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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299445

ABSTRACT

Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant that interacts with activated proteases of the coagulation system and with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the surface of cells. The protein, which is synthesized in the liver, is also essential to confer the effects of therapeutic heparin. However, AT levels drop in systemic inflammatory diseases. The reason for this decline is consumption by the coagulation system but also by immunological processes. Aside from the primarily known anticoagulant effects, AT elicits distinct anti-inflammatory signaling responses. It binds to structures of the glycocalyx (syndecan-4) and further modulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells and leukocytes by interacting with surface receptors. Additionally, AT exerts direct antimicrobial effects: depending on AT glycosylation it can bind to and perforate bacterial cell walls. Peptide fragments derived from proteolytic degradation of AT exert antibacterial properties. Despite these promising characteristics, therapeutic supplementation in inflammatory conditions has not proven to be effective in randomized control trials. Nevertheless, new insights provided by subgroup analyses and retrospective trials suggest that a recommendation be made to identify the patient population that would benefit most from AT substitution. Recent experiment findings place the role of various AT isoforms in the spotlight. This review provides an overview of new insights into a supposedly well-known molecule.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/pharmacology , Disease Resistance/drug effects , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Disease Management , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/pathology , Organ Specificity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
2.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2021 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033055

ABSTRACT

Microalgae are at the start of the food chain, and many are known producers of a significant amount of lipids with essential fatty acids. However, the bioactivity of microalgal lipids for anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities have rarely been investigated. Therefore, for a sustainable source of the above bioactive lipids, the present study was undertaken. The total lipids of microalga Chlorococcum sp., isolated from the Irish coast, were fractionated into neutral-, glyco-, and phospho-lipids, and were tested in vitro for their anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities. All tested lipid fractions showed strong anti-platelet-activating factor (PAF) and antithrombin activities in human platelets (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging ~25-200 µg of lipid) with the highest activities in glyco- and phospho-lipid fractions. The structural analysis of the bioactive lipid fraction-2 revealed the presence of specific sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols (SQDG) bioactive molecules and the HexCer-t36:2 (t18:1/18:1 and 18:2/18:0) cerebrosides with a phytosphingosine (4-hydrosphinganine) base, while fraction-3 contained bioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecules. These novel bioactive lipids of Chlorococcum sp. with putative health benefits may indicate that marine microalgae can be a sustainable alternative source for bioactive lipids production for food supplements and nutraceutical applications. However, further studies are required towards the commercial technology pathways development and biosafety analysis for the use of the microalga.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Lipids/chemistry , Lipids/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Water Microbiology
3.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620954913, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841480

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sulodexide represents a mixture of fast-moving heparin (FMH) and dermatan sulfate (DS) and has been used for the management of venous diseases such as DVT and related disorders. The purpose of this study is to compare sulodexide and its components with unfractionated heparin (UFH) to determine its suitability for the indications in which UFH is used. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) versions of sulodexide, FMH and DS were obtained from Alfasigma. API versions of UFH were obtained from Medefil Inc. Normal human citrated plasma was obtained from blood bank of the Loyola University Medical Center. Each of the individual agents were supplemented in plasma at a graded concentration of 0.0-10 µg/mL. Clotting assays (PiCT, aPTT, PT and TT), anti-Xa and anti-IIa and thrombin generation studies were carried out. Results were compiled as mean ± SD of 3 individual determination. RESULT: In the clot based (PiCT, aPTT and TT), anti-Xa and IIa assays, both the UFH and FMH produced stronger activities in these assays followed by sulodexide. DS did not show any anticoagulant activity. In the thrombin generation assay, FMH and UFH produced comparable inhibition of thrombin generation as measured by various parameters. Sulodexide was slightly weaker in this assay, whereas DS produced relatively weaker effects. CONCLUSION: In comparison to sulodexide, both UFH and FMH exhibit comparable anticoagulant activity despite differences in their molecular weight. These results suggest that sulodexide can be developed as a parenteral anticoagulant for indications in which UFH is used.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Glycosaminoglycans/pharmacology , Thrombin/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Antithrombins/administration & dosage , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Glycosaminoglycans/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Italy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thrombin/administration & dosage
4.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 35(2): 195-203, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737530

ABSTRACT

Thrombin is a trypsin-like serine protease with multiple physiological functions. Its role in coagulation and thrombosis is well-established. Nevertheless, thrombin also plays a major role in inflammation by activating protease-activated receptors. In addition, thrombin is also involved in angiogenesis, fibrosis, and viral infections. Considering the pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic, thrombin inhibitors may exert multiple potential therapeutic benefits including antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. In this review, we describe the clinical features of COVID-19, the thrombin's roles in various pathologies, and the potential of argatroban in COVID-19 patients. Argatroban is a synthetic, small molecule, direct, competitive, and selective inhibitor of thrombin. It is approved to parenterally prevent and/or treat heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in addition to other thrombotic conditions. Argatroban also possesses anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities and has a well-established pharmacokinetics profile. It also appears to lack a significant risk of drug-drug interactions with therapeutics currently being evaluated for COVID-19. Thus, argatroban presents a substantial promise in treating severe cases of COVID-19; however, this promise is yet to be established in randomized, controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Development , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy
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