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1.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(S 01): e129-e136, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare respiratory illness-related hospitalization (RIH) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related hospitalization (RSVH) in multiple births versus singletons, who received palivizumab during the RSV season and participated in the Canadian registry of palivizumab (CARESS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of infants aged <2 years recruited across 32 centers over 12 RSV seasons from 2005 to 2017. Demographic data were collected at enrolment and RIH events were recorded monthly. RESULTS: A total of 25,003 infants were enrolled of whom 6,949 (27.8%) were of multiple birth, and 18,054 (72.2%) were singletons. A significantly larger proportion of the multiple births were premature (80.2%) compared with the singleton group (56.8%). Multiples had a lower gestational age (mean ± standard deviation): 31.2 ± 3.2 versus 33.2 ± 5.5 weeks and birth weight (mean: 1,590 ± 606.8 vs. 2,069.4 ± 1068.5 g; both p < 0.0005). They were younger at enrolment (4.5 ± 5.0 vs. 6.1 ± 6.8 months), and fewer attended daycare (1.9 vs. 4.6%), and experienced exposure to smoking (24.5 vs. 29.9%), but more lived in a crowded household (36.7 vs. 19.4%); all p < 0.0005. Multiples had a longer length of neonatal stay (51.1 ± 65.9 vs. 47.9 ± 67.8 days), and more required respiratory support (65.7 vs. 57.7%), but for shorter duration (22.6 ± 32.9 vs. 24.7 ± 40.6 days); all p < 0.001. RIH and RSVH rates (%) in multiples versus singletons were 4.7; 7.7 and 1.4; and 1.6, respectively. Cox regression showed that multiples had a lower risk of RIH compared with singletons (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.543-0.698, p < 0.0005), but not RSVH (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.57-1.02, p = 0.071). CONCLUSION: Multiple birth infants, who are known to be at greater risk for severe RSVH compared with singletons, are well protected by palivizumab, provided adherence to the monthly injection scheme is guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Palivizumab/administration & dosage , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pregnancy, Multiple/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Registries , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD014962, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is an antiviral medicine with properties to inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. Positive results from early studies attracted media attention and led to emergency use authorisation of remdesivir in COVID-19.  A thorough understanding of the current evidence regarding the effects of remdesivir as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of remdesivir compared to placebo or standard care alone on clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to maintain the currency of the evidence using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (which comprises the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and medRxiv) as well as Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded and Emerging Sources Citation Index) and WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease to identify completed and ongoing studies without language restrictions. We conducted the searches on 16 April 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. We included RCTs evaluating remdesivir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised adults compared to placebo or standard care alone irrespective of disease severity, gender, ethnicity, or setting.  We excluded studies that evaluated remdesivir for the treatment of other coronavirus diseases. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess risk of bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane RoB 2 tool for RCTs. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for outcomes that were reported according to our prioritised categories: all-cause mortality at up to day 28, duration to liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation, duration to liberation from supplemental oxygen, new need for mechanical ventilation (high-flow oxygen or non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation), new need for invasive mechanical ventilation, new need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen, new need for oxygen by mask or nasal prongs, quality of life, adverse events (any grade), and serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included five RCTs with 7452 participants diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a mean age of 59 years, of whom 3886 participants were randomised to receive remdesivir. Most participants required low-flow oxygen (n=4409) or mechanical ventilation (n=1025) at baseline. We identified two ongoing studies, one was suspended due to a lack of COVID-19 patients to recruit. Risk of bias was considered to be of some concerns or high risk for clinical status and safety outcomes because participants who had died did not contribute information to these outcomes. Without adjustment, this leads to an uncertain amount of missing values and the potential for bias due to missing data. Effects of remdesivir in hospitalised individuals  Remdesivir probably makes little or no difference to all-cause mortality at up to day 28 (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.06; risk difference (RD) 8 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 21 fewer to 7 more; 4 studies, 7142 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Considering the initial severity of condition, only one study showed a beneficial effect of remdesivir in patients who received low-flow oxygen at baseline (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.66, 435 participants), but conflicting results exists from another study, and we were unable to validly assess this observations due to limited availability of comparable data. Remdesivir may have little or no effect on the duration to liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation (2 studies, 1298 participants, data not pooled, low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether remdesivir increases or decreases the chance of clinical improvement in terms of duration to liberation from supplemental oxygen at up to day 28 (3 studies, 1691 participants, data not pooled, very low-certainty evidence).   We are very uncertain whether remdesivir decreases or increases the risk of clinical worsening in terms of new need for mechanical ventilation at up to day 28 (high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.24; RD 29 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 68 fewer to 32 more; 3 studies, 6696 participants; very low-certainty evidence); new need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.98; RD 72 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 118 fewer to 5 fewer; 1 study, 573 participants; very low-certainty evidence); and new need for oxygen by mask or nasal prongs (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.22; RD 84 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 204 fewer to 98 more; 1 study, 138 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests that remdesivir may decrease the risk of clinical worsening in terms of new need for invasive mechanical ventilation (67 fewer participants amongst 1000 participants; RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.77; 2 studies, 1159 participants; low-certainty evidence).  None of the included studies reported quality of life. Remdesivir probably decreases the serious adverse events rate at up to 28 days (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.90; RD 63 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 94 fewer to 25 fewer; 3 studies, 1674 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain whether remdesivir increases or decreases adverse events rate (any grade) (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.27; RD 29 more per 1000, 95% CI 82 fewer to 158 more; 3 studies, 1674 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the currently available evidence, we are moderately certain that remdesivir probably has little or no effect on all-cause mortality at up to day 28 in hospitalised adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We are uncertain about the effects of remdesivir on clinical improvement and worsening. There were insufficient data available to validly examine the effect of remdesivir on mortality in subgroups depending on the extent of respiratory support at baseline.  Future studies should provide additional data on efficacy and safety of remdesivir for defined core outcomes in COVID-19 research, especially for different population subgroups. This could allow us to draw more reliable conclusions on the potential benefits and harms of remdesivir in future updates of this review. Due to the living approach of this work, we will update the review periodically.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Bias , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Confidence Intervals , Disease Progression , Humans , Middle Aged , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilator Weaning
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3860, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799576

ABSTRACT

Non-structural protein 15 (Nsp15) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) forms a homo hexamer and functions as an endoribonuclease. Here, we propose that Nsp15 activity may be inhibited by preventing its hexamerization through drug binding. We first explored the stable conformation of the Nsp15 monomer as the global free energy minimum conformation in the free energy landscape using a combination of parallel cascade selection molecular dynamics (PaCS-MD) and the Markov state model (MSM), and found that the Nsp15 monomer forms a more open conformation with larger druggable pockets on the surface. Targeting the pockets with high druggability scores, we conducted ligand docking and identified compounds that tightly bind to the Nsp15 monomer. The top poses with Nsp15 were subjected to binding free energy calculations by dissociation PaCS-MD and MSM (dPaCS-MD/MSM), indicating the stability of the complexes. One of the identified pockets, which is distinctively bound by inosine analogues, may be an alternative binding site to stabilize viral RNA binding and/or an alternative catalytic site. We constructed a stable RNA structure model bound to both UTP and alternative binding sites, providing a reasonable proposed model of the Nsp15/RNA complex.


Subject(s)
Endoribonucleases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Markov Chains , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Static Electricity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(2): e0158121, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799247

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has highlighted the need for broad-spectrum antivirals against coronaviruses (CoVs). Here, pheophorbide a (Pba) was identified as a highly active antiviral molecule against human CoV-229E after bioguided fractionation of plant extracts. The antiviral activity of Pba was subsequently shown for SARS-CoV-2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and its mechanism of action was further assessed, showing that Pba is an inhibitor of coronavirus entry by directly targeting the viral particle. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of Pba depends on light exposure, and Pba was shown to inhibit virus-cell fusion by stiffening the viral membrane, as demonstrated by cryoelectron microscopy. Moreover, Pba was shown to be broadly active against several other enveloped viruses and reduced SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Pba is the first described natural antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 with direct photosensitive virucidal activity that holds potential for COVID-19 therapy or disinfection of SARS-CoV-2-contaminated surfaces.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was great enthusiasm for the use of azithromycin with or without hydroxychloroquine. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed azithromycin consumption in Croatia in 2020 and compared this to the period 2017-2019. METHODS: Azithromycin consumption was evaluated using the IQVIA Adriatic d.o.o. database which collects data on azithromycin distribution from wholesale pharmacies to hospital and non-hospital pharmacies in Croatia. We analyzed data for the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Azithromycin distribution was measured as days of therapy (DOT) and reported as per 1000 inhabitants or per 1000 inhabitant-days. RESULTS: In the period 2017-2020, total azithromycin DOT in Croatia increased in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 (1.76, 1.91, 1.91 and 2.01/1000 inhabitant-days, respectively). Non-hospital pharmacies received 2.18 times and hospital pharmacies 4.39 times more DOT units/1000 inhabitants of azithromycin in March 2020 compared to the average distribution rate in March 2017-2019. During the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic (November and December 2020) azithromycin distribution increased considerably in hospital (3.62 and 3.19 times, respectively) and non-hospital pharmacies (1.93 and 1.84 times, respectively) compared to the average consumption in the same months in 2017-2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed increased azithromycin distribution in the period 2017-2020 which indicates azithromycin overuse. Preliminary information on COVID-19 treatments with a desire to offer and try what is available even in the absence of strong scientific evidence may have influenced practices of antimicrobial prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Utilization/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Croatia/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(4): 2625-2632, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788869

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Viral pathogens are the primary agents in bovine respiratory disease cases, and there is no direct effective antiviral drug application. Thymbra is a genus of oregano commonly found in Turkey. The primary component (34.9%) of the extract obtained from Thymbra spicata L. is the carvacrol which is used in traditional medicine. This study evaluates the potential antiviral activity and inactivation efficiency of T. spicata L. extract against bovine respiratory viruses, including BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate its effect on viral replication, viral titres were taken from infected cells treated with non-cytotoxic T. spicata L. extract concentrations (0.75% and 1.5%, 1.32 and 2.64 µg/ml of carvacrol as active ingredient, respectively) and compared to non-treated infected cells. The viruses were treated directly with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract, and the viral titres were evaluated at certain time points to determine the efficiency of direct inactivation. The number of infectious virions for BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1 treated with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract were decreased by 99.44%, 100.0%, 94.38%, 99.97% and 99.87%, respectively.T. spicata L. extract strongly inhibits the replication of mentioned viruses in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, T. spicata L. extract shared direct inactivation efficiency on the mentioned viruses in a time-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: This study shows the antiviral efficiency of T. spicata L. on BRD-related viral agents for the first time. The oregano species T. spicata and its main component, carvacrol, may have a potential for antiviral activity in the alternative treatment of respiratory viral diseases in cattle. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Given the similarity of replication strategies, obtained data suggest the possible efficiency of T. spicata L. on human respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lamiaceae , Viruses , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
9.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 252, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788322

ABSTRACT

The location of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) between epithelial cells provide a first line of immune defense against enteric infection. It is assumed that IELs migrate only along the basement membrane or into the lateral intercellular space (LIS) between epithelial cells. Here, we identify a unique transepithelial migration of porcine IELs as they move to the free surface of the intestinal epithelia. The major causative agent of neonatal diarrhea in piglets, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), increases the number of IELs entering the LIS and free surface of the intestinal epithelia, driven by chemokine CCL2 secreted from virus-infected intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, only virus pre-activated IELs inhibits PEDV infection and their antiviral activity depends on the further activation by virus-infected cells. Although high levels of perforin is detected in the co-culture system, the antiviral function of activated IELs is mainly mediated by IFN-γ secretion inducing robust antiviral response in virus-infected cells. Our results uncover a unique migratory behavior of porcine IELs as well as their protective role in the defense against intestinal infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Intestinal Diseases , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(11): 2173-2187, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788262

ABSTRACT

In continuation of the search for potential drugs that inhibit the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in this work, a combined approach based on the modeling of NMR chemical shifts and molecular docking is suggested to identify the possible suppressors of the main protease of this virus among a number of natural products of diverse nature. Primarily, with the aid of an artificial neural network, the problem of the reliable determination of the stereochemical structure of a number of studied compounds was solved. Complementary to the main goal of this study, theoretical modeling of NMR spectral parameters made it feasible to perform a number of signal reassignments together with introducing some missing NMR data. Finally, molecular docking formalism was applied to the analysis of several natural products that could be chosen as prospective candidates for the role of potential inhibitors of the main protease. The results of this study are believed to assist in further research aimed at the development of specific drugs based on the natural products against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Prospective Studies
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(3): 422-426, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786129

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early experience with favipiravir in the treatment of COVID-19 is promising, but no clinical data have been published in medical journals. This study aimed to review the experience with favipiravir treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia and to examine whether there are any predictors of treatment response. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-six patients with severe or progressive pneumonia associated with COVID-19 who were treated with favipiravir monotherapy for at least five days were included in this retrospective study. Treatment response was defined as clinical recovery without any need for admission into the intensive care unit and/or anti-cytokine therapy. The demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiographic features of the patients were compared between favipiravir-responders and non-responders. RESULTS: Of the 56 patients, 34 patients (60.7%) responded to treatment and recovered. There was no difference in the demographic, clinical, and radiographic findings between the responders and non-responders. The inflammatory biomarkers were also similar except for the CRP levels on the day favipiravir was started [74 (36-111) vs. 118.5 (46.5-203) mg/L, respectively, p = 0.043]. There was also a significant difference in the median time to defervescence [1 (1-2) vs. 3.5 (1.75-9.25) days, respectively]. Of clinical interest, 27 (79.4%) and 31 (91.2%) of the responders became afebrile within two and four days, respectively. The response rate was lower in patients who presented severe pneumonia associated with respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with non-severe pneumonia at admission and whose fever resolved within two days of treatment are more likely to improve with favipiravir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pyrazines , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785841

ABSTRACT

Nanomaterial technology has attracted much attention because of its antibacterial and drug delivery properties, among other applications. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have advantages, such as their pore structure, large specific surface area, open metal sites, and chemical stability, over other nanomaterials, enabling better drug encapsulation and adsorption. In two examples, we used the common pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and highly infectious influenza A virus. A novel complex MIL-101(Fe)-T705 was formed by synthesizing MOF material MIL-101(Fe) with the drug favipiravir (T-705), and a hot solvent synthesis method was applied to investigate the in vitro antibacterial and antiviral activities. The results showed that MIL-101(Fe)-T705 combined the advantages of nanomaterials and drugs and could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.0032 g/mL. Regarding the inhibition of influenza A virus, MIL-101(Fe)-T705 showed good biosafety at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h in addition to a good antiviral effect at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3 µg/mL, which were higher than MIL-101(Fe) and T-705.


Subject(s)
Metal-Organic Frameworks , Amides , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Metal-Organic Frameworks/pharmacology , Pyrazines
13.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785839

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSVI) is an acute medical and social problem in many countries globally. Infection is most dangerous for infants under one year old and the elderly. Despite its epidemiological relevance, only two drugs are registered for clinical use against RSVI: ribavirin (approved in a limited number of countries due to side effects) and palivizumab (Synagis), which is intended only for the prevention, but not the treatment, of infection. Currently, various research groups are searching for new drugs against RSV, with three main areas of research: small molecules, polymeric drugs (proteins and peptides), and plant extracts. This review is devoted to currently developed protein and peptide anti-RSV drugs.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant , Palivizumab/therapeutic use , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785729

ABSTRACT

The development of affordable, effective, and environmentally friendly barrier fabrics is a current goal in antimicrobial textile development. The discovery of new routes to achieve non-toxic naturally occurring molecules with antimicrobial activity is of interest in the development of materials that promote wound healing, improve hygiene, and offer protection against nosocomial infection. Highly cleaned and sterile unbleached cotton has constituents that produce hydrogen peroxide at levels commensurate with those that favor cell signaling in wound healing. Here, we show the antimicrobial and antiviral properties of spunlaced griege cotton-containing nonwovens treated with ascorbic acid formulations. The mechanism of action occurs through the promotion of enhanced hydrogen peroxide activity. The levels of hydrogen peroxide activity afford antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and antiviral activity against MS2 bacteriophages. Spun-bond nonwoven unbleached cotton was treated with ascorbic acid using traditional pad-dry-cure methods. An assessment of antibacterial and antiviral activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and MS2 bacteriophages with the AATCC 100 test method showed a 99.99% inhibitory activity. An approach to the covalent attachment of ascorbic to cellulose through citric acid crosslinking chemistry is also discussed. Thus, a simple, low-cost approach to antimicrobial and antiviral cotton-based nonwovens applicable to dressings, nosocomial barrier fabrics, and face masks can be adopted by combining ascorbic acid with spunlace greige cotton nonwoven fabrics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Cotton Fiber , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Gossypium , Hydrogen Peroxide , Textiles
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 824378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785335

ABSTRACT

The scale of the COVID-19 pandemic forced urgent measures for the development of new therapeutics. One of these strategies is the use of convalescent plasma (CP) as a conventional source for passive immunity. Recently, there has been interest in CP-derived exosomes. In this report, we present a structural, biochemical, and biological characterization of our proprietary product, convalescent human immune plasma-derived exosome (ChipEXO), following the guidelines set forth by the Turkish Ministry of Health and the Turkish Red Crescent, the Good Manufacturing Practice, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles, and the Gene Ontology Consortium. The data support the safety and efficacy of this product against SARS-CoV-2 infections in preclinical models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(3): 542-551, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor effective against influenza A and B viruses. In 2009, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) began clinical development of intravenous (IV) zanamivir and initiated a global Compassionate Use Program (CUP) in response to the evolving H1N1 global pandemic. The goal of the CUP was to provide zanamivir to critically ill patients with limited treatment options. METHODS: Zanamivir was administered to patients with suspected or confirmed influenza infection who were not suitable for other approved antiviral treatments. Reporting of serious adverse events (SAEs) was mandatory and recorded in the GSK safety database. A master summary tracking sheet captured requests and patient characteristics. A case report form was available for detailing medical conditions, dosing, treatment duration, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 4,033 requests were made for zanamivir treatment of hospitalized patients from 38 countries between 2009 and 2019; ≥95% patients received zanamivir via the IV route. Europe had the highest number of requests (n = 3,051) followed by North America (n = 713). At least 20 patients were aged ≤6 months, of whom 12 were born prematurely. The GSK safety database included 466 patients with ≥1 SAE, of whom 374 (80%) had a fatal outcome. Drug-related SAEs were reported in 41 (11%) patients, including hepatic failure (n = 6 [2%]) and acute kidney injury (n = 5 [1%)]. CONCLUSIONS: The CUP facilitated global access to zanamivir prior to product approval. No new safety concerns were identified in the CUP compared with IV zanamivir clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Compassionate Use Trials , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Neuraminidase , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Zanamivir/adverse effects
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5914, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784027

ABSTRACT

Secondary plant metabolites remain one of the key sources of therapeutic agents despite the development of new approaches for the discovery of medicinal drugs. In the current study, chemical analysis, and biological activities of Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) methanolic extract were evaluated. Chemical analysis was performed using HPLC and GC-MS. Antiviral and anticancer effect were assessed using the crystal violet technique and activity against human liver cells (HepG2), respectively. Antibacterial activity was tested with the disc diffusion method. The obtained results showed that chlorogenic acid (2107.96 ± 0.07 µg/g), catechin (168 ± 0.58 µg/g), and gallic acid (15.66 ± 0.02 µg/g) were the main bioactive compounds identified by HPLC techniques. While, compounds containing furan moieties, as well as levoglucosenone, isochiapin B, dotriacontane, 7-nonynoic acid and tert-hexadecanethiol, with different biological activities were identified by GC-MS. Additionally, inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) scavenging was 79.25% at 2000 µg/mL, indicating its antioxidant activity with IC50 of 728.20 ± 1.04 µg/mL. The tested extract exhibited potential anticancer activity (58.90% toxicity) against HepG2 cells at 1000 µg/mL. Potential bacterial inhibition was observed mainly against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of growth inhibition ranging from 13 to 24 mm. While weak activities were recorded for fungi Candida albicans (10 mm). The extract showed mild antiviral activity against human coronavirus 229E with a selective index (SI) of 10.4, but not against human H3N2 (SI of 0.67). The molecular docking study's energy ratings were in good promise with the experiment documents of antibacterial and antiviral activities. The findings suggest that D. caffra juice extract is a potential candidate for further experiments to assess its use as potential alternative therapeutic agent.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Salicaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry
19.
Nat Methods ; 19(4): 381-383, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784010
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1891, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783979

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease is a critical drug target for small molecule COVID-19 therapy, given its likely druggability and essentiality in the viral maturation and replication cycle. Based on the conservation of 3CL protease substrate binding pockets across coronaviruses and using screening, we identified four structurally distinct lead compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease. After evaluation of their binding specificity, cellular antiviral potency, metabolic stability, and water solubility, we prioritized the GC376 scaffold as being optimal for optimization. We identified multiple drug-like compounds with <10 nM potency for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 3CL and the ability to block SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells, obtained co-crystal structures of the 3CL protease in complex with these compounds, and determined that they have pan-coronavirus activity. We selected one compound, termed coronastat, as an optimized lead and characterized it in pharmacokinetic and safety studies in vivo. Coronastat represents a new candidate for a small molecule protease inhibitor for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection for eliminating pandemics involving coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
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