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1.
AIDS ; 37(10): 1503-1517, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccines in people with HIV (PWH) with a history of late presentation (LP) and their durability have not been fully characterized. DESIGN: In this prospective, longitudinal study, we sought to assess T-cell and humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination up to 6 months in LP-PWH on effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as compared to HIV-negative healthcare workers (HCWs), and to evaluate whether previous SARS-CoV-2 infection modulates immune responses to vaccine. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-specific T-cell responses were determined by two complementary flow cytometry methodologies, namely activation-induced marker (AIM) assay and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), whereas humoral responses were measured by ELISA [anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies) and receptor-binding inhibition assay (spike-ACE2 binding inhibition activity), before vaccination (T0), 1 month (T1) and 5 months (T2) after the second dose. RESULTS: LP-PWH showed at T1 and T2 significant increase of: S-specific memory and circulating T follicular helper (cTfh) CD4 + T cells; polyfunctional Th1-cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2)- and Th2-cytokine (IL-4)-producing S-specific CD4 + T cells; anti-RBD antibodies and spike-ACE2 binding inhibition activity. Immune responses to vaccine in LP-PWH were not inferior to HCWs overall, yet S-specific CD8 + T cells and spike-ACE2 binding inhibition activity correlated negatively with markers of immune recovery on cART. Interestingly, natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, while able to sustain S-specific antibody response, seems less efficacious in inducing a T-cell memory and in boosting immune responses to vaccine, possibly reflecting an enduring partial immunodeficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these findings support the need for additional vaccine doses in PWH with a history of advanced immune depression and poor immune recovery on effective cART.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cytokines
3.
AIDS ; 36(15): 2171-2179, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective, safe, and affordable antivirals are needed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several lines of research suggest that tenofovir may be effective against COVID-19, but no large-scale human studies with appropriate adjustment for comorbidities have been conducted. METHODS: We studied HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2020 at 69 HIV clinics in Spain. We collected data on sociodemographics, ART, CD4+ cell count, HIV-RNA viral-load, comorbidities and the following outcomes: laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. We compared the 48-week risks for individuals receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and other regimes. All estimates were adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics via inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: Of 51 558 eligible individuals, 39.6% were on TAF/FTC, 11.9% on TDF/FTC, 26.6% on ABC/3TC, 21.8% on other regimes. There were 2402 documented SARS-CoV-2 infections (425 hospitalizations, 45 ICU admissions, 37 deaths). Compared with TAF/FTC, the estimated risk ratios (RR) (95% confidence interval) of hospitalization were 0.66 (0.43, 0.91) for TDF/FTC and 1.29 (1.02, 1.58) for ABC/3TC, the RRs of ICU admission were 0.28 (0.11, 0.90) for TDF/FTC and 1.39 (0.70, 2.80) for ABC/3TC, and the RRs of death were 0.37 (0.23, 1.90) for TDF/FTC and 2.02 (0.88-6.12) for ABC/3TC. The corresponding RRs of hospitalization for TDF/FTC were 0.49 (0.24, 0.81) in individuals ≥50 years and 1.15 (0.59, 1.93) in younger individuals. DISCUSSION: Compared with other antiretrovirals, TDF/FTC lowers COVID-19 severity among HIV-positive individuals with virological control. This protective effect may be restricted to individuals aged 50 years and older.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Combinations
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 536-541, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use among HIV-positive persons receiving ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: HIV clinics in 60 Spanish hospitals between 1 February and 15 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated risks (cumulative incidences) per 10 000 persons and 95% CIs for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. Risk and 95% CIs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital admission by use of the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and others were estimated through Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART, 236 were diagnosed with COVID-19, 151 were hospitalized, 15 were admitted to the ICU, and 20 died. The risks for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were greater in men and persons older than 70 years. The risk for COVID-19 hospitalization was 20.3 (95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7) among patients receiving TAF/FTC, 10.5 (CI, 5.6 to 17.9) among those receiving TDF/FTC, 23.4 (CI, 17.2 to 31.1) among those receiving ABC/3TC, and 20.0 (CI, 14.2 to 27.3) for those receiving other regimens. The corresponding risks for COVID-19 diagnosis were 39.1 (CI, 31.8 to 47.6), 16.9 (CI, 10.5 to 25.9), 28.3 (CI, 21.5 to 36.7), and 29.7 (CI, 22.6 to 38.4), respectively. No patient receiving TDF/FTC was admitted to the ICU or died. LIMITATION: Residual confounding by comorbid conditions cannot be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients receiving TDF/FTC have a lower risk for COVID-19 and related hospitalization than those receiving other therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in HIV preexposure prophylaxis studies and randomized trials in persons without HIV. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Instituto de Salud Carlos III and National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dideoxynucleosides , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lamivudine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270770, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk and characteristics of upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial infections (URT-BI) among HIV (+) patients is understudied. We analyzed factors associated with its occurrence and the spectrum of culturable pathogens among patients routinely followed at the HIV Out-Patient Clinic in Warsaw. METHODS: All HIV (+) patients with available URT swab culture were included into analyses. Patients were followed from the day of registration in the clinic until first positive URT swab culture or last clinical visit from January 1, 2007 to July 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with positive URT swabs culture (those with p<0.1 in univariate included into multivariable). RESULTS: In total 474 patients were included into the analyses, 166 with culturable URT swab. In general, 416 (87.8%) patients were male, 342 (72.1%) were infected through MSM contact, 253 (53.4%) were on antiretroviral therapy. Median follow-up time was 3.4 (1.3-5.7) years, age 35.2 (30.6-42.6) years and CD4+ count 528 (400-685) cells/µl. The most common cultured bacteria were S. aureus (40.4%) and S. pyogenes (13.9%) (Table 1). Patients with culturable URT-BI were more likely to be MSM (68.5% vs 78.9%; p<0.016), have detectable viral load (20.9% vs 12.0%; p<0.0001) and CD4+ cell count <500 cells/µl (55.2% vs 39.0%; p = 0.003) (Table 2). In multivariate survival analyses detectable viral load (HR3.13; 95%Cl: 2.34-4.19) and MSM (1.63;1.09-2.42) were increasing, but older age (0.63;0.58-0.69, per 5 years older) and higher CD4+ count (0.90;0.85-0.95, per 100 cells/µl) decreasing the risk of culturable URT-BI (Table 2). CONCLUSIONS: Culturable URT-BI are common among HIV-positive patients with high CD4+ count. Similarly to general population most common cultured bacteria were S. aureus and S. pyogenes. Risk factors identified in multivariate survival analysis indicate that younger MSM patients with detectable HIV viral load are at highest risk. In clinical practice this group of patients requires special attention.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , HIV Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Reinfection , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Staphylococcus aureus , Viral Load
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023662

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine the factors influencing HIV-related mortality in settings experiencing continuous armed conflict atrocities. In such settings, people living with HIV (PLHIV), and the partners of those affected may encounter specific difficulties regarding adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention in HIV prevention, treatment, and care programs. Between July 2019 and July 2021, we conducted an observational prospective cohort study of 468 PLHIV patients treated with Dolutegravir at all the ART facilities in Bunia. The probability of death being the primary outcome, as a function of time of inclusion in the cohort, was determined using Kaplan-Meier plots. We used the log-rank test to compare survival curves and Cox proportional hazard modeling to determine mortality predictors from the baseline to 31 July 2021 (endpoint). The total number of person-months (p-m) was 3435, with a death rate of 6.70 per 1000 p-m. Compared with the 35-year-old reference group, older patients had a higher mortality risk. ART-naïve participants at the time of enrollment had a higher mortality risk than those already using ART. Patients with a high baseline viral load (≥1000 copies/mL) had a higher mortality risk compared with the reference group (adjusted hazard ratio = 6.04; 95% CI: 1.78-20.43). One-fourth of deaths in the cohort were direct victims of armed conflict, with an estimated excess death of 35.6%. Improving baseline viral load monitoring, starting ART early in individuals with high baseline viral loads, the proper tailoring of ART regimens and optimizing long-term ART, and care to manage non-AIDS-related chronic complications are recommended actions to reduce mortality. Not least, fostering women's inclusion, justice, peace, and security in conflict zones is critical in preventing premature deaths in the general population as well as among PLHIV.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cohort Studies , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Oxazines , Piperazines , Prospective Studies , Pyridones
9.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003836, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Integration of HIV services with other health services has been proposed as an important strategy to boost the sustainability of the global HIV response. We conducted a systematic and comprehensive synthesis of the existing scientific evidence on the impact of service integration on the HIV care cascade, health outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed the global quantitative empirical evidence on integration published between 1 January 2010 and 10 September 2021. We included experimental and observational studies that featured both an integration intervention and a comparator in our review. Of the 7,118 unique peer-reviewed English-language studies that our search algorithm identified, 114 met all of our selection criteria for data extraction. Most of the studies (90) were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in East Africa (55) and Southern Africa (24). The most common forms of integration were (i) HIV testing and counselling added to non-HIV services and (ii) non-HIV services added to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The most commonly integrated non-HIV services were maternal and child healthcare, tuberculosis testing and treatment, primary healthcare, family planning, and sexual and reproductive health services. Values for HIV care cascade outcomes tended to be better in integrated services: uptake of HIV testing and counselling (pooled risk ratio [RR] across 37 studies: 1.67 [95% CI 1.41-1.99], p < 0.001), ART initiation coverage (pooled RR across 19 studies: 1.42 [95% CI 1.16-1.75], p = 0.002), time until ART initiation (pooled RR across 5 studies: 0.45 [95% CI 0.20-1.00], p = 0.050), retention in HIV care (pooled RR across 19 studies: 1.68 [95% CI 1.05-2.69], p = 0.031), and viral suppression (pooled RR across 9 studies: 1.19 [95% CI 1.03-1.37], p = 0.025). Also, treatment success for non-HIV-related diseases and conditions and the uptake of non-HIV services were commonly higher in integrated services. We did not find any significant differences for the following outcomes in our meta-analyses: HIV testing yield, ART adherence, HIV-free survival among infants, and HIV and non-HIV mortality. We could not conduct meta-analyses for several outcomes (HIV infections averted, costs, and cost-effectiveness), because our systematic review did not identify sufficient poolable studies. Study limitations included possible publication bias of studies with significant or favourable findings and comparatively weak evidence from some world regions and on integration of services for key populations in the HIV response. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of HIV services and other health services tends to improve health and health systems outcomes. Despite some scientific limitations, the global evidence shows that service integration can be a valuable strategy to boost the sustainability of the HIV response and contribute to the goal of 'ending AIDS by 2030', while simultaneously supporting progress towards universal health coverage.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease-Free Survival , Geography , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Social Stigma , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 477-486, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Out-of-facility multi-month dispensing (MMD) is a differentiated service delivery model which provides antiretroviral treatment (ART) at intervals of up to 6 monthly in the community. Limited randomized evidence investigating out-of-facility MMD is available. We evaluated participant outcomes and compared out-of-facility MMD models using data from cluster-randomized trials in Southern Africa. SETTING: Eight districts in Zimbabwe and Lesotho. METHODS: Individual-level participant data from 2 cluster-randomized trials that included stable adults receiving ART at 60 facilities were pooled. Both trials had 3 arms: ART collected 3-monthly at healthcare facilities (3MF, control); ART provided three-monthly in community ART groups (CAGs) (3MC); and ART provided 6-monthly in either CAGs or on an individual provider-patient basis (6MC). Participant retention, viral suppression and incidence of unscheduled facility visits were compared. RESULTS: Ten thousand one hundred thirty-six participants were included, 3817 (37.7%), 2893 (28.5%) and 3426 (33.8%) in arms 3MF, 3MC and 6MC, respectively. After 12 months, retention was non-inferior for 3MC (95.7%) vs. 3MF (95.0%) {adjusted risk difference (aRD) = 0.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.8 to 1.4]}; and 6MC (95.1%) vs. 3MF [aRD = -0.2 (95% CI: -1.4 to 1.0)]. Retention was greater amongst intervention arm participants in CAGs versus 6MC participants not in CAGs, aRD = 1.5% (95% CI: 0.2% to 2.9%). Viral suppression was excellent (≥98%) and unscheduled facility visits were not increased in the intervention arms. CONCLUSIONS: Three and 6-monthly out-of-facility MMD was non-inferior versus facility-based care for stable ART patients. Out-of-facility 6-monthly MMD should incorporate small group peer support whenever possible. CLINICALTRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03238846 and NCT03438370.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Africa, Southern , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retention in Care , Time Factors , Young Adult
12.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e4, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463909

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an enormous impact on the provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services amongst people living with HIV. Many people have adopted different health-seeking behaviour in alignment with the lockdown provisions during the COVID-19 pandemic. These lockdown regulations have had a huge impact on healthcare access for people on chronic medication. The disruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has a profound effect on HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. The impact on HIV programmes as a result of the interruption in ART could be bigger than the HIV pandemic alone.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology
14.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25781, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected antiretroviral therapy (ART) continuity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. We conducted a qualitative study to explore barriers to ART maintenance and solutions to ART interruption when stringent COVID-19 control measures were implemented in China, from the perspective of PLHIV and relevant key stakeholders. METHODS: Between 11 February and 15 February 2020, we interviewed PLHIV, community-based organization (CBO) workers, staff from centres for disease control and prevention (CDC) at various levels whose work is relevant to HIV care (CDC staff), HIV doctors and nurses and drug vendors from various regions in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a messaging and social media app. Challenges and responses relevant to ART continuity during the COVID-19 pandemic were discussed. Themes were identified by transcript coding and mindmaps. RESULTS: Sixty-four stakeholders were recruited, including 16 PLHIV, 17 CBO workers, 15 CDC staff, 14 HIV doctors and nurses and two drug vendors. Many CDC staff, HIV doctors and nurses responsible for ART delivery and HIV care were shifted to COVID-19 response efforts. Barriers to ART maintenance were (a) travel restrictions, (b) inadequate communication and bureaucratic obstacles, (c) shortage in personnel, (d) privacy concerns, and (e) insufficient ART reserve. CBO helped PLHIV maintain access to ART through five solutions identified from thematic analysis: (a) coordination to refill ART from local CDC clinics or hospitals, (b) delivery of ART by mail, (c) privacy protection measures, (d) mental health counselling, and (e) providing connections to alternative sources of ART. Drug vendors contributed to ART maintenance by selling out-of-pocket ART. CONCLUSIONS: Social and institutional disruption from COVID-19 contributed to increased risk of ART interruption among PLHIV in China. Collaboration among key stakeholders was needed to maintain access to ART, with CBO playing an important role. Other countries facing ART interruption during current or future public health emergencies may learn from the solutions employed in China.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation
15.
Retrovirology ; 18(1): 21, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365362

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 persists in infected individuals despite years of antiretroviral therapy (ART), due to the formation of a stable and long-lived latent viral reservoir. Early ART can reduce the latent reservoir and is associated with post-treatment control in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, even in post-treatment controllers, ART cessation after a period of time inevitably results in rebound of plasma viraemia, thus lifelong treatment for viral suppression is indicated. Due to the difficulties of sustained life-long treatment in the millions of PLWH worldwide, a cure is undeniably necessary. This requires an in-depth understanding of reservoir formation and dynamics. Differences exist in treatment guidelines and accessibility to treatment as well as social stigma between low- and-middle income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries. In addition, demographic differences exist in PLWH from different geographical regions such as infecting viral subtype and host genetics, which can contribute to differences in the viral reservoir between different populations. Here, we review topics relevant to HIV-1 cure research in LMICs, with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world bearing the greatest burden of HIV-1. We present a summary of ART in LMICs, highlighting challenges that may be experienced in implementing a HIV-1 cure therapeutic. Furthermore, we discuss current research on the HIV-1 latent reservoir in different populations, highlighting research in LMIC and gaps in the research that may facilitate a global cure. Finally, we discuss current experimental cure strategies in the context of their potential application in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/standards , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Virus Latency/drug effects , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Cost of Illness , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans
17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(8): e25741, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336004

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and young people comprise a growing proportion of new HIV infections globally, yet current approaches do not effectively engage this group, and adolescent HIV-related outcomes are the poorest among all age groups. Providing psychosocial interventions incorporating psychological, social, and/or behavioural approaches offer a potential pathway to improve engagement in care and health and behavioural outcomes among adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYPLHIV). METHODS: A systematic search of all peer-reviewed papers published between January 2000 and July 2020 was conducted through four electronic databases (Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus). We included randomized controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions aimed at improving engagement in care and health and behavioural outcomes of AYPLHIV aged 10 to 24 years. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Thirty relevant studies were identified. Studies took place in the United States (n = 18, 60%), sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe) and Southeast Asia (Thailand). Outcomes of interest included adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), ART knowledge, viral load data, sexual risk behaviours, sexual risk knowledge, retention in care and linkage to care. Overall, psychosocial interventions for AYPLHIV showed important, small-to-moderate effects on adherence to ART (SMD = 0.3907, 95% CI: 0.1059 to 0.6754, 21 studies, n = 2647) and viral load (SMD = -0.2607, 95% CI -04518 to -0.0696, 12 studies, n = 1566). The psychosocial interventions reviewed did not demonstrate significant impacts on retention in care (n = 8), sexual risk behaviours and knowledge (n = 13), viral suppression (n = 4), undetectable viral load (n = 5) or linkage to care (n = 1) among AYPLHIV. No studies measured transition to adult services. Effective interventions employed various approaches, including digital and lay health worker delivery, which hold promise for scaling interventions in the context of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the potential of psychosocial interventions in improving health outcomes in AYPLHIV. However, more research needs to be conducted on interventions that can effectively reduce sexual risk behaviours of AYPLHIV, as well as those that can strengthen engagement in care. Further investment is needed to ensure that these interventions are cost-effective, sustainable and resilient in the face of resource constraints and global challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/psychology , Patient Participation/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology , Adolescent , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19 , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , South Africa , Viral Load , Young Adult
18.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282640

ABSTRACT

There is a growing number of perinatally HIV-1-infected children worldwide who must maintain life-long ART. In early life, HIV-1 infection is established in an immunologically inexperienced environment in which maternal ART and immune dynamics during pregnancy play a role in reservoir establishment. Children that initiated early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and maintained long-term suppression of viremia have smaller and less diverse HIV reservoirs than adults, although their proviral landscape during ART is reported to be similar to that of adults. The ability of these early infected cells to persist long-term through clonal expansion poses a major barrier to finding a cure. Furthermore, the effects of life-long HIV persistence and ART are yet to be understood, but growing evidence suggests that these individuals are at an increased risk for developing non-AIDS-related comorbidities, which underscores the need for an HIV cure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Disease Reservoirs/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Child , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Proviruses/genetics , Viral Load , Viremia/drug therapy
19.
20.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 154(2): 220-226, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the challenges of women taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in a peri-urban area. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study approach was used. Semi-structured questions were devised and used to elicit data on the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on women accessing treatment for HIV. Twenty women were interviewed through contacts from community and faith organizations in peri-urban Harare. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo to make analysis easy. The data were thematically analyzed, underpinned by the four phases of data analysis in the Silences Framework. RESULTS: The study discovered that transport problems, confusing COVID-19 restrictions, abuse by police and soldiers at roadblocks, a shortage of medication, lack of health check-up routines, involuntary default of ART, and a shortage of personal protective equipment affected HIV-positive women accessing ART during the COVID-19 lockdown. CONCLUSION: People living with HIV need a robust supporting environment and a functioning health system. In response to COVID-19 all services were halted to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Pandemic preparedness is important in keeping an adequate supply of ART and responding to the needs of individuals on HIV treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zimbabwe
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