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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123691

ABSTRACT

We previously discovered that exogenously expressed GFP-tagged cytoplasmic human myxovirus resistance protein (MxA), a major antiviral effector of Type I and III interferons (IFNs) against several RNA- and DNA-containing viruses, existed in the cytoplasm in phase-separated membraneless biomolecular condensates of varying sizes and shapes with osmotically regulated disassembly and reassembly. In this study we investigated whether cytoplasmic IFN-α-induced endogenous human MxA structures were also biomolecular condensates, displayed hypotonic osmoregulation and the mechanisms involved. Both IFN-α-induced endogenous MxA and exogenously expressed GFP-MxA formed cytoplasmic condensates in A549 lung and Huh7 hepatoma cells which rapidly disassembled within 1-2 min when cells were exposed to 1,6-hexanediol or to hypotonic buffer (~40-50 mOsm). Both reassembled into new structures within 1-2 min of shifting cells to isotonic culture medium (~330 mOsm). Strikingly, MxA condensates in cells continuously exposed to culture medium of moderate hypotonicity (in the range one-fourth, one-third or one-half isotonicity; range 90-175 mOsm) first rapidly disassembled within 1-3 min, and then, in most cells, spontaneously reassembled 7-15 min later into new structures. This spontaneous reassembly was inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose (thus, was ATP-dependent) and by dynasore (thus, required membrane internalization). Indeed, condensate reassembly was preceded by crowding of the cytosolic space by large vacuole-like dilations (VLDs) derived from internalized plasma membrane. Remarkably, the antiviral activity of GFP-MxA against vesicular stomatitis virus survived hypoosmolar disassembly and subsequent reassembly. The data highlight the exquisite osmosensitivity of MxA condensates, and the preservation of antiviral activity in the face of hypotonic stress.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/metabolism , Osmoregulation , Biomolecular Condensates , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism
2.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090007

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread on a pandemic scale. The viral infection can evolve asymptomatically or can generate severe symptoms, influenced by the presence of comorbidities. Lymphopenia based on the severity of symptoms in patients affected with COVID-19 is frequent. However, the profiles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells regarding cytotoxicity and antiviral factor expression have not yet been completely elucidated in acute SARS-CoV-2 infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and functional profile of T lymphocytes in patients with moderate and severe/critical COVID-19. During the pandemic period, we analyzed a cohort of 62 confirmed patients with SARS-CoV-2 (22 moderate cases and 40 severe/critical cases). Notwithstanding lymphopenia, we observed an increase in the expression of CD28, a co-stimulator molecule, and activation markers (CD38 and HLA-DR) in T lymphocytes as well as an increase in the frequency of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells that express the immunological checkpoint protein PD-1 in patients with a severe/critical condition compared to healthy controls. Regarding the cytotoxic profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, an increase in the response of CD4+ T cells was already observed at the baseline level and scarcely changed upon PMA and Ionomycin stimulation. Meanwhile, CD8+ T lymphocytes decreased the cytotoxic response, evidencing a profile of exhaustion in patients with severe COVID-19. As observed by t-SNE, there were CD4+ T-cytotoxic and CD8+ T with low granzyme production, evidencing their dysfunction in severe/critical conditions. In addition, purified CD8+ T lymphocytes from patients with severe COVID-19 showed increased constitutive expression of differentially expressed genes associated with the caspase pathway, inflammasome, and antiviral factors, and, curiously, had reduced expression of TNF-α. The cytotoxic profile of CD4+ T cells may compensate for the dysfunction/exhaustion of TCD8+ in acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings may provide an understanding of the interplay of cytotoxicity between CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the severity of acute COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Lymphopenia/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080128

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical and pathological features. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune responses to viral infections. Here, we analysed the phenotype and activity of NK cells in the blood of COVID-19 patients using flow cytometry, single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), and a cytotoxic killing assay. In the plasma of patients, we quantified the main cytokines and chemokines. Our cohort comprises COVID-19 patients hospitalised in a low-care ward unit (WARD), patients with severe COVID-19 disease symptoms hospitalised in intensive care units (ICU), and post-COVID-19 patients, who were discharged from hospital six weeks earlier. NK cells from hospitalised COVID-19 patients displayed an activated phenotype with substantial differences between WARD and ICU patients and the timing when samples were taken post-onset of symptoms. While NK cells from COVID-19 patients at an early stage of infection showed increased expression of the cytotoxic molecules perforin and granzyme A and B, NK cells from patients at later stages of COVID-19 presented enhanced levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α which were measured ex vivo in the absence of usual in vitro stimulation. These activated NK cells were phenotyped as CD49a+CD69a+CD107a+ cells, and their emergence in patients correlated to the number of neutrophils, and plasma IL-15, a key cytokine in NK cell activation. Despite lower amounts of cytotoxic molecules in NK cells of patients with severe symptoms, majority of COVID-19 patients displayed a normal cytotoxic killing of Raji tumour target cells. In vitro stimulation of patients blood cells by IL-12+IL-18 revealed a defective IFN-γ production in NK cells of ICU patients only, indicative of an exhausted phenotype. ScRNA-seq revealed, predominantly in patients with severe COVID-19 disease symptoms, the emergence of an NK cell subset with a platelet gene signature that we identified by flow and imaging cytometry as aggregates of NK cells with CD42a+CD62P+ activated platelets. Post-COVID-19 patients show slow recovery of NK cell frequencies and phenotype. Our study points to substantial changes in NK cell phenotype during COVID-19 disease and forms a basis to explore the contribution of platelet-NK cell aggregates to antiviral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and disease pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Granzymes/metabolism , Perforin/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Integrin alpha1/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , Cytokines/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism
4.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071840

ABSTRACT

Host-virus protein interactions are critical for intracellular viral propagation. Understanding the interactions between cellular and viral proteins may help us develop new antiviral strategies. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious coronavirus that causes severe damage to the global swine industry. Here, we employed co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize 426 unique PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein-binding proteins in infected Vero cells. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was created, and gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses revealed that the PEDV N-bound proteins belong to different cellular pathways, such as nucleic acid binding, ribonucleoprotein complex binding, RNA methyltransferase, and polymerase activities. Interactions of the PEDV N protein with 11 putative proteins: tripartite motif containing 21, DEAD-box RNA helicase 24, G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1, heat shock protein family A member 8, heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1, YTH domain containing 1, nucleolin, Y-box binding protein 1, vimentin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, and karyopherin subunit alpha 1, were further confirmed by in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay. In summary, studying an interaction network can facilitate the identification of antiviral therapeutic strategies and novel targets for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Karyopherins/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071515

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a mortal threat to human health. The elucidation of the relationship between peripheral immune cells and the development of inflammation is essential for revealing the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19 and developing related antiviral drugs. The immune cell metabolism-targeting therapies exhibit a desirable anti-inflammatory effect in some treatment cases. In this study, based on differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis, a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) was reconstructed by integrating transcriptome data to characterize the adaptive metabolic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in severe COVID-19 patients. Differential flux analysis revealed that metabolic changes such as enhanced aerobic glycolysis, impaired oxidative phosphorylation, fluctuating biogenesis of lipids, vitamins (folate and retinol), and nucleotides played important roles in the inflammation adaptation of PBMCs. Moreover, the main metabolic enzymes such as the solute carrier (SLC) family 2 member 3 (SLC2A3) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), responsible for the reactions with large differential fluxes, were identified as potential therapeutic targets. Our results revealed the inflammation regulation potentials of partial metabolic reactions with differential fluxes and their metabolites. This study provides a reference for developing potential PBMC metabolism-targeting therapy strategies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Vitamin A/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Nucleotides/metabolism , Vitamins/metabolism , Fatty Acid Synthases/metabolism , Folic Acid/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Lipids
6.
J Nat Prod ; 85(11): 2583-2591, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062146

ABSTRACT

Dihydromaniwamycin E (1), a new maniwamycin derivative featuring an azoxy moiety, has been isolated from the culture extract of thermotolerant Streptomyces sp. JA74 along with the known analogue maniwamycin E (2). Compound 1 is produced only by cultivation of strain JA74 at 45 °C, and this type of compound has been previously designated a "heat shock metabolite (HSM)" by our research group. Compound 2 is detected as a production-enhanced metabolite at high temperature. Structures of 1 and 2 are elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The absolute structure of 1 is determined after the total synthesis of four stereoisomers. Though the absolute structure of 2 has been proposed to be the same as the structure of maniwamycin D, the NMR and the optical rotation value of 2 are in agreement with those of maniwamycin E. Therefore, this study proposes a structural revision of maniwamycins D and E. Compounds 1 and 2 show inhibitory activity against the influenza (H1N1) virus infection of MDCK cells, demonstrating IC50 values of 25.7 and 63.2 µM, respectively. Notably, 1 and 2 display antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, when used to infect 293TA and VeroE6T cells, with 1 and 2 showing IC50 values (for infection of 293TA cells) of 19.7 and 9.7 µM, respectively. The two compounds do not exhibit cytotoxicity in these cell lines at those IC50 concentrations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Azo Compounds , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptomyces , Humans , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Azo Compounds/metabolism , Azo Compounds/pharmacology , Heat-Shock Response , HEK293 Cells , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Streptomyces/chemistry , Streptomyces/metabolism , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs
7.
J Virol ; 96(20): e0131822, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053123

ABSTRACT

Pseudorabies virus (PRV), which is extremely infectious and can infect numerous mammals, has a risk of spillover into humans. Virus-host interactions determine viral entry and spreading. Here, we showed that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) significantly potentiates PRV infection. Mechanistically, NRP1 promoted PRV attachment and entry, and enhanced cell-to-cell fusion mediated by viral glycoprotein B (gB), gD, gH, and gL. Furthermore, through in vitro coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, NRP1 was found to physically interact with gB, gD, and gH, and these interactions were C-end Rule (CendR) motif independent, in contrast to currently known viruses. Remarkably, we illustrated that the viral protein gB promotes NRP1 degradation via a lysosome-dependent pathway. We further demonstrate that gB promotes NRP1 degradation in a furin-cleavage-dependent manner. Interestingly, in this study, we generated gB furin cleavage site (FCS)-knockout PRV (Δfurin PRV) and evaluated its pathogenesis; in vivo, we found that Δfurin PRV virulence was significantly attenuated in mice. Together, our findings demonstrated that NRP1 is an important host factor for PRV and that NRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral intervention. IMPORTANCE Recent studies have shown accelerated PRV cross-species spillover and that PRV poses a potential threat to humans. PRV infection in humans always manifests as a high fever, tonic-clonic seizures, and encephalitis. Therefore, understanding the interaction between PRV and host factors may contribute to the development of new antiviral strategies against PRV. NRP1 has been demonstrated to be a receptor for several viruses that harbor CendR, including SARS-CoV-2. However, the relationships between NRP1 and PRV are poorly understood. Here, we found that NRP1 significantly potentiated PRV infection by promoting PRV attachment and enhanced cell-to-cell fusion. For the first time, we demonstrated that gB promotes NRP1 degradation via a lysosome-dependent pathway. Last, in vivo, Δfurin PRV virulence was significantly attenuated in mice. Therefore, NRP1 is an important host factor for PRV, and NRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesvirus 1, Suid , Pseudorabies , Mice , Humans , Animals , Herpesvirus 1, Suid/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Mammals
8.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The adaptive antiviral immune response requires interaction between CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells, and Th1 cells for controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the data regarding the role of CD8+ T cells in the acute phase of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 syndrome are still limited. METHODS: . Peripheral blood samples collected from patients with acute COVID-19 (n = 71), convalescent subjects bearing serum SARS-CoV-2 N-protein-specific IgG antibodies (n = 51), and healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to any SARS-CoV-2 proteins (HC, n = 46) were analyzed using 10-color flow cytometry. RESULTS: Patients with acute COVID-19 vs. HC and COVID-19 convalescents showed decreased absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells, whereas the frequency of CM and TEMRA CD8+ T cells in acute COVID-19 vs. HC was elevated. COVID-19 convalescents vs. HC had increased naïve and CM cells, whereas TEMRA cells were decreased compared to HC. Cell-surface CD57 was highly expressed by the majority of CD8+ T cells subsets during acute COVID-19, but convalescents had increased CD57 on 'naïve', CM, EM4, and pE1 2-3 months post-symptom onset. CXCR5 expression was altered in acute and convalescent COVID-19 subjects, whereas the frequencies of CXCR3+ and CCR4+ cells were decreased in both patient groups vs. HC. COVID-19 convalescents had increased CCR6-expressing CD8+ T cells. Moreover, CXCR3+CCR6- Tc1 cells were decreased in patients with acute COVID-19 and COVID-19 convalescents, whereas Tc2 and Tc17 levels were increased compared to HC. Finally, IL-27 negatively correlated with the CCR6+ cells in acute COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: We described an abnormal CD8+ T cell profile in COVID-19 convalescents, which resulted in lower frequencies of effector subsets (TEMRA and Tc1), higher senescent state (upregulated CD57 on 'naïve' and memory cells), and higher frequencies of CD8+ T cell subsets expressing lung tissue and mucosal tissue homing molecules (Tc2, Tc17, and Tc17.1). Thus, our data indicate that COVID-19 can impact the long-term CD8+ T cell immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-27 , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006040

ABSTRACT

Type III and type I interferon have similar mechanisms of action, and their different receptors lead to different distributions in tissue. On mucosal surfaces, type III interferon exhibits strong antiviral activity. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an economically important enteropathogenic coronavirus, which can cause a high incidence rate and mortality in piglets. Here, we demonstrate that porcine interferon lambda 1 (pIFNL1) and porcine interferon lambda 3 (pIFNL3) can inhibit the proliferation of vesicular stomatitis virus with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (VSV-EGFP) in different cells, and also show strong antiviral activity when PEDV infects Vero cells. Both forms of pIFNLs were shown to be better than porcine interferon alpha (pIFNα), the antiviral activity of pIFNL1 is lower than that of pIFNL3. Therefore, our results provide experimental evidence for the inhibition of PEDV infection by pIFNLs, which may provide a promising treatment for the prevention and treatment of Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in piglets.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Vero Cells
10.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987997

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently discovered enteropathogenic coronavirus and has caused significant economic impacts on the pork industry. Although studies have partly uncovered the molecular mechanism of PDCoV-host interaction, it requires further research. In this study, we explored the roles of Stromal Antigen 2 (STAG2) in PDCoV infection. We found that STAG2-deficient cells inhibited infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and PDCoV, whereas restoration of STAG2 expression in STAG2-depleted (STAG2-/-) IPEC-J2 cells line restored PDCoV infection, suggesting that STAG2 is involved in the PDCoV replication. Furthermore, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in robust interferon (IFN) expression. Subsequently, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in the activation of JAK-STAT signaling and the expression of IFN stimulated gene (ISG), which establish an antiviral state. Taken together, the depletion of STAG2 activates the JAK-STAT signaling and induces the expression of ISG, thereby inhibiting PDCoV replication. Our study provides new insights and potential therapeutic targets for unraveling the mechanism of PDCoV replication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus/physiology , Deltacoronavirus , Interferons/metabolism , Swine
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 365: 110097, 2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982676

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV, Veklury®) is an FDA-approved prodrug for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the major metabolic enzyme catalyzing RDV activation. COVID-19 treatment for hospitalized patients typically also involves a number of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Further, individuals who are carriers of a CES1 variant (polymorphism in exon 4 codon 143 [G143E]) may experience impairment in their ability to metabolize therapeutic agents which are CES1 substrates. The present study assessed the potential influence of nine therapeutic agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and dexamethasone) commonly used in treating COVID-19 and 5 known CES1 inhibitors on the metabolism of RDV. Additionally, we further analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of cannabidiol (CBD), as well as the impact of the G143E polymorphism on RDV metabolism. An in vitro S9 fraction incubation method and in vitro to in vivo pharmacokinetic scaling were utilized. None of the nine therapeutic agents evaluated produced significant inhibition of RDV hydrolysis; CBD was found to inhibit RDV hydrolysis by a mixed type of competitive and noncompetitive partial inhibition mechanism. In vitro to in vivo modeling suggested a possible reduction of RDV clearance and increase of AUC when coadministration with CBD. The same scaling method also suggested a potentially lower clearance and higher AUC in the presence of the G143E variant. In conclusion, a potential CES1-mediated DDI between RDV and the nine assessed medications appears unlikely. However, a potential CES1-mediated DDI between RDV and CBD may be possible with sufficient exposure to the cannabinoid. Patients carrying the CES1 G143E variant may exhibit a slower biotransformation and clearance of RDV. Further clinical studies would be required to evaluate and characterize the clinical significance of a CBD-RDV interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Prodrugs , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Humans , Hydrolysis , Prodrugs/metabolism , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/therapeutic use
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 910864, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974642

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are important mediators of the induction and regulation of adaptive immune responses following microbial infection and inflammation. Sensing environmental danger signals including viruses, microbial products, or inflammatory stimuli by DCs leads to the rapid transition from a resting state to an activated mature state. DC maturation involves enhanced capturing and processing of antigens for presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II, upregulation of chemokines and their receptors, cytokines and costimulatory molecules, and migration to lymphoid tissues where they prime naive T cells. Orchestrating a cellular response to environmental threats requires a high bioenergetic cost that accompanies the metabolic reprogramming of DCs during activation. We previously demonstrated that DCs undergo a striking functional transition after stimulation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway with a synthetic 5' triphosphate containing RNA (termed M8), consisting of the upregulation of interferon (IFN)-stimulated antiviral genes, increased DC phagocytosis, activation of a proinflammatory phenotype, and induction of markers associated with immunogenic cell death. In the present study, we set out to determine the metabolic changes associated with RIG-I stimulation by M8. The rate of glycolysis in primary human DCs was increased in response to RIG-I activation, and glycolytic reprogramming was an essential requirement for DC activation. Pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) impaired type I IFN induction and signaling by disrupting the TBK1-IRF3-STAT1 axis, thereby countering the antiviral activity induced by M8. Functionally, the impaired IFN response resulted in enhanced viral replication of dengue, coronavirus 229E, and Coxsackie B5.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Dendritic Cells , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Monocytes , Tretinoin/metabolism
13.
Biomolecules ; 12(8)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969085

ABSTRACT

The last few years have increasingly emphasized the need to develop new active antiviral products obtained from artificial synthesis processes using nanomaterials, but also derived from natural matrices. At the same time, advanced computational approaches have found themselves fundamental in the repurposing of active therapeutics or for reducing the very long developing phases of new drugs discovery, which represents a real limitation, especially in the case of pandemics. The first part of the review is focused on the most innovative nanomaterials promising both in the field of therapeutic agents, as well as measures to control virus spread (i.e., innovative antiviral textiles). The second part of the review aims to show how computer-aided technologies can allow us to identify, in a rapid and therefore constantly updated way, plant-derived molecules (i.e., those included in terpenoids) potentially able to efficiently interact with SARS-CoV-2 cell penetration pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computers , Humans , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 850744, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952256

ABSTRACT

The endemic and pandemic caused by respiratory virus infection are a major cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Thus, broadly effective antiviral drugs are needed to treat respiratory viral diseases. Small extracellular vesicles derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (U-exo) have recently gained attention as a cell-free therapeutic strategy due to their potential for safety and efficacy. Anti-viral activities of U-exo to countermeasure respiratory virus-associated diseases are currently unknown. Here, we tested the antiviral activities of U-exo following influenza A/B virus (IFV) and human seasonal coronavirus (HCoV) infections in vitro. Cells were subject to IFV or HCoV infection followed by U-exo treatment. U-exo treatment significantly reduced IFV or HCoV replication and combined treatment with recombinant human interferon-alpha protein (IFN-α) exerted synergistically enhanced antiviral effects against IFV or HCoV. Interestingly, microRNA (miR)-125b, which is one of the most abundantly expressed small RNAs in U-exo, was found to suppress IFV replication possibly via the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Furthermore, U-exo markedly enhanced RNA virus-triggered IFN signaling and ISGs production. Similarly, human nasal epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI) studies broadly effective anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities of U-exo against IFV and HCoV, suggesting the potential role of U-exo as a promising intervention for respiratory virus-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Exosomes , Extracellular Vesicles , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Umbilical Cord
15.
mBio ; 13(4): e0086922, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950001

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to represent a global health emergency as a highly transmissible, airborne virus. An important coronaviral drug target for treatment of COVID-19 is the conserved main protease (Mpro). Nirmatrelvir is a potent Mpro inhibitor and the antiviral component of Paxlovid. The significant viral sequencing effort during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic represented a unique opportunity to assess potential nirmatrelvir escape mutations from emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2. To establish the baseline mutational landscape of Mpro prior to the introduction of Mpro inhibitors, Mpro sequences and its cleavage junction regions were retrieved from ~4,892,000 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genomes in the open-access Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) database. Any mutations identified from comparison to the reference sequence (Wuhan-Hu-1) were catalogued and analyzed. Mutations at sites key to nirmatrelvir binding and protease functionality (e.g., dimerization sites) were still rare. Structural comparison of Mpro also showed conservation of key nirmatrelvir contact residues across the extended Coronaviridae family (α-, ß-, and γ-coronaviruses). Additionally, we showed that over time, the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme remained under purifying selection and was highly conserved relative to the spike protein. Now, with the emergency use authorization (EUA) of Paxlovid and its expected widespread use across the globe, it is essential to continue large-scale genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro evolution. This study establishes a robust analysis framework for monitoring emergent mutations in millions of virus isolates, with the goal of identifying potential resistance to present and future SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. IMPORTANCE The recent authorization of oral severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antivirals, such as Paxlovid, has ushered in a new era of the COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of new variants, as well as the selective pressure imposed by antiviral drugs themselves, raises concern for potential escape mutations in key drug binding motifs. To determine the potential emergence of antiviral resistance in globally circulating isolates and its implications for the clinical response to the COVID-19 pandemic, sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 viral isolates before, during, and after the introduction of new antiviral treatments is critical. The infrastructure built herein for active genetic surveillance of Mpro evolution and emergent mutations will play an important role in assessing potential antiviral resistance as the pandemic progresses and Mpro inhibitors are introduced. We anticipate our framework to be the starting point in a larger effort for global monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro mutational landscape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Pandemics , Proline , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
16.
Curr Opin Virol ; 52: 71-77, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936243

ABSTRACT

Flaviviruses are zoonotic pathogens transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitos and ticks and represent a constant burden to human health. Here we review recent literature aimed at uncovering how flaviviruses interact with the cells that they infect. A better understanding of these interactions may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic targets. We highlight several studies that employed low-biased methods to discover new protein-protein, protein-RNA, and genetic interactions, and spotlight recent work characterizing the host protein, TMEM41B, which has been shown to be critical for infection by diverse flaviviruses and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus Infections , Flavivirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Flavivirus/genetics , Flavivirus/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Proviruses , Virus Replication
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 919477, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938621

ABSTRACT

The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), a small molecule transmembrane protein induced by interferon, is generally conserved in vertebrates, which can inhibit infection by a diverse range of pathogenic viruses such as influenza virus. However, the precise antiviral mechanisms of IFITM3 remain unclear. At least four post-translational modifications (PTMs) were found to modulate the antiviral effect of IFITM3. These include positive regulation provided by S-palmitoylation of cysteine and negative regulation provided by lysine ubiquitination, lysine methylation, and tyrosine phosphorylation. IFITM3 S-palmitoylation is an enzymatic addition of a 16-carbon fatty acid on the three cysteine residues within or adjacent to its two hydrophobic domains at positions 71, 72, and 105, that is essential for its proper targeting, stability, and function. As S-palmitoylation is the only PTM known to enhance the antiviral activity of IFITM3, enzymes that add this modification may play important roles in IFN-induced immune responses. This study mainly reviews the research progresses on the antiviral mechanism of IFITM3, the regulation mechanism of S-palmitoylation modification on its subcellular localization, stability, and function, and the enzymes that mediate the S-palmitoylation modification of IFITM3, which may help elucidate the mechanism by which this IFN effector restrict virus replication and thus aid in the design of therapeutics targeted at pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Lipoylation , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cysteine , Interferons/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism
18.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 100(4): 338-348, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932794

ABSTRACT

Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein with antibacterial and antiviral activities. We evaluated whether bLF can prevent viral infections in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. To assess antiviral responses, we measured the levels of interferon (IFN) expression, IFN-stimulated gene expression, and infection with a pseudotyped virus bearing either severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G protein after treatment of cells with both bLF and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, an analog of double-stranded RNA that mimics viral infection. Combination treatment of cells with both bLF and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid increased mRNA and protein expression of several IFN genes (IFNB, IFNL1, and IFNL2) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, IFITM1, and IFITM3) in Caco-2 cells. However, treatment with bLF alone did not induce an antiviral response. Furthermore, combination treatment suppressed infection of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus more efficiently than did bLF treatment alone, even though combination treatment increased the expression of mRNA encoding ACE2. These results indicate that bLF increases the antiviral response associated with the double-stranded RNA-stimulated signaling pathway. Our results also suggest that bLF and double-stranded RNA analogs can be used to treat viral infections, including those caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lactoferrin , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Humans , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Poly I-C , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903496

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus infections can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFDM), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and acute flaccid myelitis, leading to death of infants and young children. However, no specific antiviral drug is currently available for the treatment of this type of infection. The Unites States and United Kingdom health authorities recently approved a new antiviral drug, molnupiravir, for the treatment of COVID-19. In this study, we reported that molnupiravir (EIDD-2801) and its active form, EIDD-1931, have broad-spectrum anti-enterovirus potential. Our data showed that EIDD-1931 could significantly reduce the production of EV-A71 progeny virus and the expression of EV-A71 viral protein at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The results of the time-of-addition assay suggest that EIDD-1931 acts at the post-entry step, which is in accordance with its antiviral mechanism. The intraperitoneal administration of EIDD-1931 and EIDD-2801 protected 1-day-old ICR suckling mice from lethal EV-A71 challenge by reducing the viral load in various tissues of the infected mice. The pharmacokinetics analysis indicated that the plasma drug concentration overwhelmed the EC50 for enteroviruses, suggesting the clinical potential of molnupiravir against enteroviruses. Thus, molnupiravir along with its active form, EIDD-1931, may be a promising drug candidate against enterovirus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Animals , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Enterovirus/metabolism , Enterovirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR
20.
J Biol Chem ; 298(8): 102169, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895142

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir and molnupiravir have gained considerable interest because of their demonstrated activity against SARS-CoV-2. These antivirals are converted intracellularly to their active triphosphate forms remdesivir-TP and molnupiravir-TP. Cellular hydrolysis of these active metabolites would consequently decrease the efficiency of these drugs; however, whether endogenous enzymes that can catalyze this hydrolysis exist is unknown. Here, we tested remdesivir-TP as a substrate against a panel of human hydrolases and found that only Nudix hydrolase (NUDT) 18 catalyzed the hydrolysis of remdesivir-TP with notable activity. The kcat/Km value of NUDT18 for remdesivir-TP was determined to be 17,700 s-1M-1, suggesting that NUDT18-catalyzed hydrolysis of remdesivir-TP may occur in cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the triphosphates of the antivirals ribavirin and molnupiravir are also hydrolyzed by NUDT18, albeit with lower efficiency than Remdesivir-TP. Low activity was also observed with the triphosphate forms of sofosbuvir and aciclovir. This is the first report showing that NUDT18 hydrolyzes triphosphates of nucleoside analogs of exogenous origin, suggesting that NUDT18 can act as a cellular sanitizer of modified nucleotides and may influence the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir, molnupiravir, and ribavirin. As NUDT18 is expressed in respiratory epithelial cells, it may limit the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir and molnupiravir against SARS-CoV-2 replication by decreasing the intracellular concentration of their active metabolites at their intended site of action.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydrolysis , Hydroxylamines , Polyphosphates , Pyrophosphatases , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
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