Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 309
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237088

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing represented an effective strategy to obtain quick answers to medical emergencies. Based on previous data on methotrexate (MTX), we evaluated the anti-viral activity of several DHFR inhibitors in two cell lines. We observed that this class of compounds showed a significant influence on the virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) partly attributed to the intrinsic anti-metabolic activity of these drugs, but also to a specific anti-viral function. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms, we took advantage of our EXSCALATE platform for in-silico molecular modelling and further validated the influence of these inhibitors on nsp13 and viral entry. Interestingly, pralatrexate and trimetrexate showed superior effects in counteracting the viral infection compared to other DHFR inhibitors. Our results indicate that their higher activity is due to their polypharmacological and pleiotropic profile. These compounds can thus potentially give a clinical advantage in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients already treated with this class of drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Pandemics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Drug Repositioning/methods
2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236769

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) canonically utilizes clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and several other endocytic mechanisms to invade airway epithelial cells. Endocytic inhibitors, particularly those targeting CME-related proteins, have been identified as promising antiviral drugs. Currently, these inhibitors are ambiguously classified as chemical, pharmaceutical, or natural inhibitors. However, their varying mechanisms may suggest a more realistic classification system. Herein, we present a new mechanistic-based classification of endocytosis inhibitors, in which they are segregated among four distinct classes including: (i) inhibitors that disrupt endocytosis-related protein-protein interactions, and assembly or dissociation of complexes; (ii) inhibitors of large dynamin GTPase and/or kinase/phosphatase activities associated with endocytosis; (iii) inhibitors that modulate the structure of subcellular components, especially the plasma membrane, and actin; and (iv) inhibitors that cause physiological or metabolic alterations in the endocytosis niche. Excluding antiviral drugs designed to halt SARS-CoV-2 replication, other drugs, either FDA-approved or suggested through basic research, could be systematically assigned to one of these classes. We observed that many anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs could be included either in class III or IV as they interfere with the structural or physiological integrity of subcellular components, respectively. This perspective may contribute to our understanding of the relative efficacy of endocytosis-related inhibitors and support the optimization of their individual or combined antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. However, their selectivity, combined effects, and possible interactions with non-endocytic cellular targets need more clarification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Endocytosis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9161, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245441

ABSTRACT

Proteases encoded by SARS-CoV-2 constitute a promising target for new therapies against COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) are responsible for viral polyprotein cleavage-a process crucial for viral survival and replication. Recently it was shown that 2-phenylbenzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium anti-inflammatory small-molecule drug, is a potent, covalent inhibitor of both the proteases and its potency was evaluated in enzymatic and antiviral assays. In this study, we screened a collection of 34 ebselen and ebselen diselenide derivatives for SARS-CoV-2 PLpro and Mpro inhibitors. Our studies revealed that ebselen derivatives are potent inhibitors of both the proteases. We identified three PLpro and four Mpro inhibitors superior to ebselen. Independently, ebselen was shown to inhibit the N7-methyltransferase activity of SARS-CoV-2 nsp14 protein involved in viral RNA cap modification. Hence, selected compounds were also evaluated as nsp14 inhibitors. In the second part of our work, we employed 11 ebselen analogues-bis(2-carbamoylaryl)phenyl diselenides-in biological assays to evaluate their anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in Vero E6 cells. We present their antiviral and cytoprotective activity and also low cytotoxicity. Our work shows that ebselen, its derivatives, and diselenide analogues constitute a promising platform for development of new antivirals targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Methyltransferases , Peptide Hydrolases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
4.
J Virol ; 97(5): e0037523, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316566

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that has the potential to infect humans. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a unique type IIb cytoplasmic deacetylase with both deacetylase activity and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, which mediates a variety of cellular processes by deacetylating histone and nonhistone substrates. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of HDAC6 significantly inhibited PDCoV replication, while the reverse effects could be observed after treatment with an HDAC6-specific inhibitor (tubacin) or knockdown of HDAC6 expression by specific small interfering RNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HDAC6 interacted with viral nonstructural protein 8 (nsp8) in the context of PDCoV infection, resulting in its proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on the deacetylation activity of HDAC6. We further identified the key amino acid residues lysine 46 (K46) and K58 of nsp8 as acetylation and ubiquitination sites, respectively, which were required for HDAC6-mediated degradation. Through a PDCoV reverse genetics system, we confirmed that recombinant PDCoV with a mutation at either K46 or K58 exhibited resistance to the antiviral activity of HDAC6, thereby exhibiting higher replication compared with wild-type PDCoV. Collectively, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the function of HDAC6 in regulating PDCoV infection and provide new strategies for the development of anti-PDCoV drugs. IMPORTANCE As an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus with zoonotic potential, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has sparked tremendous attention. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a critical deacetylase with both deacetylase activity and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and is extensively involved in many important physiological processes. However, little is known about the role of HDAC6 in the infection and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Our present study demonstrates that HDAC6 targets PDCoV-encoded nonstructural protein 8 (nsp8) for proteasomal degradation through the deacetylation at the lysine 46 (K46) and the ubiquitination at K58, suppressing viral replication. Recombinant PDCoV with a mutation at K46 and/or K58 of nsp8 displayed resistance to the antiviral activity of HDAC6. Our work provides significant insights into the role of HDAC6 in regulating PDCoV infection, opening avenues for the development of novel anti-PDCoV drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase 6/genetics , Histone Deacetylase 6/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Swine , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Virus Replication
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315623

ABSTRACT

At present it is well-defined that autophagy is a fundamental process essential for cell life but its pro-viral and anti-viral role has been stated out with the COVID pandemic. However, viruses in turn have evolved diverse adaptive strategies to cope with autophagy driven host defense, either by blocking or hijacking the autophagy machinery for their own benefit. The mechanisms underlying autophagy modulation are presented in the current review which summarizes the accumulated knowledge on the crosstalk between autophagy and viral infections, with a particular emphasizes on SARS-CoV-2. The different types of autophagy related to infections and their molecular mechanisms are focused in the context of inflammation. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 entry, replication and disease pathogenesis are discussed. Models to study autophagy and to formulate novel treatment approaches and pharmacological modulation to fight COVID-19 are debated. The SARS-CoV-2-autophagy interplay is presented, revealing the complex dynamics and the molecular machinery of autophagy. The new molecular targets and strategies to treat COVID-19 effectively are envisaged. In conclusion, our finding underline the importance of development new treatment strategies and pharmacological modulation of autophagy to fight COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Autophagy
6.
mBio ; 14(3): e0347822, 2023 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314960

ABSTRACT

Apobec3A is involved in the antiviral host defense, targeting nuclear DNA, introducing point mutations, and thereby activating DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we found a significant upregulation of Apobec3A during HAdV infection, including Apobec3A protein stabilization mediated by the viral proteins E1B-55K and E4orf6, which subsequently limited HAdV replication and most likely involved a deaminase-dependent mechanism. The transient silencing of Apobec3A enhanced adenoviral replication. HAdV triggered Apobec3A dimer formation and enhanced activity to repress the virus. Apobec3A decreased E2A SUMOylation and interfered with viral replication centers. A comparative sequence analysis revealed that HAdV types A, C, and F may have evolved a strategy to escape Apobec3A-mediated deamination via reduced frequencies of TC dinucleotides within the viral genome. Although viral components induce major changes within infected cells to support lytic life cycles, our findings demonstrate that host Apobec3A-mediated restriction limits virus replication, albeit that HAdV may have evolved to escape this restriction. This allows for novel insights into the HAdV/host-cell interplay, which broaden the current view of how a host cell can limit HAdV infection. IMPORTANCE Our data provide a novel conceptual insight into the virus/host-cell interplay, changing the current view of how a host-cell can defeat a virus infection. Thus, our study reveals a novel and general impact of cellular Apobec3A on the intervention of human adenovirus (HAdV) gene expression and replication by improving the host antiviral defense mechanisms, thereby providing a novel basis for innovative antiviral strategies in future therapeutic settings. Ongoing investigations of the cellular pathways that are modulated by HAdV are of great interest, particularly since adenovirus-based vectors actually serve as COVID vaccine vectors and also frequently serve as tools in human gene therapy and oncolytic treatment options. HAdV constitute an ideal model system by which to analyze the transforming capabilities of DNA tumor viruses as well as the underlying molecular principles of virus-induced and cellular tumorigenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Humans , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Virus Replication , COVID-19 Vaccines , Deamination , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Gene Expression
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6972, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294524

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has led to several million deaths worldwide and ravaged the economies of many countries. Hence, developing therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 remains a core priority in the fight against COVID-19. Most of the drugs that have received emergency use authorization for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibit a number of limitations, including side effects and questionable efficacy. This challenge is further compounded by reinfection after vaccination and the high likelihood of mutations, as well as the emergence of viral escape mutants that render SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-targeting vaccines ineffective. Employing de novo drug synthesis or repurposing to discover broad-spectrum antivirals that target highly conserved pathways within the viral machinery is a focus of current research. In a recent drug repurposing study, masitinib, a clinically safe drug against the human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), was identified as an antiviral agent with effective inhibitory activity against the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Masitinib is currently under clinical trial in combination with isoquercetin in hospitalized patients (NCT04622865). Nevertheless, masitinib has kinase-related side effects; hence, the development of masitinib analogs with lower anti-tyrosine kinase activity becomes necessary. In this study, in an attempt to address this limitation, we executed a comprehensive virtual workflow in silico to discover drug-like compounds matching selected pharmacophore features in the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro-bound state of masitinib. We identified a novel lead compound, "masitinibL", a drug-like analog of masitinib that demonstrated strong inhibitory properties against the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. In addition, masitinibL further displayed low selectivity for tyrosine kinases, which strongly suggests that masitinibL is a highly promising therapeutic that is preferable to masitinib.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles
8.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2785-2793, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253698

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic due to the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At the time of this manuscript's publication, remdesivir is the only COVID-19 treatment approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. However, its effectiveness is still under question due to the results of the large Solidarity Trial conducted by the World Health Organization. Herein, we report that the parent nucleoside of remdesivir, GS-441524, potently inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 and other cell lines. Challenge studies in both an AAV-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 and in mice infected with murine hepatitis virus, a closely related coronavirus, showed that GS-441524 was highly efficacious in reducing the viral titers in CoV-infected organs without notable toxicity. Our results support that GS-441524 is a promising and inexpensive drug candidate for treating of COVID-19 and other CoV diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Disease Models, Animal , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
9.
J Nat Prod ; 86(4): 672-682, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284383

ABSTRACT

Diphyllin (1) and justicidin B (2) are arylnaphthalene lignans with antiviral and antiproliferative effects. Compound 1 is also known as an effective inhibitor of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To evaluate the in vitro antiviral and cytotoxic potency of both lignans in SARS-CoV-2 -infected cells and various cancer cell lines, respectively, 1 and 2 were isolated from the underground organs of Linum austriacum and Linum perenne. Two previously undescribed arylnaphthalene lignans, denominated linadiacin A and B (3 and 4), were also isolated and identified. In acidic media, 3 was converted by a two-step reaction into 2 via the intermediate 4. Optimum acid treatment conditions were determined to isolate lignans by one-step preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results of the conversion, HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular modeling studies allowed complete structure analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were the most effective against SARS-CoV-2 with a 3-log reduction in the viral copy number at a 12.5 µM concentration. Ten human cancer cell lines showed sensitivity to at least one of the isolated lignans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flax , Lignans , Humans , Flax/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Lignans/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Molecular Structure
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(3): e1011231, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284344

ABSTRACT

Mutations continue to accumulate within the SARS-CoV-2 genome, and the ongoing epidemic has shown no signs of ending. It is critical to predict problematic mutations that may arise in clinical environments and assess their properties in advance to quickly implement countermeasures against future variant infections. In this study, we identified mutations resistant to remdesivir, which is widely administered to SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, and discuss the cause of resistance. First, we simultaneously constructed eight recombinant viruses carrying the mutations detected in in vitro serial passages of SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of remdesivir. We confirmed that all the mutant viruses didn't gain the virus production efficiency without remdesivir treatment. Time course analyses of cellular virus infections showed significantly higher infectious titers and infection rates in mutant viruses than wild type virus under treatment with remdesivir. Next, we developed a mathematical model in consideration of the changing dynamic of cells infected with mutant viruses with distinct propagation properties and defined that mutations detected in in vitro passages canceled the antiviral activities of remdesivir without raising virus production capacity. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations of the NSP12 protein of SARS-CoV-2 revealed that the molecular vibration around the RNA-binding site was increased by the introduction of mutations on NSP12. Taken together, we identified multiple mutations that affected the flexibility of the RNA binding site and decreased the antiviral activity of remdesivir. Our new insights will contribute to developing further antiviral measures against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , RNA, Viral , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(5): 164, 2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281700

ABSTRACT

Cyanometabolites are active compounds derived from cyanobacteria that include small low molecular weight peptides, oligosaccharides, lectins, phenols, fatty acids, and alkaloids. Some of these compounds may pose a threat to human and environment. However, majority of them are known to have various health benefits with antiviral properties against pathogenic viruses including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Influenza A virus (IAV) etc. Cyanometabolites classified as lectins include scytovirin (SVN), Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin (OAAH), cyanovirin-N (CV-N), Microcystis viridis lectin (MVL), and microvirin (MVN) also possess a potent antiviral activity against viral diseases with unique properties to recognize different viral epitopes. Studies showed that a small linear peptide, microginin FR1, isolated from a water bloom of Microcystis species, inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), making it useful for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our review provides an overview of the antiviral properties of cyanobacteria from the late 90s till now and emphasizes the significance of their metabolites in combating viral diseases, particularly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has received limited attention in previous publications. The enormous medicinal potential of cyanobacteria is also emphasized in this review, which justifies their use as a dietary supplement to fend off pandemics in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyanobacteria , Humans , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Lectins , Cyanobacteria/chemistry
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286210

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV) that causes lethal watery diarrhea in neonatal pigs and poses economic and public health burdens. Currently, there are no effective antiviral agents against PDCoV. Curcumin is the active ingredient extracted from the rhizome of turmeric, which has a potential pharmacological value because it exhibits antiviral properties against several viruses. Here, we described the antiviral effect of curcumin against PDCoV. At first, the potential relationships between the active ingredients and the diarrhea-related targets were predicted through a network pharmacology analysis. Twenty-three nodes and 38 edges were obtained using a PPI analysis of eight compound-targets. The action target genes were closely related to the inflammatory and immune related signaling pathways, such as the TNF signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and so on. Moreover, IL-6, NR3C2, BCHE and PTGS2 were identified as the most likely targets of curcumin by binding energy and 3D protein-ligand complex analysis. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited PDCoV replication in LLC-PK1 cells at the time of infection in a dose-dependent way. In poly (I:C) pretreated LLC-PK1 cells, PDCoV reduced IFN-ß production via the RIG-I pathway to evade the host's antiviral innate immune response. Meanwhile, curcumin inhibited PDCoV-induced IFN-ß secretion by inhibiting the RIG-I pathway and reduced inflammation by inhibiting IRF3 or NF-κB protein expression. Our study provides a potential strategy for the use of curcumin in preventing diarrhea caused by PDCoV in piglets.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Curcumin , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , LLC-PK1 Cells , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/metabolism , Coronavirus/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Diarrhea
13.
Molecules ; 28(1)2022 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240973

ABSTRACT

In recent years, humanity has had to face a critical pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2. In the rapid search for effective drugs against this RNA-positive virus, the repurposing of already existing nucleotide/nucleoside analogs able to stop RNA replication by inhibiting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme has been evaluated. In this process, a valid contribution has been the use of in silico experiments, which allow for a rapid evaluation of the possible effectiveness of the proposed drugs. Here we propose a molecular dynamic study to provide insight into the inhibition mechanism of Penciclovir, a nucleotide analog on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme. Besides the presented results, in this article, for the first time, molecular dynamic simulations have been performed considering not only the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein, but also its cofactors (fundamental for RNA replication) and double-strand RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Nucleotides , RNA , RNA, Viral , Molecular Docking Simulation
14.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 694, 2023 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236620

ABSTRACT

Type I and III interferons (IFN-I/λ) are important antiviral mediators against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are the predominant IFN-I/λ source following their sensing of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Mechanistically, this short-range sensing by pDCs requires sustained integrin-mediated cell adhesion with infected cells. In turn, pDCs restrict viral spread by an IFN-I/λ response directed toward SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. This specialized function enables pDCs to efficiently turn-off viral replication, likely via a local response at the contact site with infected cells. By exploring the pDC response in SARS-CoV-2 patients, we further demonstrate that pDC responsiveness inversely correlates with the severity of the disease. The pDC response is particularly impaired in severe COVID-19 patients. Overall, we propose that pDC activation is essential to control SARS-CoV-2-infection. Failure to develop this response could be important to understand severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Interferon Lambda
15.
Nat Immunol ; 24(2): 220-224, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221845

ABSTRACT

The type I interferon (IFN) response is the body's typical immune defense against viruses. Previous studies linked high expression of genes encoding type I IFNs in the brain's choroid plexus to cognitive decline under virus-free conditions in aging and neurodegeneration. Multiple reports have documented persisting cognitive symptoms following recovery from COVID-19. Cumulative evidence shows that the choroid plexus is one of the brain regions most vulnerable to infection with the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and manifests increased expression of genes encoding type I IFNs even in the absence of viral traces within the brain. In this Perspective, we propose that the type I IFN defensive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the choroid plexus poses a risk to cognitive function if not resolved in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Choroid Plexus/metabolism , Cognition , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism
16.
Nature ; 614(7949): 781-787, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221840

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase coordinates viral RNA synthesis as part of an assembly known as the replication-transcription complex (RTC)1. Accordingly, the RTC is a target for clinically approved antiviral nucleoside analogues, including remdesivir2. Faithful synthesis of viral RNAs by the RTC requires recognition of the correct nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) for incorporation into the nascent RNA. To be effective inhibitors, antiviral nucleoside analogues must compete with the natural NTPs for incorporation. How the SARS-CoV-2 RTC discriminates between the natural NTPs, and how antiviral nucleoside analogues compete, has not been discerned in detail. Here, we use cryogenic-electron microscopy to visualize the RTC bound to each of the natural NTPs in states poised for incorporation. Furthermore, we investigate the RTC with the active metabolite of remdesivir, remdesivir triphosphate (RDV-TP), highlighting the structural basis for the selective incorporation of RDV-TP over its natural counterpart adenosine triphosphate3,4. Our results explain the suite of interactions required for NTP recognition, informing the rational design of antivirals. Our analysis also yields insights into nucleotide recognition by the nsp12 NiRAN (nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase), an enigmatic catalytic domain essential for viral propagation5. The NiRAN selectively binds guanosine triphosphate, strengthening proposals for the role of this domain in the formation of the 5' RNA cap6.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cryoelectron Microscopy , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/ultrastructure , COVID-19/virology , Nucleosides/metabolism , Nucleosides/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism , RNA Caps
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(1): e1011131, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214827

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the complexity of infection, and the functional redundancy of host factors, underscore an urgent need for broad-spectrum antivirals against the continuous COVID-19 pandemic, with drug repurposing as a viable therapeutic strategy. Here we report the potential of RNA G-quadruplex (RG4)-targeting therapeutic strategy for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Combining bioinformatics, biochemical and biophysical approaches, we characterize the existence of RG4s in several SARS-CoV-2 host factors. In silico screening followed by experimental validation identify Topotecan (TPT) and Berbamine (BBM), two clinical approved drugs, as RG4-stabilizing agents with repurposing potential for COVID-19. Both TPT and BBM can reduce the protein level of RG4-containing host factors, including ACE2, AXL, FURIN, and TMPRSS2. Intriguingly, TPT and BBM block SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry into target cells in vitro and murine tissues in vivo. These findings emphasize the significance of RG4 in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and provide a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , RNA , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 79(Pt 2): 111-121, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2208307

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and concomitant lockdowns presented a global health challenge and triggered unprecedented research efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. The spike glycoprotein decorating the surface of SARS-CoV-2 virions is a prime target for vaccine development, antibody therapy and serology as it binds the host cell receptor and is central for viral cell entry. The electron cryo-microscopy structure of the spike protein revealed a hydrophobic pocket in the receptor-binding domain that is occupied by an essential fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA). The LA-bound spike protein adopts a non-infectious locked conformation which is more stable than the infectious form and shields important immunogenic epitopes. Here, the impact of LA binding on viral infectivity and replication, and the evolutionary conservation of the pocket in other highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), are reviewed. The importance of LA metabolic products, the eicosanoids, in regulating the human immune response and inflammation is highlighted. Lipid and fatty-acid binding to a hydrophobic pocket in proteins on the virion surface appears to be a broader strategy employed by viruses, including picornaviruses and Zika virus. Ligand binding stabilizes their protein structure and assembly, and downregulates infectivity. In the case of rhinoviruses, this has been exploited to develop small-molecule antiviral drugs that bind to the hydrophobic pocket. The results suggest a COVID-19 antiviral treatment based on the LA-binding pocket.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Linoleic Acid , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Linoleic Acid/metabolism , Linoleic Acid/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
19.
Virol J ; 19(1): 226, 2022 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a member of the genus Betacoronavirus, is the causative agent of neurological disease in pigs. No effective therapeutics are currently available for PHEV infection. Resveratrol has been shown to exert neuroprotective and antiviral effects. Here resveratrol was investigated for its ability to inhibit PHEV replication in nerve cells and central nervous system tissues. METHODS: Anti-PHEV effect of resveratrol was evaluated using an in vitro cell-based PHEV infection model and employing a mouse PHEV infection model. The collected cells or tissues were used for quantitative PCR analysis, western blot analysis, or indirect immunofluorescence assay. The supernatants were collected to quantify viral loads by TCID50 assay in vitro. EC50 and CC50 were determined by dose-response experiments, and the ratio (EC50/CC50) was used as a selectivity index (SI) to measure the antiviral versus cytotoxic activity. RESULTS: Our results showed that resveratrol treatment reduced PHEV titer in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 6.24 µM. A reduction of > 70% of viral protein expression and mRNA copy number and a 19-fold reduction of virus titer were achieved when infected cells were treated with 10 µM resveratrol in a pre-treatment assay. Quantitative PCR analysis and TCID50 assay results revealed that the addition of 10 µM resveratrol to cells after adsorption of PHEV significantly reduced 56% PHEV mRNA copy number and eightfold virus titer. 10 µM resveratrol treatment reduced 46% PHEV mRNA copy number and fourfold virus titer in virus inactivation assay. Moreover, the in vivo data obtained in this work also demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited PHEV replication, and anti-PHEV activities of resveratrol treatment via intranasal installation displayed better than oral gavage. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that resveratrol exerted antiviral effects under various drug treatment and virus infection conditions in vitro and holds promise as a treatment for PHEV infection in vivo.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Mice , Swine , Animals , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/metabolism , Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Neurons , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Virus Replication
20.
Antiviral Res ; 210: 105506, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165061

ABSTRACT

Massive efforts on both vaccine development and antiviral research were launched to combat the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We contributed, amongst others, by the development of a high-throughput screening (HTS) antiviral assay against SARS-CoV-2 using a fully automated, high-containment robot system. Here, we describe the development of this novel, convenient and phenotypic dual-reporter virus-cell-based high-content imaging assay using the A549+hACE2+TMPRSS2_mCherry reporter lung carcinoma cell line and an ancestral SARS-CoV-2_Wuhan_mNeonGreen reporter virus. Briefly, by means of clonal selection, a host cell subclone was selected that (i) efficiently supports replication of the reporter virus with high expression, upon infection, of the NeonGreen fluorescent reporter protein, (ii) that is not affected by virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and, (iii) that expresses a strong fluorescent mCherry signal in the nucleus. The selected clone matched these criteria with an infection rate on average of 75% with limited cell death. The average (R)Z'-factors of the assay plates were all >0.8, which indicates a robust assay suitable for HTS purposes. A selection of reference compounds that inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro were used to validate this novel dual-reporter assay and confirms the data reported in the literature. This assay is a convenient and powerful tool for HTS of large compound libraries against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Discovery , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL