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Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847566


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has undone years of progress in providing essential TB services and controlling the TB burden. Italy, a low TB burden country, has an incidence of 7.1 cases per 100,000 people. To control the TB spreading in Italy is critical to investigate the characteristics of patients with the worst outcomes and the highest risk of adverse events related to antituberculosis therapy. Therefore, we conducted a large retrospective study in TB patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases University of Bari, Italy, in order to describe the clinical presentation and the factors associated with adverse events and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases from January 2013 to 15 December 2021. We stratified our cohort into two groups: <65 years of age and ≥65 years in order to assess any differences between the two groups. Two logistic regression models were implemented considering the dependent variables as: (I) the adverse events; and (II) the unsuccessful treatments. Results: In total, 206 consecutive patients [60% (n = 124) M, median age 39 years, range 16-92] were diagnosed and admitted with TB at Clinic of Infectious Diseases. Of the whole sample, 151 (74%) were <65 years and 55 (26%) were ≥65. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were detected (p-value < 0.05) for nationality (p-value = 0.01), previous contact with TB patient (p-value = 0.00), type of TB (p-value = 0.00), unsuccessful treatment (p-value = 0.00), length of hospitalization (p-value = 0.02) and diagnostic delay (p-value = 0.01). Adverse events related to TB drug regimen were reported in 24% (n = 49). Age < 65 years (O.R. = 3.91; 95% CI 1.72-4.21), non-Italian nationality (O.R. = 4.45; 95% CI 2.22-4.98.), homeless (O.R. = 3.23; 95% CI 2.58-4.54), presence of respiratory symptoms (O.R. = 1.23; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), diagnostic delay (O.R = 2.55; 95% CI 1.98-3.77) resulted associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome (death, failure or lost to follow up). Finally, age < 65 years (O.R. = 1.73; 95% CI 1.31-2.49), presence of pulmonary TB (O.R. = 1.15; 95% CI 1.02-1.35), length of hospitalization (O.R. = 1.82; 95% CI 1.35-2.57) and TB culture positive (O.R. = 1.35; 95% CI 1.12-1.82) were associated with adverse events in our populations. Conclusions: The pharmacological approach alone seems insufficient to treat and cure a disease whose ethiopathogenesis is not only due to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also to the poverty or the social fragility. Our data suggest that young foreigners, the homeless, and the people with low social and economic status are at higher risk of an unfavorable outcome in low incidence TB countries. Targeted actions to support this highly vulnerable population both in terms of outcome and occurrence of adverse events are needed.

COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Delayed Diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Young Adult
Clin Exp Allergy ; 52(3): 375-386, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591714


Tuberculosis (TB) is the commonest cause of death by a single infectious agent globally and ranks amongst the top ten causes of global mortality. The incidence of TB is highest in Low-Middle Income countries (LMICs). Prompt institution of, and compliance with, therapy are cornerstones for a favourable outcome in TB and to mitigate the risk of multiple drug resistant (MDR)-TB, which is challenging to treat. There is some evidence that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to anti-TB drugs occur in over 60% and 3%-4% of patients respectively. Both ADRs and HSRs represent significant barriers to treatment adherence and are recognised risk factors for MDR-TB. HSRs to anti-TB drugs are usually cutaneous and benign, occur within few weeks after commencement of therapy and are likely to be T-cell mediated. Severe and systemic T-cell mediated HSRs and IgE mediated anaphylaxis to anti-TB drugs are relatively rare, but important to recognise and treat promptly. T-cell-mediated HSRs are more frequent amongst patients with co-existing HIV infection. Some patients develop multiple sensitisation to anti-TB drugs. Whilst skin tests, patch tests and in vitro diagnostics have been used in the investigation of HSRs to anti-TB drugs, their predictive value is not established, they are onerous, require specialist input of an allergist and are resource-dependent. This is compounded by the global, unmet demand for allergy specialists, particularly in low-income countries (LICs)/LMICs and now the challenging circumstances of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. This narrative review provides a critical analysis of the limited published evidence on this topic and proposes a cautious and pragmatic approach to optimise and standardise the management of HSRs to anti-TB drugs. This includes clinical risk stratification and a dual strategy involving sequential re-challenge and rapid drug desensitisation. Furthermore, a concerted international effort is needed to generate real-time data on ADRs, HSRs, safety and clinical outcomes of these interventions.

Anaphylaxis/therapy , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Hypersensitivity/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Humans
Indian J Tuberc ; 67(4S): S69-S78, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125264


Multiple drugs taken for long duration in tuberculosis (TB) treatment, especially drug resistant TB (DR-TB), may produce adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Although any anti-TB drug can cause ADRs, but these are more common with drugs used for treatment of DR-TB. However, most of ADRs with these drugs are mild or moderate and can be managed if adequate supervision and monitoring is done. However, few ADRs can be severe or potentially life-threatening and may require removal of the offending drug(s). TB patients having comorbidities and on treatment for them may experience drug interaction with anti TB drugs and may require dose modification or change of drug. For a good TB treatment outcome patient's compliance should be ensured, and adverse events and drug interactions should be appropriately addressed by the clinicians. This article outlines the majority of the possible ADRs to anti-TB drugs used for management of DR-TB and their common drug interactions with practical recommendations to identify the possible drug(s) responsible and the most adequate management in each situation.

Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans