Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 234
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 781843, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581326

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Vaccination against COVID-19 is highly recommended to patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the impact of MS disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the immune response following vaccination has been only partially investigated. Here, we aimed to elucidate the effect of DMTs on the humoral immune response to mRNA-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in MS patients. Methods: We obtained sera from 912 Sardinian MS patients and 63 healthy controls 30 days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine and tested them for SARS-CoV-2 response using anti-Spike (S) protein-based serology. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by anti-Nucleocapsid (N) serology. Patients were either untreated or undergoing treatment with a total of 13 different DMTs. Differences between treatment groups comprised of at least 10 patients were assessed by generalized linear mixed-effects model. Demographic and clinical data and smoking status were analyzed as additional factors potentially influencing humoral immunity from COVID-19 vaccine. Results: MS patients treated with natalizumab, teriflunomide, azathioprine, fingolimod, ocrelizumab, and rituximab showed significantly lower humoral responses compared to untreated patients. We did not observe a statistically significant difference in response between patients treated with the other drugs (dimethyl fumarate, interferon, alemtuzumab and glatiramer acetate) and untreated patients. In addition, older age, male sex and active smoking were significantly associated with lower antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2. MS patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had significantly higher humoral responses to vaccine than uninfected patients. Conclusion: Humoral response to BNT162b2 is significantly influenced by the specific DMTs followed by patients, as well as by other factors such as previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, age, sex, and smoking status. These results are important to inform targeted strategies to prevent clinically relevant COVID-19 in MS patients.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion/drug effects
2.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 5(2): 226-228, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493585

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 61-year old female with a 20-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed acute hepatitis. Her arthritis had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) since 2003 and, following an increase in disease activity, Rituximab (RTX) was commenced in January 2017. In May 2020, routine blood tests showed a new elevation in her liver profile, although synthetic function was preserved. A standard liver screen found no cause for her acutely abnormal lab values. Upon additional serological testing, the patient was confirmed to have acute hepatitis E virus (HEV). Her primary complaint at the time was fatigue. Within a month, her liver blood tests spontaneously improved and her symptoms resolved with conservative management.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Hepatitis E , Immunocompromised Host , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E/immunology , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use
3.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(2): 316-326, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493288

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism, occlusion of dialysis catheters, circuit thrombosis in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) devices, acute limb ischemia, and isolated strokes, all in the face of prophylactic and even therapeutic anticoagulation, are features of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coagulopathy. It seems well established at this time that a COVID-19 patient deemed sick enough to be hospitalized, should receive at least prophylactic dose anticoagulation. However, should some hospitalized patients have dosage escalation to intermediate dose? Should some be considered for full-dose anticoagulation without a measurable thromboembolic event and how should that anticoagulation be monitored? Should patients receive postdischarge anticoagulation and with what medication and for how long? What thrombotic issues are related to the various medications being used to treat this coagulopathy? Is antiphospholipid antibody part of this syndrome? What is the significance of isolated ischemic stroke and limb ischemia in this disorder and how does this interface with the rest of the clinical and laboratory features of this disorder? The aims of this article are to explore these questions and interpret the available data based on the current evidence.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Duration of Therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/immunology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology
4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1255-1265, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467676

ABSTRACT

Patients with rheumatic diseases are at increased risk of infectious complications; vaccinations are a critical component of their care. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may reduce the immunogenicity of common vaccines. We will review here available data regarding the effect of these medications on influenza, pneumococcal, herpes zoster, SARS-CoV-2, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus and yellow fever vaccines. Rituximab has the most substantial impact on vaccine immunogenicity, which is most profound when vaccinations are given at shorter intervals after rituximab dosing. Methotrexate has less substantial effect but appears to adversely impact most vaccine immunogenicity. Abatacept likely decrease vaccine immunogenicity, although these studies are limited by the lack of adequate control groups. Janus kinase and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors decrease absolute antibody titres for many vaccines, but do not seem to significantly impact the proportions of patients achieving seroprotection. Other biologics (interleukin-6R (IL-6R), IL-12/IL-23 and IL-17 inhibitors) have little observed impact on vaccine immunogenicity. Data regarding the effect of these medications on the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity are just now emerging, and early glimpses appear similar to our experience with other vaccines. In this review, we summarise the most recent data regarding vaccine response and efficacy in this setting, particularly in light of current vaccination recommendations for immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI25-SI36, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain if the use of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ)/cloroquine(CLQ) and other conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) and rheumatic diseases per se may be associated with COVID-19-related risk of hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: This case-control study nested within a cohort of cDMARD users was conducted in the Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany and Lazio regions and Reggio Emilia province. Claims databases were linked to COVID-19 surveillance registries. The risk of COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated using a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis comparing HCQ/CLQ vs MTX, vs other cDMARDs and vs non-use of these drugs. The presence of rheumatic diseases vs their absence in a non-nested population was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 1275 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were matched to 12 734 controls. Compared with recent use of MTX, no association between HCQ/CLQ monotherapy and COVID-19 hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.69, 1.00)] or mortality [OR 1.19 (95% CI 0.85, 1.67)] was observed. A lower risk was found when comparing HCQ/CLQ use with the concomitant use of other cDMARDs and glucocorticoids. HCQ/CLQ was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization as compared with non-use. An increased risk for recent use of either MTX monotherapy [OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05, 1.34)] or other cDMARDs [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08, 1.36)] vs non-use was found. Rheumatic diseases were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes. CONCLUSION: HCQ/CLQ use in rheumatic patients was not associated with a protective effect against COVID-19-related outcomes. The use of other cDMARDs was associated with an increased risk when compared with non-use and, if concomitantly used with glucocorticoids, also vs HCQ/CLQ, probably due to immunosuppressive action.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Population Surveillance , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI59-SI67, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with RA treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with RA. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark between 1 March and 12 August 2020. The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals. Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA treated and non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, HCQ or glucocorticoids, respectively. Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD sp - individudals. RESULTS: Patients with IRD (n = 58 052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.86] with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29 440, HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.64). There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization associated with TNF-inhibitor, HCQ nor glucocorticoid use. COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.53) for a severe outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with IRD were more likely to be admitted with COVID-19 than the general population, and COVID-19 admitted patients with RA could be at higher risk of a severe outcome. Treatment with specific DMARDs did not affect the risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/virology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 683694, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463469

ABSTRACT

Auranofin is an FDA-approved disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug that has been used for decades for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This gold(I) compound has anti-inflammatory properties because it reduces IL-6 expression via inhibition of the NF-κB-IL-6-STAT3 signaling pathway. Also, by inhibiting redox enzymes such as thioredoxin reductase, auranofin increases cellular oxidative stress and promotes apoptosis. Auranofin also possesses antiviral properties. Recently, it was reported that auranofin reduced by 95% SARS-CoV-2 RNA in infected human cells in vitro and decreased SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine expression, including IL-6. During SARS-CoV-2 infection, a cytokine storm involving IL-6 increases severity of illness and worsens prognosis. Therefore, auranofin could, in our point of view, reduce pathology due to SARS-CoV-2-induced IL-6. COVID-19 is a rapidly-evolving respiratory disease now distributed worldwide. Strikingly high numbers of new COVID-19 cases are reported daily. We have begun a race to vaccinate people, but due to the complex logistics of this effort, the virus will continue to spread before all humans can be immunized, and new variants that may be less well contained by current vaccines are of concern. The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed health care systems and new treatments to reduce mortality are urgently needed. We encourage to further evaluate the potential of auranofin in the treatment of COVID-19 in vitro and in animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and, if preliminary data are promising, in clinical trials with COVID-19 patients. In our opinion, auranofin has the potential to become a valuable addition to available therapies in this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Auranofin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Approval , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Thioredoxins/metabolism
9.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 60, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the role of chronic use of hydroxychloroquine during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of COVID-19 between rheumatic disease patients on hydroxychloroquine with individuals from the same household not taking the drug during the first 8 weeks of community viral transmission in Brazil. METHODS: This baseline cross-sectional analysis is part of a 24-week observational multi-center study involving 22 Brazilian academic outpatient centers. All information regarding COVID-19 symptoms, epidemiological, clinical, and demographic data were recorded on a specific web-based platform using telephone calls from physicians and medical students. COVID-19 was defined according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMH) criteria. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used for statistical analysis and two binary Final Logistic Regression Model by Wald test were developed using a backward-stepwise method for the presence of COVID-19. RESULTS: From March 29th to May 17st, 2020, a total of 10,443 participants were enrolled, including 5166 (53.9%) rheumatic disease patients, of whom 82.5% had systemic erythematosus lupus, 7.8% rheumatoid arthritis, 3.7% Sjögren's syndrome and 0.8% systemic sclerosis. In total, 1822 (19.1%) participants reported flu symptoms within the 30 days prior to enrollment, of which 3.1% fulfilled the BMH criteria, but with no significant difference between rheumatic disease patients (4.03%) and controls (3.25%). After adjustments for multiple confounders, the main risk factor significantly associated with a COVID-19 diagnosis was lung disease (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.03-2.58); and for rheumatic disease patients were diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.19-6.63) and glucocorticoids above 10 mg/ day (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.31-3.19). In addition, a recent influenza vaccination had a protective effect (OR 0.674; 95% CI 0.46-0.98). CONCLUSION: Patients with rheumatic disease on hydroxychloroquine presented a similar occurrence of COVID-19 to household cohabitants, suggesting a lack of any protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC; RBR - 9KTWX6).


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Health/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Sjogren's Syndrome/drug therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Young Adult
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(5): 1167-1172, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on clinical characteristics and outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited. SETTING: Large tertiary health care system in the Bronx, NY. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 83 PLWH and 4151 patients without HIV hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 10, 2020, to May 11, 2020. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with AKI by HIV serostatus and evaluated HIV-related factors for AKI among PLWH. AKI was defined and staged using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. RESULTS: The incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not differ significantly by HIV serostatus (54.2% in PLWH vs 49.5% in patients without HIV, P = 0.6). Despite a higher incidence of stage 3 AKI (28.9% vs 17.1% P = 0.05) in PLWH compared with those without HIV, there was no significant difference in the need for renal replacement therapy (22.2% vs 13.4% P = 0.12), renal recovery (76.9% vs 82.5% P = 0.61), or dependence on renal replacement therapy (7.7% vs 3.8% P = 0.27). CD4 T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral suppression, and antiretroviral therapy use were not associated with AKI. AKI was associated with increased need for invasive ventilation and in-hospital death, but HIV was not an independent risk factor of in-hospital death after AKI [adjusted hazard ratio 1.01 (95% CI: 0.59 to 1.72), P = 0.98]. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related factors were not associated with increased risk of AKI in PLWH hospitalized with COVID-19. PLWH hospitalized with COVID-19 had more stage 3 AKI, but outcomes after AKI were similar to those without HIV.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1286-1298, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest, there is no guidance or consensus on how to conduct clinical trials and observational studies in populations at risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: An European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force formulated four research questions to be addressed by systematic literature review (SLR). The SLR results informed consensus statements. One overarching principle, 10 points to consider (PTC) and a research agenda were proposed. Task force members rated their level of agreement (1-10) for each PTC. RESULTS: Epidemiological and demographic characteristics should be measured in all clinical trials and studies in at-risk individuals. Different at-risk populations, identified according to clinical presentation, were defined: asymptomatic, musculoskeletal symptoms without arthritis and early clinical arthritis. Study end-points should include the development of subclinical inflammation on imaging, clinical arthritis, RA and subsequent achievement of arthritis remission. Risk factors should be assessed at baseline and re-evaluated where appropriate; they include genetic markers and autoantibody profiling and additionally clinical symptoms and subclinical inflammation on imaging in those with symptoms and/or clinical arthritis. Trials should address the effect of the intervention on risk factors, as well as progression to clinical arthritis or RA. In patients with early clinical arthritis, pharmacological intervention has the potential to prevent RA development. Participants' knowledge of their RA risk may inform their decision to participate; information should be provided using an individually tailored approach. CONCLUSION: These consensus statements provide data-driven guidance for rheumatologists, health professionals and investigators conducting clinical trials and observational studies in individuals at risk of RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/prevention & control , Asymptomatic Diseases , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnostic imaging , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Europe , Humans , Rheumatology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Societies, Medical
14.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(5): 431-445, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402703

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the role of inflammation in severe forms of COVID-19, glucocorticoids and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been assessed as potential COVID-19 therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that glucocorticoids reduce mortality in severe COVID-19. RCTs of DMARDs have shown mixed results varying on intervention and inclusion criteria. DMARDs, including colchicine or biologic agents, may improve COVID-19 outcomes in specific patient populations. SUMMARY: Glucocorticoids are an effective treatment for the management of severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to better define the patient populations who could benefit from DMARD use, as well as provide guidance regarding the timing of these interventions.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1255-1265, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398605

ABSTRACT

Patients with rheumatic diseases are at increased risk of infectious complications; vaccinations are a critical component of their care. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may reduce the immunogenicity of common vaccines. We will review here available data regarding the effect of these medications on influenza, pneumococcal, herpes zoster, SARS-CoV-2, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus and yellow fever vaccines. Rituximab has the most substantial impact on vaccine immunogenicity, which is most profound when vaccinations are given at shorter intervals after rituximab dosing. Methotrexate has less substantial effect but appears to adversely impact most vaccine immunogenicity. Abatacept likely decrease vaccine immunogenicity, although these studies are limited by the lack of adequate control groups. Janus kinase and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors decrease absolute antibody titres for many vaccines, but do not seem to significantly impact the proportions of patients achieving seroprotection. Other biologics (interleukin-6R (IL-6R), IL-12/IL-23 and IL-17 inhibitors) have little observed impact on vaccine immunogenicity. Data regarding the effect of these medications on the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity are just now emerging, and early glimpses appear similar to our experience with other vaccines. In this review, we summarise the most recent data regarding vaccine response and efficacy in this setting, particularly in light of current vaccination recommendations for immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1345-1350, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that B cell-depleting therapy with rituximab (RTX) affects humoral immune response after vaccination. It remains unclear whether RTX-treated patients can develop a humoral and T-cell-mediated immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after immunisation. METHODS: Patients under RTX treatment (n=74) were vaccinated twice with either mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2. Antibodies were quantified using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and neutralisation tests. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were quantified by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays. Prepandemic healthy individuals (n=5), as well as healthy individuals (n=10) vaccinated with BNT162b2, served as controls. RESULTS: All healthy controls developed antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 RBD of the spike protein, but only 39% of the patients under RTX treatment seroconverted. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD significantly correlated with neutralising antibodies (τ=0.74, p<0.001). Patients without detectable CD19+ peripheral B cells (n=36) did not develop specific antibodies, except for one patient. Circulating B cells correlated with the levels of antibodies (τ=0.4, p<0.001). However, even patients with a low number of B cells (<1%) mounted detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected in 58% of the patients, independent of a humoral immune response. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that vaccination can induce SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in RTX-treated patients, once peripheral B cells at least partially repopulate. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells that evolved in more than half of the vaccinated patients may exert protective effects independent of humoral immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
17.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 55, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-rheumatic drugs can increase the predisposition to infection, and patients may be unaware of continuing their treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether patients maintain their treatment for rheumatic conditions during the pandemic period and determine the factors responsible for discontinuation. METHODS: Patients were randomly selected from the prospectively collected database of our tertiary referral center. The patients were interviewed by telephone through a standardized closed-ended questionnaire, which is targeting the continuity of the treatment plan and the considerations related to the individual choice. The patients were asked whether they hesitated to visit the hospital for follow-up or intravenous drug administration. RESULTS: A total of 278 patients completed the questionnaire. While 62 of the patients (22.3%) had reduced or interrupted the treatment, only 11 patients (3.9%) stopped the treatment completely. A significant difference was observed between the duration of illness and the discontinuation of treatment. (p = 0.023) There was a significant difference in disease activity between the group that stopped treatment and continued treatment. (p = 0.001) There was no statistically significant difference in other demographic characteristics. One hundred thirty-five patients (48.6%) made the treatment decision by themselves, and 80% continued the treatment. Reasons for stopping the treatment were anxiety (48.4%), not being able to go to the hospital for intravenous treatment (45.1%), and not being able to find the drug (6.5%). CONCLUSION: Since patients with long-term illnesses were found to be significantly more likely to stop their treatment, this group of patients should be monitored.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/supply & distribution , Anxiety , Continuity of Patient Care , Databases, Factual , Decision Making , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI51-SI58, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the adherence of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) to their immunomodulatory medication during the three-month lockdown in Germany. METHODS: From 16th March until 15th June 2020, IRD patients from private practices and rheumatology departments were asked to answer a questionnaire addressing their behaviour with respect to their immunomodulating therapy. Eight private practices and nine rheumatology departments that included rheumatology primary care centres and university hospitals participated. A total of 4252 questionnaires were collected and evaluated. RESULTS: The majority of patients (54%) were diagnosed with RA, followed by psoriatic arthritis (14%), ankylosing spondylitis (10%), connective tissue diseases (12%) and vasculitides (6%). Most of the patients (84%) reported to continue their immunomodulatory therapy. Termination of therapy was reported by only 3% of the patients. The results were independent from the type of IRD, the respective immunomodulatory therapy and by whom the patients were treated (private practices vs rheumatology departments). Younger patients (<60 years) reported just as often as older patients to discontinue their therapy. CONCLUSION: The data show that most of the patients continued their therapy in spite of the pandemic. A significant change in behaviour with regard to their immunomodulatory therapy was not observed during the three months of observation. The results support the idea that the immediate release of recommendations of the German Society of Rheumatology were well received, supporting the well-established physician-patient relationship in times of a crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Pediatr ; 229: 33-40, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the similarities and differences in the evaluation and treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at hospitals in the US. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 16 to July 16, 2020, of US children's hospitals regarding protocols for management of patients with MIS-C. Elements included characteristics of the hospital, clinical definition of MIS-C, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up. We summarized key findings and compared results from centers in which >5 patients had been treated vs those in which ≤5 patients had been treated. RESULTS: In all, 40 centers of varying size and experience with MIS-C participated in this protocol survey. Overall, 21 of 40 centers required only 1 day of fever for MIS-C to be considered. In the evaluation of patients, there was often a tiered approach. Intravenous immunoglobulin was the most widely recommended medication to treat MIS-C (98% of centers). Corticosteroids were listed in 93% of protocols primarily for moderate or severe cases. Aspirin was commonly recommended for mild cases, whereas heparin or low molecular weight heparin were to be used primarily in severe cases. In severe cases, anakinra and vasopressors frequently were recommended; 39 of 40 centers recommended follow-up with cardiology. There were similar findings between centers in which >5 patients vs ≤5 patients had been managed. Supplemental materials containing hospital protocols are provided. CONCLUSIONS: There are many similarities yet key differences between hospital protocols for MIS-C. These findings can help healthcare providers learn from others regarding options for managing MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...