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1.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780062

ABSTRACT

Diseases caused by viruses are a global threat, resulting in serious medical and social problems for humanity. They are the main contributors to many minor and major outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics worldwide. Over the years, medicinal plants have been used as a complementary treatment in a range of diseases. In this sense, this review addresses promising antiviral plants from Marajó island, a part of the Amazon region, which is known to present a very wide biodiversity of medicinal plants. The present review has been limited to articles and abstracts available in Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scielo, PubMed, and Google Scholar, as well as the patent offices in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO), Europe (EPO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). As a result, some plants from Marajó island were reported to have actions against HIV-1,2, HSV-1,2, SARS-CoV-2, HAV and HBV, Poliovirus, and influenza. Our major conclusion is that plants of the Marajó region show promising perspectives regarding pharmacological potential in combatting future viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Hepatitis A virus/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Mar Drugs ; 20(3)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725847

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing emerging variants emphasize the need to discover appropriate treatment, where vaccines alone have failed to show complete protection against the new variants of the virus. Therefore, treatment of the infected cases is critical. This paper discusses the bio-guided isolation of three indole diketopiperazine alkaloids, neoechinulin A (1), echinulin (2), and eurocristatine (3), from the Red Sea-derived Aspergillus fumigatus MR2012. Neoechinulin A (1) exhibited a potent inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with IC50 value of 0.47 µM, which is comparable to the reference standard GC376. Despite the structural similarity between the three compounds, only 1 showed a promising effect. The mechanism of inhibition is discussed in light of a series of extensive molecular docking, classical and steered molecular dynamics simulation experiments. This paper sheds light on indole diketopiperazine alkaloids as a potential structural motif against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Additionally, it highlights the potential of different molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches in the discrimination between active and inactive structurally related Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Indole Alkaloids/chemistry , Piperazines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Indole Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Piperazines/isolation & purification
3.
Mar Drugs ; 20(3)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715534

ABSTRACT

Several natural products recovered from a marine-derived Aspergillus niger were tested for their inhibitory activity against SARS CoV-2 in vitro. Aurasperone A (3) was found to inhibit SARS CoV-2 efficiently (IC50 = 12.25 µM) with comparable activity with the positive control remdesivir (IC50 = 10.11 µM). Aurasperone A exerted minimal cytotoxicity on Vero E6 cells (CC50 = 32.36 mM, SI = 2641.5) and it was found to be much safer than remdesivir (CC50 = 415.22 µM, SI = 41.07). To putatively highlight its molecular target, aurasperone A was subjected to molecular docking against several key-viral protein targets followed by a series of molecular dynamics-based in silico experiments that suggested Mpro to be its primary viral protein target. More potent anti-SARS CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors can be developed according to our findings presented in the present investigation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chromones/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromones/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
4.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 509-524, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713414

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, researchers have been working on finding ways to prevent viral entry and pathogenesis. Drug development from naturally-sourced pharmacological constituents may be a fruitful approach to COVID-19 therapy. OBJECTIVE: Most of the published literature has focussed on medicinal plants, while less attention has been given to biodiverse sources such as animal, marine, and microbial products. This review focuses on highlighting natural products and their derivatives that have been evaluated for antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. METHODS: We searched electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Springer Link to gather raw data from publications up to March 2021, using terms such as 'natural products', marine, micro-organism, and animal, COVID-19. We extracted a number of documented clinical trials of products that were tested in silico, in vitro, and in vivo which paid specific attention to chemical profiles and mechanisms of action. RESULTS: Various classes of flavonoids, 2 polyphenols, peptides and tannins were found, which exhibit inhibitory properties against viral and host proteins, including 3CLpro, PLpro, S, hACE2, and NF-κB, many of which are in different phases of clinical trials. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic effects of logical combinations with different mechanisms of action emphasizes their value in COVID19 management, such as iota carrageenan nasal spray, ermectin oral drops, omega-3 supplementation, and a quadruple treatment of zinc, quercetin, bromelain, and vitamin C. Though in vivo efficacy of these compounds has yet to be established, these bioproducts are potentially useful in counteracting the effects of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biological Products/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/methods , Drug Synergism , Humans , /isolation & purification , /pharmacology
5.
Bioengineered ; 13(3): 5480-5508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697594

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) virus has become the greatest global public health crisis in recent years,and the COVID-19 epidemic is still continuing. However, due to the lack of effectivetherapeutic drugs, the treatment of corona viruses is facing huge challenges. In thiscontext, countries with a tradition of using herbal medicine such as China have beenwidely using herbal medicine for prevention and nonspecific treatment of corona virusesand achieved good responses. In this review, we will introduce the application of herbalmedicine in the treatment of corona virus patients in China and other countries, andreview the progress of related molecular mechanisms and antiviral activity ingredients ofherbal medicine, in order to provide a reference for herbal medicine in the treatment ofcorona viruses. We found that herbal medicines are used in the prevention and fightagainst COVID-19 in countries on all continents. In China, herbal medicine has beenreported to relieve some of the clinical symptoms of mild patients and shorten the length of hospital stay. However, as most herbal medicines for the clinical treatment of COVID-19still lack rigorous clinical trials, the clinical and economic value of herbal medicines in theprevention and treatment of COVID-19 has not been fully evaluated. Future work basedon large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical trials to evaluate herbal medicines andtheir active ingredients in the treatment of new COVID-19 will be very meaningful.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Herbal Medicine/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100668, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611203

ABSTRACT

Forsyqinlingines C (1) and D (2), two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids bearing a rare skeleton, were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD experiments. The plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 1 and 2 was also proposed. In vitro, two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activity performed by the inhibitory effect on the release of ß-glucuronidase in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as well as antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Forsythia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Forsythia/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Rats , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects
7.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1189: 123087, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587335

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a promising antiviral agent that has been recently approved for treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, a menthol-assisted homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for favipiravir determination in human plasma using HPLC/UV. The different factors that could affect the extraction efficiency were studied, including extractant type, extractant volume, menthol amount and vortex time. The optimum extraction efficiency was achieved using 300 µL of tetrahydrofuran, 30 mg of menthol and vortexing for 1 min before centrifuging the sample for 5 min at 3467g. Addition of menthol does not only induce phase separation, but also helps to form reverse micelles to facilitate extraction. The highly polar favipiravir molecules would be incorporated into the hydrophilic core of the formed reverse micelle to be extracted by the non-polar organic extractant. The method was validated according to the FDA bioanalytical method guidelines. The developed method was found linear in the concentration range of 0.1 to 100 µg/mL with a coefficient of determination of 0.9992. The method accuracy and precision were studied by calculating the recovery (%) and the relative standard deviation (%), respectively. The recovery (%) was in the range of 97.1-103.9%, while the RSD (%) values ranged between 2.03 and 8.15 %. The developed method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of Flupirava® 200 mg versus Avigan® 200 mg, after a single oral dose of favipiravir administered to healthy adult volunteers. The proposed method was simple, cheap, more eco-friendly and sufficiently sensitive for biomedical application.


Subject(s)
Amides/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Pyrazines/isolation & purification , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/instrumentation , Menthol/chemistry , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23695, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561520

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread across the world. Inactivating the virus in saliva and the oral cavity represents a reasonable approach to prevent human-to-human transmission because the virus is easily transmitted through oral routes by dispersed saliva. Persimmon-derived tannin is a condensed type of tannin that has strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of persimmon-derived tannin against SARS-CoV-2 in both in vitro and in vivo models. We found that persimmon-derived tannin suppressed SARS-CoV-2 titers measured by plaque assay in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We then created a Syrian hamster model by inoculating SARS-CoV-2 into hamsters' mouths. Oral administration of persimmon-derived tannin dissolved in carboxymethyl cellulose before virus inoculation dramatically reduced the severity of pneumonia with lower virus titers compared with a control group inoculated with carboxymethyl cellulose alone. In addition, pre-administration of tannin to uninfected hamsters reduced hamster-to-hamster transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from a cohoused, infected donor cage mate. These data suggest that oral administration of persimmon-derived tannin may help reduce the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diospyros/chemistry , Tannins/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Diospyros/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tannins/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology , Viral Load/drug effects
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112507, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556976

ABSTRACT

Lectins or clusters of carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin are distributed chiefly in the Plantae. Lectins have potent anti-infectivity properties for several RNA viruses including SARS-CoV-2. The primary purpose of this review is to review the ability of lectins mediated potential biotherapeutic and bioprophylactic strategy against coronavirus causing COVID-19. Lectins have binding affinity to the glycans of SARS-COV-2 Spike glycoprotein that has N-glycosylation sites. Apart from this, the complement lectin pathway is a "first line host defense" against the viral infection that is activated by mannose-binding lectins. Mannose-binding lectins deficiency in serum influences innate immunity of the host and facilitates infectious diseases including COVID-19. Our accumulated evidence obtained from scientific databases particularly PubMed and Google Scholar databases indicate that mannose-specific/mannose-binding lectins (MBL) have potent efficacies like anti-infectivity, complement cascade induction, immunoadjuvants, DC-SIGN antagonists, or glycomimetic approach, which can prove useful in the strategy of COVID-19 combat along with the glycobiological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infections and antiviral immunity. For example, plant-derived mannose-specific lectins BanLac, FRIL, Lentil, and GRFT from red algae can inhibit and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, as confirmed with in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-silico assessments. Furthermore, Bangladesh has a noteworthy resource of antiviral medicinal plants as well as plant lectins. Intensifying research on the antiviral plant lectins, adopting a glyco-biotechnological approach, and with deeper insights into the "glycovirological" aspects may result in the designing of alternative and potent blueprints against the 21st century's biological pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Eradication/methods , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Therapy/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/trends , Humans , Plant Lectins/isolation & purification , Plant Lectins/pharmacology
10.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555013

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the antiviral nature of polyphenols, and many polyphenols have been proposed to inhibit SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2. Our previous study revealed the inhibitory mechanisms of polyphenols against DNA polymerase α and HIV reverse transcriptase to show that polyphenols can block DNA elongation by competing with the incoming NTPs. Here we applied computational approaches to examine if some polyphenols can also inhibit RNA polymerase (RdRp) in SARS-CoV-2, and we identified some better candidates than remdesivir, the FDA-approved drug against RdRp, in terms of estimated binding affinities. The proposed compounds will be further examined to develop new treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Polyphenols/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
11.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(1): 53-56, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520385

ABSTRACT

The antiviral activity of recombinant human IFN-lambda type 1 (IFNλ-1) against culture strain of SARS-CoV-2 virus was determined by infecting a highly sensitive VeroE6 coronavirus cell culture after preincubation test (the cell monolayer was incubated with 4-fold dilutions of IFNλ-1 in a concentration range of 0.16-42,500 ng/ml in a culture medium for 12 h at 37°C) and without preincubation (simultaneous addition of different concentrations of IFNλ-1 and SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dose of 102 TCID50). The created recombinant human IFNλ-1 demonstrated obvious antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. In the tests with and without preincubation, IFNλ-1 exhibited significant activity, although somewhat lower in variant with simultaneous addition of IFNλ-1 and virus to the cell culture. It should be noted that the antiviral effect of IFNλ-1 was observed in a wide range of concentrations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Interferons/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Interferons/biosynthesis , Interferons/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics
12.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512510

ABSTRACT

Here we report on the synthesis and characterization of three new N-modified analogues of hemorphin-4 with rhodamine B. Modified with chloroacetyl, chloride cotton fabric has been dyed and color coordinates of the obtained textile materials were determined. Antiviral and virucidal activities of both the peptide-rhodamine B compounds and the dyed textile material were studied. Basic physicochemical properties (acid-base behavior, solvent influence, kinetics) related to the elucidation of structural activity of the new modified peptides based on their steric open/closed ring effect were studied. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that in protic solvent with change in pH of the environment, direct control over the dyeing of textiles can be achieved. Both the new hybrid peptide compounds and the modification of functionalized textile materials with these bioactive hemorphins showed virucidal activity against the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV-S2) and human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) for different time intervals (30 and 60 min) and the most active compound was Rh-3.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Rhodamines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/isolation & purification , Rhodamines/chemistry , Rhodamines/isolation & purification , Time Factors
13.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480883

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are among the most complex medical problems and have been a major threat to the economy and global health. Several epidemics and pandemics have occurred due to viruses, which has led to a significant increase in mortality and morbidity rates. Natural products have always been an inspiration and source for new drug development because of their various uses. Among all-natural sources, plant sources are the most dominant for the discovery of new therapeutic agents due to their chemical and structural diversity. Despite the traditional use and potential source for drug development, natural products have gained little attention from large pharmaceutical industries. Several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been extensively studied and explored for antiviral properties against different strains of viruses. In this review, we have compiled antiviral plant extracts and natural products isolated from plants reported since 2015.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Development , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Drug Discovery , Flavivirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Structure , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Simplexvirus/drug effects
14.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411086

ABSTRACT

Our therapeutic arsenal against viruses is very limited and the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the critical need for effective antivirals against emerging coronaviruses. Cellular assays allowing a precise quantification of viral replication in high-throughput experimental settings are essential to the screening of chemical libraries and the selection of best antiviral chemical structures. To develop a reporting system for SARS-CoV-2 infection, we generated cell lines expressing a firefly luciferase maintained in an inactive form by a consensus cleavage site for the viral protease 3CLPro of coronaviruses, so that the luminescent biosensor is turned on upon 3CLPro expression or SARS-CoV-2 infection. This cellular assay was used to screen a metabolism-oriented library of 492 compounds to identify metabolic vulnerabilities of coronaviruses for developing innovative therapeutic strategies. In agreement with recent reports, inhibitors of pyrimidine biosynthesis were found to prevent SARS-CoV-2 replication. Among the top hits, we also identified the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor Setanaxib. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of Setanaxib was further confirmed using ACE2-expressing human pulmonary cells Beas2B as well as human primary nasal epithelial cells. Altogether, these results validate our cell-based functional assay and the interest of screening libraries of different origins to identify inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 for drug repurposing or development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Activation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases, Firefly/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pyrazolones/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105309, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372894

ABSTRACT

Six new polyketone metabolites, compounds (1-6) and seven known polyketone compounds (7-13) were isolated from Rhodiola tibetica endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. The structural elucidation of five new polyketone metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic including 2D NMR and HRMS and spectrometric analysis. Inhibition rate evaluation revealed that compounds 1(EC50 = 0.02 mM), 3(EC50 = 0.3 mM), 6(EC50 = 0.07 mM), 8(EC50 = 0.1 mM) and 9(EC50 = 0.04 mM) had inhibitory effect on the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Alternaria/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Ketones/isolation & purification , Ketones/pharmacology , Polymers/isolation & purification , Polymers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Ketones/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Polymers/chemistry
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344393

ABSTRACT

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are rRNA N-glycosylases from plants (EC 3.2.2.22) that inactivate ribosomes thus inhibiting protein synthesis. The antiviral properties of RIPs have been investigated for more than four decades. However, interest in these proteins is rising due to the emergence of infectious diseases caused by new viruses and the difficulty in treating viral infections. On the other hand, there is a growing need to control crop diseases without resorting to the use of phytosanitary products which are very harmful to the environment and in this respect, RIPs have been shown as a promising tool that can be used to obtain transgenic plants resistant to viruses. The way in which RIPs exert their antiviral effect continues to be the subject of intense research and several mechanisms of action have been proposed. The purpose of this review is to examine the research studies that deal with this matter, placing special emphasis on the most recent findings.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Genetically Modified/enzymology , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins/pharmacology , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Humans , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/virology , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/virology , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins/isolation & purification , Toxins, Biological/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129974, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330651

ABSTRACT

Background Since December 2019, the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to infect humans and many people died from severe Covid-19 during the last 2 years worldwide. Different approaches are being used for treatment of this infection and its consequences, but limited results have been achieved and new therapeutics are still needed. One of the most interesting biotherapeutics in this era are Nanobodies which have shown very promising results in recent researches. Scope of review Here, we have reviewed the potentials of Nanobodies in Covid-19 treatment. We have also discussed the properties of these biotherapeutics that make them very suitable for pulmonary drug delivery, which seems to be very important route of administration in this disease. Major conclusion Nanobodies with their special biological and biophysical characteristics and their resistance against harsh manufacturing condition, can be considered as promising, targeted biotherapeutics which can be administered by pulmonary delivery pharmaceutical systems against Covid-19. General significance Covid-19 has become a global problem during the last two years and with emerging mutant strains, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are still highly needed. Nanobodies with their specific properties can be considered as valuable and promising candidates in Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Single-Domain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/biosynthesis , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptide Library , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
J Mol Model ; 27(8): 221, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300483

ABSTRACT

Natural products have served human life as medications for centuries. During the outbreak of COVID-19, a number of naturally derived compounds and extracts have been tested or used as potential remedies against COVID-19. Tetradenia riparia extract is one of the plant extracts that have been deployed and claimed to manage and control COVID-19 by some communities in Tanzania and other African countries. The active compounds isolated from T. riparia are known to possess various biological properties including antimalarial and antiviral. However, the underlying mechanism of the active compounds against SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. Results in the present work have been interpreted from the view point of computational methods including molecular dynamics, free energy methods, and metadynamics to establish the related mechanism of action. Among the constituents of T. riparia studied, luteolin inhibited viral cell entry and was thermodynamically stable. The title compound exhibit residence time and unbinding kinetics of 68.86 ms and 0.014 /ms, respectively. The findings suggest that luteolin could be potent blocker of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. The study shades lights towards identification of bioactive constituents from T. riparia against COVID-19, and thus bioassay can be carried out to further validate such observations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Luteolin/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kinetics , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Luteolin/isolation & purification , Luteolin/metabolism , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287269

ABSTRACT

We measured and studied the growth parameters and the qualitative and quantitative composition of the flavones of hairy roots of the Scutellaria genus: S. lateriflora, S. przewalskii and S. pycnoclada. Hairy roots were obtained using wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 by co-cultivation of explants (cotyledons) in a suspension of Agrobacterium. The presence of the rol-genes was confirmed by PCR analysis. The hairy roots of the most studied plant from the Scutellaria genus, S. baicalensis, were obtained earlier and used as a reference sample. HPLC-MS showed the predominance of four main flavones (baicalin, baicalein, wogonin and wogonoside) in the methanol extracts of the studied hairy roots. In addition to the four main flavones, the other substances which are typical to the aerial part of plants were found in all the extracts: apigenin, apigetrin, scutellarin and chrysin-7-O-ß-d-glucuronide. According to the total content of flavones, the hairy roots of the studied skullcaps form the following series: S. przewalskii (33 mg/g dry weight) > S. baicalensis (17.04 mg/g dry weight) > S. pycnoclada (12.9 mg/g dry weight) > S. lateriflora (4.57 mg/g dry weight). Therefore, the most promising producer of anti-coronavirus flavones is S. przewalskii.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Flavones/chemistry , Scutellaria/chemistry , Agrobacterium/growth & development , Agrobacterium/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavones/isolation & purification , Flavones/pharmacology , Plant Cells/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Roots/metabolism , Scutellaria/growth & development , Scutellaria/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 769-779, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283357

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides and triterpenoids are the major bioactive compounds and have been used as traditional medicine for ancient times. Massive demands of G. lucidum have fascinated the researchers towards its application as functional food, nutraceutical and modern medicine owing to wide range of application in various diseases include immunomodulators, anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective. G. lucidum polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory properties through boosting the action of antigen-presenting cells, mononuclear phagocyte system, along with humoral and cellular immunity. ß-Glucans isolated from G. lucidum are anticipated to produce an immune response through pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). ß-Glucans after binding with dectin-1 receptor present on different cells include macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells and neutrophils produce signal transduction that lead to trigger the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), T cells and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) that refer to cytokines production and contributing to immune response. While triterpenoids produce antiviral effects through inhibiting various enzymes like neuraminidase, HIV-protease, DENV2 NS2B-NS3 protease and HSV multiplication. Polysaccharides and triterpenoids adjunct to other drugs exhibit potential action in prevention and treatment of various diseases. Immunomodulators and antiviral properties of this mushroom could be a potential source to overcome this current pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Reishi , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Reishi/chemistry , Signal Transduction , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , beta-Glucans/isolation & purification
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