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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 273, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a heterogeneous outcome in individuals from remaining asymptomatic to death. In a majority of cases, mild symptoms are present that do not require hospitalization and can be successfully treated in the outpatient setting, though symptoms may persist for a long duration. We hypothesize that drugs suitable for decentralized study in outpatients will have efficacy among infected outpatients METHODS: The TREAT NOW platform is designed to accommodate testing multiple agents with the ability to incorporate new agents in the future. TREAT NOW is an adaptive, blinded, multi-center, placebo-controlled superiority randomized clinical trial which started with two active therapies (hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir) and placebo, with the hydroxychloroquine arm dropped shortly after enrollment began due to external evidence. Each arm has a target enrollment of 300 participants who will be randomly assigned in an equal allocation to receive either an active therapy or placebo twice daily for 14 days with daily electronic surveys collected over days 1 through 16 and on day 29 to evaluate symptoms and a modified COVID-19 ordinal outcome scale. Participants are enrolled remotely by telephone and consented with a digital interface, study drug is overnight mailed to study participants, and data collection occurs electronically without in-person interactions. DISCUSSION: If effective treatments for COVID-19 can be identified for individuals in the outpatient setting before they advance to severe disease, it will prevent progression to more severe disease, reduce the need for hospitalization, and shorten the duration of symptoms. The novel decentralized, "no touch" approach used by the TREAT NOW platform has distinction advantages over traditional in-person trials to reach broader populations and perform study procedures in a pragmatic yet rigorous manner. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04372628. Registered on April 30, 2020. First posted on May 4, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Outpatients , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
OMICS ; 26(11): 583-585, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087720

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic has markedly shifted the focus of the global research and development ecosystem toward infectious agents such as SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19. A case in point is the chronic liver disease associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that continues to be a leading cause of severe liver disease and death globally. The burden of HBV infection is highest in the World Health Organization designated western Pacific and Africa regions. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleoside analogue used in treatment of HBV infection but carries a potential for kidney toxicity. TDF is not metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzymes and, therefore, its clearance in the proximal tubule of the renal nephron is controlled mostly by membrane transport proteins. Clinical pharmacogenomics of TDF with a focus on drug transporters, discussed in this perspective article, offers a timely example where resource-limited countries and regions of the world with high prevalence of HBV can strengthen the collective efforts to fight both COVID-19 and liver diseases impacting public health. We argue that precision/personalized medicine is invaluable to guide this line of research inquiry. In all, our experience in Ghana tells us that it is important not to forget the burden of chronic diseases while advancing research on infectious diseases such as COVID-19. For the long game with COVID-19, we need to address the public health burden of infectious agents and chronic diseases in tandem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Humans , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Pharmacogenetics , Ecosystem , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/genetics , Kidney , Ghana
3.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1004120, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early antiviral treatment is effective for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) but currently available agents are expensive. Favipiravir is routinely used in many countries, but efficacy is unproven. Antiviral combinations have not been systematically studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir or the combination of both agents on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load trajectory when administered early. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a Phase 2, proof of principle, randomised, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind trial of ambulatory outpatients with early COVID-19 (within 7 days of symptom onset) at 2 sites in the United Kingdom. Participants were randomised using a centralised online process to receive: favipiravir (1,800 mg twice daily on Day 1 followed by 400 mg 4 times daily on Days 2 to 7) plus lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg/100 mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 200 mg/50 mg 4 times daily on Days 2 to 7), favipiravir plus lopinavir-ritonavir placebo, lopinavir-ritonavir plus favipiravir placebo, or both placebos. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 viral load at Day 5, accounting for baseline viral load. Between 6 October 2020 and 4 November 2021, we recruited 240 participants. For the favipiravir+lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir+placebo, lopinavir-ritonavir+placebo, and placebo-only arms, we recruited 61, 59, 60, and 60 participants and analysed 55, 56, 55, and 58 participants, respectively, who provided viral load measures at Day 1 and Day 5. In the primary analysis, the mean viral load in the favipiravir+placebo arm had changed by -0.57 log10 (95% CI -1.21 to 0.07, p = 0.08) and in the lopinavir-ritonavir+placebo arm by -0.18 log10 (95% CI -0.82 to 0.46, p = 0.58) compared to the placebo arm at Day 5. There was no significant interaction between favipiravir and lopinavir-ritonavir (interaction coefficient term: 0.59 log10, 95% CI -0.32 to 1.50, p = 0.20). More participants had undetectable virus at Day 5 in the favipiravir+placebo arm compared to placebo only (46.3% versus 26.9%, odds ratio (OR): 2.47, 95% CI 1.08 to 5.65; p = 0.03). Adverse events were observed more frequently with lopinavir-ritonavir, mainly gastrointestinal disturbance. Favipiravir drug levels were lower in the combination arm than the favipiravir monotherapy arm, possibly due to poor absorption. The major limitation was that the study population was relatively young and healthy compared to those most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: At the current doses, no treatment significantly reduced viral load in the primary analysis. Favipiravir requires further evaluation with consideration of dose escalation. Lopinavir-ritonavir administration was associated with lower plasma favipiravir concentrations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04499677 EudraCT: 2020-002106-68.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 28(7): 1659-1663, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064604

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bortezomib is proteasome inhibitor used in multiple myeloma treatment. The reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) during bortezomib-based therapy is a well-known adverse event. Antiviral prophylaxis is mandatory. Nevertheless, reports of herpesviral encephalitis are scarce. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old multiple myeloma patient who during CyBorD protocol (Bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone), after a transient suspension of antiviral prophylaxis presented progressive headaches unresponsive to conventional analgesics, asthenia, fever, episodic visual hallucinations, and vesicular lesions in the right supraorbital and frontal region. Herpetic encephalitis was diagnosed after detecting herpes zoster in cerebrospinal fluid. MANAGEMENT & OUTCOME: The patient was treated with acyclovir 500mg every 6 hours for 21 days, and subsequent valacyclovir prophylaxis achieving an excellent clinical evolution. Anti-myeloma treatment was changed to lenalidomide and dexamethasone achieving a durable complete response. Herpesviral encephalitis is a rare but severe complication associated with the use of Bortezomib, especially when patients did not receive acyclovir prophylaxis. However, a rapid detection based on the clinical suspicion, and the prompt start of treatment, may lead to overcome this adverse event.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis , Antineoplastic Agents , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Multiple Myeloma , Acyclovir/adverse effects , Amyloidosis/chemically induced , Amyloidosis/complications , Amyloidosis/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Boronic Acids/adverse effects , Bortezomib/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/chemically induced , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Pyrazines
5.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 80(4): 616-622, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051608

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Bradycardia and QTc interval prolongation on the ECG have been reported with remdesivir (Veklury), an antiviral drug recently approved for treating severely ill patients with COVID-19. The objective was to evaluate the effects of remdesivir on cardiac electrophysiology ex vivo and in vivo. Ex vivo: Langendorff retroperfusion experiments were performed on isolated hearts from male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 23, total) exposed to either remdesivir 3, 10, or 30 µmol/L to assess drug-induced prolongation of the monophasic action potential duration measured at 90% repolarization (MAPD 90 ). In vivo: ECG recordings using wireless cardiac telemetry were performed in guinea pigs (n = 6) treated with daily i.p. doses of remdesivir 5 mg/kg on day 1 and 2.5 mg/kg on days 2-10. Ex vivo remdesivir (3, 10, and 30 µmol/L) had no statistically significant effect on MAPD 90 , while pacing the hearts at basic stimulation cycle lengths of 200 or 250 milliseconds, or when the hearts were not paced and beating at their intrinsic heart rate. In a second set of similar ex vivo experiments, remdesivir 10 µmol/L did not potentiate the MAPD 90 -prolonging effects of dofetilide 20 nmol/L (n = 4) hearts. In vivo remdesivir caused small but statistically significant prolongations of the RR and QTc F intervals at day 1 (5 mg/kg) and at day 10 (2.5 mg/kg). No ventricular arrhythmias were ever observed under the effect of remdesivir. Remdesivir causes bradycardia, and mild QTc prolongation, which nonetheless, could be of clinical relevance in many hospitalized patients with COVID-19 concomitantly treated with multiple drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Action Potentials , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Guinea Pigs , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Male
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 25-30, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quarantine measures with self-isolation of varying duration have been significant psychosocial stressors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine has been considered as a prophylaxis against depression in early COVID-19 patients, with additional benefits apparently arising from its antiviral activity. In this narrative review, we draw attention to the body of evidence showing efficacy of fluvoxamine in protecting against depressive disorders in COVID-19 patients, while also attenuating the severity of COVID-19 disease, with a notable reduction in the need for intubation and lower mortality. We consider this potential two-fold action of fluvoxamine in the light of its pharmacogenetic and pharmacological profiles. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Full-text publications in English and Russian in Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, Web of Science, and E-Library databases were selected by keywords, solitary and in combination (fluvoxamine, COVID-19, depression, anxiety, antidepressants, adverse reactions) for the period from March 01, 2020 to June 06, 2022. We also analyzed the full-text publications in English and Russian language reporting adverse reactions caused by fluvoxamine use for the period from 2012 to 2022. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 10 papers reporting on the efficacy fluvoxamine in relieving depressive symptoms in COVID-19 patients, and 3 papers on its effect on medical outcome. The preponderance of data indicated a dual therapeutic action of fluvoxamine, and our further literature investigation was informative about drug-drug interactions and genetic factors moderating the antidepressant efficacy of fluvoxamine. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 seeking psychopharmacological treatment for depressive symptoms must be informed of the benefits and risks of fluvoxamine use. Several lines of findings indicate this agent to possess an additional antiviral action. However, optimal dosage regimens and the trade-off with drug-drug interactions remain unclear. Pharmacogenetic testing may assist in evidence-based optimization of fluvoxamine dosages in the context of COVID-19 infection with comorbid depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluvoxamine , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Depression/drug therapy , Fluvoxamine/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacogenetics , Pharmacogenomic Testing , Serotonin , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/adverse effects
9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(30): e2203388, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 continues to spread worldwide. Given the urgent need for effective treatments, many clinical trials are ongoing through repurposing approved drugs. However, clinical data regarding the cardiotoxicity of these drugs are limited. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hCMs) represent a powerful tool for assessing drug-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, by using hCMs, it is demonstrated that four antiviral drugs, namely, apilimod, remdesivir, ritonavir, and lopinavir, exhibit cardiotoxicity in terms of inducing cell death, sarcomere disarray, and dysregulation of calcium handling and contraction, at clinically relevant concentrations. Human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) model is used to further evaluate the cardiotoxic effects of these drugs and it is found that they weaken hEHT contractile function. RNA-seq analysis reveals that the expression of genes that regulate cardiomyocyte function, such as sarcomere organization (TNNT2, MYH6) and ion homeostasis (ATP2A2, HCN4), is significantly altered after drug treatments. Using high-throughput screening of approved drugs, it is found that ceftiofur hydrochloride, astaxanthin, and quetiapine fumarate can ameliorate the cardiotoxicity of remdesivir, with astaxanthin being the most prominent one. These results warrant caution and careful monitoring when prescribing these therapies in patients and provide drug candidates to limit remdesivir-induced cardiotoxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/physiology , Calcium/metabolism , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Quetiapine Fumarate/metabolism , Quetiapine Fumarate/pharmacology , Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
10.
Trials ; 23(1): 728, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of May 2022, Ontario has seen more than 1.3 million cases of COVID-19. While the majority of individuals will recover from infection within 4 weeks, a significant subset experience persistent and often debilitating symptoms, known as "post-COVID syndrome" or "Long COVID." Those with Long COVID experience a wide array of symptoms, with variable severity, including fatigue, cognitive impairment, and shortness of breath. Further, the prevalence and duration of Long COVID is not clear, nor is there evidence on the best course of rehabilitation for individuals to return to their desired level of function. Previous work with chronic conditions has suggested that the addition of electronic case management (ECM) may help to improve outcomes. These platforms provide enhanced connection with care providers, detailed symptom tracking and goal setting, and access to relevant resources. In this study, our primary aim is to determine if the addition of ECM with health coaching improves Long COVID outcomes at 3 months compared to health coaching alone. METHODS: The trial is an open-label, single-site, randomized controlled trial of ECM with health coaching (ECM+) compared to health coaching alone (HC). Both groups will continue to receive usual care. Participants will be randomized equally to receive health coaching (± ECM) for a period of 8 weeks and a 12-week follow-up. Our primary outcome is the WHO Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS), 36-item self-report total score. Participants will also complete measures of cognition, fatigue, breathlessness, and mental health. Participants and care providers will be asked to complete a brief qualitative interview at the end of the study to evaluate acceptability and implementation of the intervention. DISCUSSION: There is currently little evidence about the optimal treatment of Long COVID patients or the use of digital health platforms in this population. The results of this trial could result in rapid, scalable, and personalized care for people with Long COVID which will decrease morbidity after an acute infection. Results from this study will also inform decision making in Long COVID and treatment guidelines at provincial and national levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05019963. Registered on 25 August 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Case Management , Electronics , Fatigue/chemically induced , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 78(11): 1813-1821, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007128

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic that has been tested for COVID-19 due to its anti-inflammatory effects and in vitro antiviral activity. This study synthesized the best evidence on the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide in COVID-19. METHODS: Searches for studies were performed in peer-reviewed and grey-literature from January 1, 2020 to May 23, 2022. The following elements were used to define eligibility criteria: (1) Population: individuals with COVID-19; (2) Intervention: nitazoxanide; (3) Comparison: placebo; (4) Outcomes: primary outcome was death, and secondary outcomes were viral load, positive RT-PCR status, serum biomarkers of inflammation, composite measure of disease progression (ICU admission or invasive mechanical ventilation), and any adverse events; (5) Study type: blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Treatment effects were reported as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous variables and standardized mean difference (SMD) for continuous variables with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Five blinded, placebo-controlled RCTs were included and enrolled individuals with mild or moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found no difference between nitazoxanide and placebo in reducing viral load (SMD = - 0.16; 95% CI - 0.38 to 0.05) and the frequency of positive RTP-PCR results (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.06). In addition, there was no decreased risk for disease progression (RR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.04) and death (RR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.36 to 1.78) among patients receiving nitazoxanide. Patients with COVID-19 treated with nitazoxanide had decreased levels of white blood cells (SMD = - 0.15; 95% - 0.29 to - 0.02), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (SMD - 0.32; 95% - 0.52 to - 0.13), and D-dimer (SMD - 0.49; 95% CI - 0.68 to - 0.31) compared to placebo, but the magnitude of effect was considered small to moderate. CONCLUSION: This systematic review showed no evidence of clinical benefits of the use of nitazoxanide to treat patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. In addition, we found a reduction in WBC, LDH, and D-dimer levels among nitazoxanide-treated patients, but the effect size was considered small to moderate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiparasitic Agents , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Nitro Compounds , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles
12.
Nefrologia (Engl Ed) ; 42(3): 311-317, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is the only antiviral treatment that has been shown to be useful against SARS-CoV-2 infection. It shorts hospitalization time compared to placebo. Its effects in Kidney transplant (KT) patients are limited to some published cases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study that included all KT patients admitted between August 01, 2020 and December 31, 2020 with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who received remdesivir. The objective of this study was to describe the experience of a cohort of KT patients treated with remdesivir. DISCUSSION: A total of 37 KT patients developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 7 of them received treatment with remdesivir. The rest of the patients did not receive the drug due to either CKD-EPI less than 30 mL/min or they did not present clinical criteria. In addition to remdesivir, all pacients received dexamethasone and anticoagulation therapy. 4 were men, the median age was 59 (53-71) years. Median time from transplantation was 43 (16-82) months. Chest X-rays of all patients showed pulmonary infiltrates and required low oxygen flow therapy upon admission, requiring high flow nasal therapy in 3 cases. Only 2 cases presented deterioration of the graft function, not requiring hemodialysis in any case, and all recovered renal function at hospital discharge. 2 patients rise up 1.5 times the liver function test. No patient died or required admission to the critical care unit. Median days of admission was 12 (9-27) days. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the use of remdesivir could be useful in KT patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia without side effects. Additional studies are necessary with a larger number of patients to improve the knowledge of this drug in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anticoagulants , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Ther ; 29(5): e520-e533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir (RDV) is the main antiviral for the treatment of moderate to severe forms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies revealed a shortening time to clinical improvement of COVID-19 and mortality benefits in patients receiving RDV. The patients with renal disease were excluded from large clinical trials of RDV, and the probable nephrotoxicity of the drug, its metabolites, and the vehicle (sulfobutylether-ß-cyclodextrin) have led to the recommendation against using RDV in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: This systematic review aimed to collect data about the necessity and safety administration of RDV in the setting of renal impairment. DATA SOURCES: Search through databases including MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, and PubMed was performed. The studies were carried out in adults and enrolled patients with different types of renal impairment (ie, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant, and renal replacement therapy) were included. Eligible studies were assessed, and required data were extracted. RESULTS: Twenty-two cross-sectional studies, cohorts, case reports, and case series were included in this review. The mortality rate was between 7.3% and 50%, and various severity of COVID-19 was included in the studies. None of them reported an increase in adverse effects attributed to RDV administration. A decrease in inflammatory mediators and other benefits were obvious. CONCLUSIONS: Although the manufacturer's labeling does not recommend RDV administration in patients with severe renal impairment, it seems that nephrotoxicity is less concerning in the population of these patients. Moreover, RDV may be helpful in acute kidney injury induced by the viral invasion of COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of the use of RDV in kidney failure. Larger, well-designed, and pharmacokinetic studies are required to have a safe and logical recommendation about the use of RDV in patients with renal disorders.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans
14.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(9): 763-774, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir is an antiviral drug used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a relatively obscure cardiac effect profile. Previous studies have reported bradycardia associated with remdesivir, but few have examined its clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate remdesivir associated bradycardia and its associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: This is a single-institution retrospective study that investigated bradycardia in 600 patients who received remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19. A total of 375 patients were included in the study after screening for other known causes of bradycardia (atrioventricular [AV] nodal blockers). All patients were analyzed for episodes of bradycardia from when remdesivir was initiated up to 5 days after completion, a time frame based on the drug's putative elimination half-life. Univariate and multivariate statistical tests were conducted to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 56.63 ± 13.23 years. Of patients who met inclusion criteria, 49% were found to have bradycardia within 5 days of remdesivir administration. Compared to the cohort without a documented bradycardic episode, patients with bradycardia were significantly more likely to experience inpatient mortality (22% vs 12%, p = 0.01). The patients with bradycardia were found to have marginally higher serum D-dimer levels (5.2 vs 3.4 µg/mL, p = 0.05) and were more likely to undergo endotracheal intubation (28% vs 14%, p = 0.008). Male sex, hyperlipidemia, and bradycardia within 5 days of completing remdesivir were significant predictors of inpatient mortality. No significant differences in length of stay were found. CONCLUSIONS: Bradycardia that occurs during or shortly after remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients may be associated with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality. However, COVID-19 and its cardiac complications cannot be excluded as potential contributors of bradycardia in the present study. Future studies are needed to further delineate the cardiac characteristics of COVID-19 and remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Bradycardia/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(5): 1927-1931, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990702

ABSTRACT

The efforts of the scientific world directed to identifying new antiviral drugs and therapies effective against SARS-CoV-2 continue. New oral antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 such as paxlovid have recently authorized. Evidence shows that these antivirals have good efficacy in reducing the risk of hospitalization in COVID-19 positive patients. Remdesivir is an authorized antiviral for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To date, there are still few data in the literature on the safety profile and the risk of generating antiviral-resistant SARS-CoV-2 drug variants. In this manuscript we describe the evidence in the literature on the monotherapy use of paxlovid and monotherapy use of remdesivir, and the scientific hypothesis of using nirmatrelvir and remdesivir in association with the aim of increasing treatment efficacy, reducing the risk of adverse reactions and generating antiviral drug-resistant variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(9): 100735, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984242

ABSTRACT

We here investigate the impact of antiviral treatments such as remdesivir on intra-host genomic diversity and emergence of SARS-CoV2 variants in patients with a prolonged course of infection. Sequencing and variant analysis performed in 112 longitudinal respiratory samples from 14 SARS-CoV2-infected patients with severe disease progression show that major frequency variants do not generally arise during prolonged infection. However, remdesivir treatment can increase intra-host genomic diversity and result in the emergence of novel major variant species harboring fixed mutations. This is particularly evident in a patient with B cell depletion who rapidly developed mutations in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene following remdesivir treatment. Remdesivir treatment-associated emergence of novel variants is of great interest in light of current treatment guidelines for hospitalized patients suffering from severe SARS-CoV2 disease, as well as the potential use of remdesivir to preventively treat non-hospitalized patients at high risk for severe disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/chemically induced , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Intern Med ; 61(21): 3197-3204, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978929

ABSTRACT

Objective Among treatment options for coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), well-studied oral medications are limited. We conducted a multicenter non-randomized, uncontrolled single-arm prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of favipiravir for patients with COVID-19. Methods One hundred participants were sequentially recruited to 2 cohorts: cohort 1 (Day 1: 1,600 mg/day, Day 2 to 14: 600 mg/day, n=50) and cohort 2 (Day 1: 1,800 mg/day, Day 2 to 14: 800 mg/day, n=50). The efficacy endpoint was the negative conversion rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the odds ratio (OR) of cohort 2 to cohort 1 for negative conversion on Day 10 was calculated. Characteristics of all participants and profiles of adverse events (AEs) were collected and analyzed. Results The mean age of participants was 62.8±17.6 years old. Thirty-four patients (34.0%) experienced worsening pneumonia, 7 (7.0%) were intubated, and 4 (4.0%) died during the observation period. Cohort 2 showed a higher negative conversion rate than cohort 1 [adjusted OR 3.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17 to 9.38), p=0.024], and this association was maintained after adjusting for the age, sex, body mass index, and baseline C-reactive protein level. Regarding adverse events, hyperuricemia was most frequently observed followed by an elevation of the liver enzyme levels (all-grade: 49.0%, Grade ≥3: 12.0%), and cohort 2 tended to have a higher incidence than cohort 1. However, no remarkable association of adverse events was observed between patients <65 and ≥65 years old. Conclusion The antiviral efficacy of favipiravir was difficult to interpret due to the limitation of the study design. However, no remarkable issues with safety or tolerability associated with favipiravir were observed, even in elderly patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
18.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 80(4): 531-542, 2022 Jul.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to provide an overview of Drug-drug Interactions (DDIs) and adverse effects caused by drugs used in SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first epidemic wave. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients treated by drugs used in SARS-CoV-2 infection (Azithromycin, Hydroxychloroquine and/or Lopinavir/ritonavir) between 15th March 2020 to 17th April 2020. A review of adverse events and DDI-risky drug association on medical record was conducted for each patient. Each adverse events was analyzed by the Centre régional de pharmacovigilance (CRPV) to assess causality of drugs used in SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 312 precriptions were analyzed during the period, of which 110 prescriptions had 157 drug association at risk of DDIs; 26 adverse events were reported. Causality assessment by CRPV concluded that 10 (35,7 %) adverse effects were possibly related to SARS-CoV-2 drugs with only 2 (7,1 %) related to DDIs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite risk of adverse drug reactions and DDIs related to drugs used in SARS-CoV-2 infection, few iatrogenics diseases were found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969513

ABSTRACT

This network meta-analysis compared the clinical efficacy and safety of anti-viral agents for the prevention of disease progression among non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched from their inception to 28 May 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the clinical efficacy of anti-viral agents for non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Three RCTs involving 4241 patients were included. Overall, anti-viral agents were associated with a significantly lower risk of COVID-19 related hospitalization or death compared with the placebo (OR, 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.96; p = 0.04). Compared with the placebo, patients receiving nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir had the lowest risk of hospitalization or death (OR, 0.12; 95% CI: 0.06-0.24), followed by remdesivir (OR, 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03-0.57) and then molnupiravir (OR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99). The rank probability for each treatment calculated using the P-score revealed that nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir was the best anti-viral treatment, followed by remdesivir and then molnupiravir. Finally, anti-viral agents were not associated with an increased risk of adverse events compared with the placebo. For non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who are at risk of disease progression, the currently recommended three anti-viral agents, nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir, molnupiravir and remdesivir, should continue to be recommended for the prevention of disease progression. Among them, oral nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir and intravenous remdesivir seem to be the better choice, followed by molnupiravir, as determined by this network meta-analysis. Additionally, these three anti-viral agents were shown to be as tolerable as the placebo in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 41(3): 45-64, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963173

ABSTRACT

On December 2019, the world faced a new pandemic caused by a novel type of coronavirus, namely severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease is named as "coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)." This RNA virus infected millions of people around the world causing millions of deaths. It takes approximately 8-10 years to develop a new drug and it seems hard to have a specific pharmaceutical agent against COVID-19. So far, there is only one drug that has applied for registration. The drugs used in clinics against COVID-19 were approved for malaria, human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV), influenza A and B, and other viral diseases. All these drugs for COVID-19 treatment are being applied according to "drug repurposing (drug repositioning)" strategy. However, they could cause some severe adverse effects on susceptible populations. In some cases, patients can survive after disease. However, the adverse effects of these drugs may lead to morbidity and mortality later. In this review, drugs used against COVID-19 in clinics, their mechanisms of action and possible adverse effects on susceptible populations will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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