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2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 164: 114997, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241696

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic made evident that there are only a few drugs against coronavirus. Here we aimed to identify a cost-effective antiviral with broad spectrum activity and high safety profile. Starting from a list of 116 drug candidates, we used molecular modelling tools to rank the 44 most promising inhibitors. Next, we tested their efficacy as antivirals against α and ß coronaviruses, such as the HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2 variants. Four drugs, OSW-1, U18666A, hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HßCD) and phytol, showed in vitro antiviral activity against HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2. The mechanism of action of these compounds was studied by transmission electron microscopy and by fusion assays measuring SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral entry into target cells. Entry was inhibited by HßCD and U18666A, yet only HßCD inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in the pulmonary Calu-3 cells. Compared to the other cyclodextrins, ß-cyclodextrins were the most potent inhibitors, which interfered with viral fusion via cholesterol depletion. ß-cyclodextrins also prevented infection in a human nasal epithelium model ex vivo and had a prophylactic effect in the nasal epithelium of hamsters in vivo. All accumulated data point to ß-cyclodextrins as promising broad-spectrum antivirals against different SARS-CoV-2 variants and distant alphacoronaviruses. Given the wide use of ß-cyclodextrins for drug encapsulation and their high safety profile in humans, our results support their clinical testing as prophylactic antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatologic Agents , beta-Cyclodextrins , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , beta-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , beta-Cyclodextrins/therapeutic use
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241072

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused more than six million deaths worldwide since 2019. Although vaccines are available, novel variants of coronavirus are expected to appear continuously, and there is a need for a more effective remedy for coronavirus disease. In this report, we isolated eupatin from Inula japonica flowers and showed that it inhibits the coronavirus 3 chymotrypsin-like (3CL) protease as well as viral replication. We showed that eupatin treatment inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CL-protease, and computational modeling demonstrated that it interacts with key residues of 3CL-protease. Further, the treatment decreased the number of plaques formed by human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) infection and decreased viral protein and RNA levels in the media. These results indicate that eupatin inhibits coronavirus replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Endopeptidases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
5.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(6): 506-515, 2023 02 07.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240619

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The urgent problem of modern medicine is the fight against acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI). To combat ARVI, drugs of wide antiviral potency are needed, as well as immunomodulating drugs. Such antiviral and immunomodulatory effects has sodium deoxyribonucleate (DNA-Na) and its complex with iron (DNA-Na-Fe) developed on the basis of double-stranded DNA of natural origin. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess antiviral and virucidal activity of DNA-Na and DNA-Na-Fe against viruses of different kingdoms and families. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antiviral and virucidal activity of DNA-Na and DNA-Na-Fe was assessed in cell cultures infected with viruses. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: DNA-Na and DNA-Na-Fe had antiviral activity against adenovirus at concentrations of 2501000 mcg/ml. Antiviral effect of both drugs was not detected in case of poliovirus. DNA-Na and DNA-Na-Fe had antiviral activity against coronavirus in all administration schemes. EC50 for DNA-Na ~ 2500 mcg/ml, for DNA-Na-Fe ~ 1000 mcg/ml. In cells treated with DNA-Na-Fe, secretion of following proinflammatory cytokines was detected: Interleukin (IL) 1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, interferon- (IFN-), IFN-, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, antagonist of IL-1 receptor. Evidently, DNA-Na and DNA-Na-Fe have antiviral effect, but mechanism of action does not seem to be associated with specific effect on viral replication. Presence of virucidal activity of drugs against representatives of Coronaviridae, Adenoviridae, Picornaviridae, Retroviridae, Herpesviridae in vitro test in range of 1.03.0 lg TCID50 was identified. CONCLUSION: Presence of simultaneous antiviral and virucidal activity of DNA-Na and DNA-Na-Fe against adeno- and coronaviruses shows their prospects for prevention and treatment of ARVI.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Herpesviridae , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Iron/pharmacology , Iron/therapeutic use , Sodium/pharmacology , Sodium/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenoviridae , Cytokines
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239015

ABSTRACT

The effective antiviral agents that treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed around the world. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a pivotal role in virus replication; it also has become an important therapeutic target for the infection of SARS-CoV-2. In this work, we have identified Darunavir derivatives that inhibit the 3CLpro through a high-throughput screening method based on a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay in vitro. We found that the compounds 29# and 50# containing polyphenol and caffeine derivatives as the P2 ligand, respectively, exhibited favorable anti-3CLpro potency with EC50 values of 6.3 µM and 3.5 µM and were shown to bind to SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in vitro. Moreover, we analyzed the binding mode of the DRV in the 3CLpro through molecular docking. Importantly, 29# and 50# exhibited a similar activity against the protease in Omicron variants. The inhibitory effect of compounds 29# and 50# on the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro warrants that they are worth being the template to design functionally improved inhibitors for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Darunavir , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Darunavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238922

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and management are now considerably regulated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still one of the leading causes of death in 2022. The availability of COVID-19 vaccines, FDA-approved antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies in low-income countries still poses an issue to be addressed. Natural products, particularly traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and medicinal plant extracts (or their active component), have challenged the dominance of drug repurposing and synthetic compound libraries in COVID-19 therapeutics. Their abundant resources and excellent antiviral performance make natural products a relatively cheap and readily available alternative for COVID-19 therapeutics. Here, we deliberately review the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of the natural products, their potency (pharmacological profiles), and application strategies for COVID-19 intervention. In light of their advantages, this review is intended to acknowledge the potential of natural products as COVID-19 therapeutic candidates.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
8.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28863, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238042

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 has not only caused millions of deaths worldwide, but it has also led to economic recession and the collapse of public health systems. The vaccines and antivirals developed in response to the pandemic have improved the situation markedly; however, the pandemic is still not under control with recurring surges. Thus, it is still necessary to develop therapeutic agents. In our previous studies, we designed and synthesized a series of novel 2-anilinoquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives, and demonstrated inhibitory activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and MERS-CoV in vitro. We then conducted in vivo studies using modified compounds that are suitable for oral administration. These compounds demonstrated no toxicity in rats and inhibited viral entry. Here, we investigated the in vivo efficacy of these drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Three candidate drugs, 7-chloro-2-((3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1), N-(7-chloro-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)-N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)acetamide (2), and N-(7-chloro-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)-N-(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetamide (3) were administered orally to hACE2 transgenic mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg. All three drugs improved survival rate and reduced the viral load in the lungs. These results show that the derivatives possess in vivo antiviral efficacy similar to that of molnupiravir, which is currently being used to treat COVID-19. Overall, our data suggest that 2-anilinoquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives are promising as potential oral antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Acetamides , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Transgenic , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Biochemistry ; 62(13): 2055-2064, 2023 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237409

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to pose a threat to public health. Main protease (Mpro) is one of the most lucrative drug targets for developing specific antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. By targeting Mpro, peptidomimetic nirmatrelvir is able to inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the risk for progression to severe COVID-19. However, multiple mutations in the gene encoding Mpro of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants raise a concern of drug resistance. In the present study, we expressed 16 previously reported SARS-CoV-2 Mpro mutants (G15S, T25I, T45I, S46F, S46P, D48N, M49I, L50F, L89F, K90R, P132H, N142S, V186F, R188K, T190I, and A191V). We evaluated the inhibition potency of nirmatrelvir against these Mpro mutants and solved the crystal structures of representative Mpro mutants of SARS-CoV-2 bound to nirmatrelvir. Enzymatic inhibition assays revealed that these Mpro variants remain susceptible to nirmatrelvir as the wildtype. Detailed analysis and structural comparison provided the inhibition mechanism of Mpro mutants by nirmatrelvir. These results informed the ongoing genomic surveillance of drug resistance of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants to nirmatrelvir and facilitate the development of next-generation anticoronavirus drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237382

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic highlights the urgent need for effective antiviral agents and vaccines. Drug repositioning, which involves modifying existing drugs, offers a promising approach for expediting the development of novel therapeutics. In this study, we developed a new drug, MDB-MDB-601a-NM, by modifying the existing drug nafamostat (NM) with the incorporation of glycyrrhizic acid (GA). We assessed the pharmacokinetic profiles of MDB-601a-NM and nafamostat in Sprague-Dawley rats, revealing rapid clearance of nafamostat and sustained drug concentration of MDB-601a-NM after subcutaneous administration. Single-dose toxicity studies showed potential toxicity and persistent swelling at the injection site with high-dose administration of MDB-601a-NM. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of MDB-601a-NM in protecting against SARS-CoV-2 infection using the K18 hACE-2 transgenic mouse model. Mice treated with 60 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of MDB-601a-NM exhibited improved protectivity in terms of weight loss and survival rates compared to the nafamostat-treated group. Histopathological analysis revealed dose-dependent improvements in histopathological changes and enhanced inhibitory efficacy in MDB-601a-NM-treated groups. Notably, no viral replication was detected in the brain tissue when mice were treated with 60 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of MDB-601a-NM. Our developed MDB-601a-NM, a modified Nafamostat with glycyrrhizic acid, shows improved protectivity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Its sustained drug concentration after subcutaneous administration and dose-dependent improvements makes it a promising therapeutic option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Rats , Humans , Animals , Mice , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Disease Models, Animal , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237088

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing represented an effective strategy to obtain quick answers to medical emergencies. Based on previous data on methotrexate (MTX), we evaluated the anti-viral activity of several DHFR inhibitors in two cell lines. We observed that this class of compounds showed a significant influence on the virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) partly attributed to the intrinsic anti-metabolic activity of these drugs, but also to a specific anti-viral function. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms, we took advantage of our EXSCALATE platform for in-silico molecular modelling and further validated the influence of these inhibitors on nsp13 and viral entry. Interestingly, pralatrexate and trimetrexate showed superior effects in counteracting the viral infection compared to other DHFR inhibitors. Our results indicate that their higher activity is due to their polypharmacological and pleiotropic profile. These compounds can thus potentially give a clinical advantage in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients already treated with this class of drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Pandemics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Drug Repositioning/methods
12.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 52(6): 345-357, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient harm resulting from drug interactions between conventional and traditional or complementary medicines (CM) are avoidable. OBJECTIVE: To provide a clinical overview of a selection of CM interactions with drugs commonly used in Australian general practice or in the management of COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Many herb constituents are substrates for cytochrome P450 enzymes, and inducers and/or inhibitors of transporters such as P-glycoprotein. Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort), Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) and Allium sativum (garlic) are reported to interact with many drugs. Simultaneous administration of certain anti-viral drugs with zinc compounds and several herbs should also be avoided. Preventing and identifying unwanted CM-drug interactions in primary care requires vigilance, access to CM-drug interaction checkers and excellent communication skills. Potential risks from interactions should be balanced against the potential benefits of continuing the drug and/or CM and involve shared decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Garlic , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Herb-Drug Interactions , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Australia , Primary Health Care
13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 26(2): 81-90, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236999

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The COVID-19, which has been circulating since late 2019, is caused by SARS-CoV-2. Because of its high infectivity, this virus has spread widely throughout the world. Spike glycoprotein is one of the proteins found in SARS-CoV-2. Spike glycoproteins directly affect infection by forming ACE-2 receptors on host cells. Inhibiting glycoprotein spikes could be one method of treating COVID-19. In this study, the antivirus marketed as a database will be repurposed into an antiviral SARS-CoV-2 and the selected compounds will be modified to become organoselenium compounds. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The research was carried out using <i>in silico</i> methods, such as rigid docking and flexible docking. To obtain information about the interaction between spike glycoprotein and ligands, MOE 2014.09 was used to perform the molecular docking simulation. <b>Results:</b> The analysis of binding energy values was used to select the ten best ligands from the first stage of the molecular docking simulation, which was then modified according to the previous QSAR study to produce 96 new molecules. The second stage of molecular docking simulation was performed with modified molecules. The best-modified ligand was chosen by analyzing the ADME-Tox property, RMSD value and binding energy value. <b>Conclusion:</b> The best three unmodified ligands, Ombitasvir, Elbasvir and Ledipasvir, have a binding energy value of -15.8065, -15.3842 and -15.1255 kcal mol<sup>1</sup>, respectively and the best three modified ligands ModL1, ModL2 and ModL3 has a binding value of -15.6716, -13.9489 and -13.2951 kcal mol<sup>1</sup>, respectively with an RMSD value of 1.7109 Å, 2.3179 Å and 1.7836 Å.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organoselenium Compounds , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
14.
RNA Biol ; 20(1): 272-280, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236945

ABSTRACT

RNA interference (RNAi) offers an efficient way to repress genes of interest, and it is widely used in research settings. Clinical applications emerged more recently, with 5 approved siRNAs (the RNA guides of the RNAi effector complex) against human diseases. The development of siRNAs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus could therefore provide the basis of novel COVID-19 treatments, while being easily adaptable to future variants or to other, unrelated viruses. Because the biochemistry of RNAi is very precisely described, it is now possible to design siRNAs with high predicted activity and specificity using only computational tools. While previous siRNA design algorithms tended to rely on simplistic strategies (raising fully complementary siRNAs against targets of interest), our approach uses the most up-to-date mechanistic description of RNAi to allow mismatches at tolerable positions and to force them at beneficial positions, while optimizing siRNA duplex asymmetry. Our pipeline proposes 8 siRNAs against SARS-CoV-2, and ex vivo assessment confirms the high antiviral activity of 6 out of 8 siRNAs, also achieving excellent variant coverage (with several 3-siRNA combinations recognizing each correctly-sequenced variant as of September2022). Our approach is easily generalizable to other viruses as long as avariant genome database is available. With siRNA delivery procedures being currently improved, RNAi could therefore become an efficient and versatile antiviral therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , RNA Interference , Viruses/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236769

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) canonically utilizes clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and several other endocytic mechanisms to invade airway epithelial cells. Endocytic inhibitors, particularly those targeting CME-related proteins, have been identified as promising antiviral drugs. Currently, these inhibitors are ambiguously classified as chemical, pharmaceutical, or natural inhibitors. However, their varying mechanisms may suggest a more realistic classification system. Herein, we present a new mechanistic-based classification of endocytosis inhibitors, in which they are segregated among four distinct classes including: (i) inhibitors that disrupt endocytosis-related protein-protein interactions, and assembly or dissociation of complexes; (ii) inhibitors of large dynamin GTPase and/or kinase/phosphatase activities associated with endocytosis; (iii) inhibitors that modulate the structure of subcellular components, especially the plasma membrane, and actin; and (iv) inhibitors that cause physiological or metabolic alterations in the endocytosis niche. Excluding antiviral drugs designed to halt SARS-CoV-2 replication, other drugs, either FDA-approved or suggested through basic research, could be systematically assigned to one of these classes. We observed that many anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs could be included either in class III or IV as they interfere with the structural or physiological integrity of subcellular components, respectively. This perspective may contribute to our understanding of the relative efficacy of endocytosis-related inhibitors and support the optimization of their individual or combined antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. However, their selectivity, combined effects, and possible interactions with non-endocytic cellular targets need more clarification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Endocytosis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism
16.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236616

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and influenza A virus, require the host proteases to mediate viral entry into cells. Rather than targeting the continuously mutating viral proteins, targeting the conserved host-based entry mechanism could offer advantages. Nafamostat and camostat were discovered as covalent inhibitors of TMPRSS2 protease involved in viral entry. To circumvent their limitations, a reversible inhibitor might be required. Considering nafamostat structure and using pentamidine as a starting point, a small set of structurally diverse rigid analogues were designed and evaluated in silico to guide selection of compounds to be prepared for biological evaluation. Based on the results of in silico study, six compounds were prepared and evaluated in vitro. At the enzyme level, compounds 10-12 triggered potential TMPRSS2 inhibition with low micromolar IC50 concentrations, but they were less effective in cellular assays. Meanwhile, compound 14 did not trigger potential TMPRSS2 inhibition at the enzyme level, but it showed potential cellular activity regarding inhibition of membrane fusion with a low micromolar IC50 value of 10.87 µM, suggesting its action could be mediated by another molecular target. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation showed that compound 14 inhibited pseudovirus entry as well as thrombin and factor Xa. Together, this study presents compound 14 as a hit compound that might serve as a starting point for developing potential viral entry inhibitors with possible application against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
17.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236463

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, addressed the lack of specific antiviral drugs against coronaviruses. In this study, bioguided fractionation performed on both ethyl acetate and aqueous sub-extracts of Juncus acutus stems led to identifying luteolin as a highly active antiviral molecule against human coronavirus HCoV-229E. The apolar sub-extract (CH2Cl2) containing phenanthrene derivatives did not show antiviral activity against this coronavirus. Infection tests on Huh-7 cells, expressing or not the cellular protease TMPRSS2, using luciferase reporter virus HCoV-229E-Luc showed that luteolin exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of infection. Respective IC50 values of 1.77 µM and 1.95 µM were determined. Under its glycosylated form (luteolin-7-O-glucoside), luteolin was inactive against HCoV-229E. Time of addition assay showed that utmost anti-HCoV-229E activity of luteolin was achieved when added at the post-inoculation step, indicating that luteolin acts as an inhibitor of the replication step of HCoV-229E. Unfortunately, no obvious antiviral activity for luteolin was found against SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV in this study. In conclusion, luteolin isolated from Juncus acutus is a new inhibitor of alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Luteolin/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
18.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 25(3): 415-427, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which mainly affects the respiratory system. It has been declared as a "pandemic" in March 2020 by the World Health Organization due to the high spreading rate. SARS-CoV-2 binds with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the cell surface which leads to the downregulation of ACE2 and upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptors. The elevated level of cytokines and ACE receptors leads to the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Due to the limited availability of vaccines and recurrent attacks of COVID-19 mainly in low-income countries, it is important to search for natural remedies to prevent or treat COVID-19 infection. Marine seaweeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as phlorotannins; fucoidan; carotenoids; omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids; vitamins B12, D, and C; and minerals including zinc and selenium that exhibit antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, bioactive compounds present in marine seaweeds have the ability to inhibit ACEs by inducing ACE2 which exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in COVID-19. Correspondingly, soluble dietary fibers present in seaweeds are served as prebiotics by generating short-chain fatty acids through fermentation. Hence, seaweeds can be utilized to reduce the gastrointestinal infections associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236306

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the scientific community has focused on prophylactic vaccine development. In parallel, the experience of the pharmacotherapy of this disease has increased. Due to the declining protective capacity of vaccines against new strains, as well as increased knowledge about the structure and biology of the pathogen, control of the disease has shifted to the focus of antiviral drug development over the past year. Clinical data on safety and efficacy of antivirals acting at various stages of the virus life cycle has been published. In this review, we summarize mechanisms and clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy of COVID-19 with drugs based on plasma of convalescents, monoclonal antibodies, interferons, fusion inhibitors, nucleoside analogs, and protease inhibitors. The current status of the drugs described is also summarized in relation to the official clinical guidelines for the treatment of COVID-19. In addition, here we describe innovative drugs whose antiviral effect is provided by antisense oligonucleotides targeting the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Analysis of laboratory and clinical data suggests that current antivirals successfully combat broad spectra of emerging strains of SARS-CoV-2 providing reliable defense against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use
20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(24): 13204-13214, 2023 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236265

ABSTRACT

We report the results of computational modeling of the reactions of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro) with four potential covalent inhibitors. Two of them, carmofur and nirmatrelvir, have shown experimentally the ability to inhibit MPro. Two other compounds, X77A and X77C, were designed computationally in this work. They were derived from the structure of X77, a non-covalent inhibitor forming a tight surface complex with MPro. We modified the X77 structure by introducing warheads capable of reacting with the catalytic cysteine residue in the MPro active site. The reaction mechanisms of the four molecules with MPro were investigated by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. The results show that all four compounds form covalent adducts with the catalytic cysteine Cys 145 of MPro. From the chemical perspective, the reactions of these four molecules with MPro follow three distinct mechanisms. The reactions are initiated by a nucleophilic attack of the thiolate group of the deprotonated cysteine residue from the catalytic dyad Cys145-His41 of MPro. In the case of carmofur and X77A, the covalent binding of the thiolate to the ligand is accompanied by the formation of the fluoro-uracil leaving group. The reaction with X77C follows the nucleophilic aromatic substitution SNAr mechanism. The reaction of MPro with nirmatrelvir (which has a reactive nitrile group) leads to the formation of a covalent thioimidate adduct with the thiolate of the Cys145 residue in the enzyme active site. Our results contribute to the ongoing search for efficient inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 enzymes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cysteine , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
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