.31 and 16.04 µmol·L-1, respectively. Molecular docking between COVID-19 Mpro and compounds 9-12 indicated potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory activity of these four compounds. This work provides new insights for the potential role of the medicinal mushroom S. sanghuang as drugs and functional foods.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , COVID-19 , Polyphenols , Sesquiterpenes , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Basidiomycota , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
13.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(5): 1347-1355, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557643

ABSTRACT

The natural pathway of antioxidant production is mediated through Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with Cap and collar homology [ECH]-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system. Keap1 maintains a low level of Nrf2 by holding it in its protein complex. Also, Keap1 facilitates the degradation of Nrf2 by ubiquitination. In other words, Keap1 is a down-regulator of Nrf2. To boost the production of biological antioxidants, Keap1 has to be inhibited and Nrf2 has to be released. Liberated Nrf2 is in an unbound state, so it travels to the nucleus to stimulate the antioxidant response element (ARE) present on the antioxidant genes. AREs activate biosynthesis of biological antioxidants through genes responsible for the production of antioxidants. In some cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an enormous release of cytokines. The antioxidant defense mechanism in the body helps in counteracting symptoms induced by the cytokine storm in COVID-19. So, boosting the production of antioxidants is highly desirable in such a condition. In this review article, we have compiled the role of Keap1-Nrf2 system in antioxidant production. We further propose its potential therapeutic use in managing cytokine storm in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/agonists , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 285: 118971, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549670

ABSTRACT

Ligusticum chuanxiong, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine for treating plague, and it has appeared frequently in the prescriptions against COVID-19 lately. Ligusticum chuanxiong polysaccharide (LCPs) is one of the effective substances, which has various activities, such as, anti-oxidation, promoting immunity, anti-tumor, and anti-bacteria. The purified fractions of LCPs are considered to be pectic polysaccharides, which are mainly composed of GalA, Gal, Ara and Rha, and are generally linked by α-1,4-d-GalpA, α-1,2-l-Rhap, α-1,5-l-Araf, ß-1,3-d-Galp and ß-1,4-d-Galp, etc. The pectic polysaccharide shows an anti-infective inflammatory activity, which is related to antiviral infection of Ligusticum chuanxiong. In this article, the isolation, purification, structural features, and biological activities of LCPs in recent years are reviewed, and the potential of LCPs against viral infection as well as questions that need future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ligusticum/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Carbohydrate Conformation , Carbohydrate Sequence , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(2): 1475-1490, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507001

ABSTRACT

In viral respiratory infections, disrupted pathophysiological outcomes have been attributed to hyper-activated and unresolved inflammation responses of the immune system. Integration between available drugs and natural therapeutics have reported benefits in relieving inflammation-related physiological outcomes and microalgae may be a feasible source from which to draw from against future coronavirus-infections. Microalgae represent a large and diverse source of chemically functional compounds such as carotenoids and lipids that possess various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore in this paper, some implicated pathways causing inflammation in viral respiratory infections are discussed and juxtaposed along with available research done on several microalgal metabolites. Additionally, the therapeutic properties of some known anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulating compounds sourced from microalgae are reported for added clarity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Microalgae/metabolism , Animals , Bioprospecting/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism
16.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9607-9619, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500759

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 virus spread worldwide, infecting millions of people. Infectious diseases induced by pathogenic microorganisms such as the influenza virus, hepatitis virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also a major threat to public health. The high mortality caused by infectious pathogenic microorganisms is due to their strong virulence, which leads to the excessive counterattack by the host immune system and severe inflammatory damage of the immune system. This paper reviews the efficacy, mechanism and related immune regulation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an anti-pathogenic microorganism drug. EGCG mainly shows both direct and indirect anti-infection effects. EGCG directly inhibits early infection by interfering with the adsorption on host cells, inhibiting virus replication and reducing bacterial biofilm formation and toxin release; EGCG indirectly inhibits infection by regulating immune inflammation and antioxidation. At the same time, we reviewed the bioavailability and safety of EGCG in vivo. At present, the bioavailability of EGCG can be improved to some extent using nanostructured drug delivery systems and molecular modification technology in combination with other drugs. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of EGCG as an adjuvant drug for anti-pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495800

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(5): 672-682, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493295

ABSTRACT

While the use of vitamin C as a therapeutic agent has been investigated since the 1950s, there has been substantial recent interest in the role of vitamin C supplementation in critical illness and particularly, sepsis and septic shock. Humans cannot synthesize vitamin C and rely on exogenous intake to maintain a plasma concentration of approximately 70 to 80 µmol/L. Vitamin C, in healthy humans, is involved with antioxidant function, wound healing, endothelial function, and catecholamine synthesis. Its function in the human body informs the theoretical basis for why vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial in sepsis/septic shock.Critically ill patients can be vitamin C deficient due to low dietary intake, increased metabolic demands, inefficient recycling of vitamin C metabolites, and loss due to renal replacement therapy. Intravenous supplementation is required to achieve supraphysiologic serum levels of vitamin C. While some clinical studies of intravenous vitamin C supplementation in sepsis have shown improvements in secondary outcome measures, none of the randomized clinical trials have shown differences between vitamin C supplementation and standard of care and/or placebo in the primary outcome measures of the trials. There are some ongoing studies of high-dose vitamin C administration in patients with sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019; the majority of evidence so far does not support the routine supplementation of vitamin C in patients with sepsis or septic shock.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Critical Illness , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
19.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 199: 111551, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492370

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols are chemopreventive through the induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated proteins and anti-inflammatory pathways. These pathways, encoding cytoprotective vitagenes, include heat shock proteins, such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as glutathione redox system to protect against cancer initiation and progression. Phytochemicals exhibit biphasic dose responses on cancer cells, activating at low dose, signaling pathways resulting in upregulation of vitagenes, as in the case of the Nrf2 pathway upregulated by hydroxytyrosol (HT) or curcumin and NAD/NADH-sirtuin-1 activated by resveratrol. Here, the importance of vitagenes in redox stress response and autophagy mechanisms, as well as the potential use of dietary antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of multiple types of cancer are discussed. We also discuss the possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2, inflammation and cancer, exploiting innovative therapeutic approaches with HT-rich aqueous olive pulp extract (Hidrox®), a natural polyphenolic formulation, as well as the rationale of Vitamin D supplementation. Finally, we describe innovative approaches with organoids technology to study human carcinogenesis in preclinical models from basic cancer research to clinical practice, suggesting patient-derived organoids as an innovative tool to test drug toxicity and drive personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drug Development , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Organoids/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Organoids/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress/genetics
20.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480885

ABSTRACT

In our in vitro and in vivo studies, we used Acalypha indica root methanolic extract (AIRME), and investigated their free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primarily, phytochemical analysis showed rich content of phenols (70.92 mg of gallic acid/g) and flavonoids (16.01 mg of rutin/g) in AIRME. We then performed HR-LC-MS and GC-MS analyses, and identified 101 and 14 phytochemical compounds, respectively. Among them, ramipril glucuronide (1.563%), antimycin A (1.324%), swietenine (1.134%), quinone (1.152%), oxprenolol (1.118%), choline (0.847%), bumetanide (0.847%) and fenofibrate (0.711%) are the predominant phytomolecules. Evidence from in vitro studies revealed that AIRME scavenges DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner (10-50 µg/mL). Similarly, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were also remarkably inhibited by AIRME as concentration increases (20-100 µg/mL). In vitro antioxidant activity of AIRME was comparable to ascorbic acid treatment. For in vivo studies, carrageenan (1%, sub-plantar) was injected to rats to induce localized inflammation. Acute inflammation was represented by paw-edema, and significantly elevated (p < 0.05) WBC, platelets and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, AIRME pretreatment (150/300 mg/kg bodyweight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased edema volume. This was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of WBC, platelets and CRP with both doses of AIRME. The decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue were restored (p < 0.05 / p < 0.01) with AIRME in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AIRME attenuated carrageenan-induced neutrophil infiltrations and vascular dilation in paw tissue. For the first time, our findings demonstrated the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of AIRME, which could be considered to develop novel anti-inflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Acalypha/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/drug therapy , Edema/enzymology , Edema/pathology , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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