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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 850: 157851, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036502

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 has increased the consumption of some antiviral drugs, wherein these are discharged into wastewater, posing risks to the ecosystem and human health. Therefore, efforts are being made for the development of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to remediate water containing these pharmaceuticals. Here, the toxicity evolution of the antiviral drug ribavirin (RBV) was systematically investigated during its degradation via the UV/TiO2/H2O2 advanced oxidation process. Under optimal conditions, RBV was almost completely eliminated within 20 min, although the mineralization rate was inadequate. Zebrafish embryo testing revealed that the ecotoxicity of the treated RBV solutions increased at some stages and decreased as the reaction time increased, which may be attributed to the formation and decomposition of various transformation products (TPs). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis along with density functional theory calculations helped identify possible toxicity increase-causing TPs, and quantitative structure activity relationship prediction revealed that most TPs exhibit higher toxicity than the parent compound. The findings of this study suggest that, in addition to the removal rate of organics, the potential ecotoxicity of treated effluents should also be considered when AOPs are applied in wastewater treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Animals , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Ecosystem , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Ribavirin/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays , Waste Water/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Purification/methods , Zebrafish
2.
Arch Toxicol ; 96(8): 2341-2360, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844345

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a prodrug of a nucleoside analog and the first antiviral therapeutic approved for coronavirus disease. Recent cardiac safety concerns and reports on remdesivir-related acute kidney injury call for a better characterization of remdesivir toxicity and understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we performed an in vitro toxicity assessment of remdesivir around clinically relevant concentrations (Cmax 9 µM) using H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts, neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes (NMCM), rat NRK-52E and human RPTEC/TERT1 cells as cell models for the assessment of cardiotoxicity or nephrotoxicity, respectively. Due to the known potential of nucleoside analogs for the induction of mitochondrial toxicity, we assessed mitochondrial function in response to remdesivir treatment, early proteomic changes in NMCM and RPTEC/TERT1 cells and the contractile function of NMCM. Short-term treatments (24 h) of H9c2 and NRK-52E cells with remdesivir adversely affected cell viability by inhibition of proliferation as determined by significantly decreased 3H-thymidine uptake. Mitochondrial toxicity of remdesivir (1.6-3.1 µM) in cardiac cells was evident by a significant decrease in oxygen consumption, a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in lactate secretion after a 24-48-h treatment. This was supported by early proteomic changes of respiratory chain proteins and intermediate filaments that are typically involved in mitochondrial reorganization. Functionally, an impedance-based analysis showed that remdesivir (6.25 µM) affected the beat rate and contractility of NMCM. In conclusion, we identified adverse effects of remdesivir in cardiac and kidney cells at clinically relevant concentrations, suggesting a careful evaluation of therapeutic use in patients at risk for cardiovascular or kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Proteomics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Kidney , Mice , Rats
3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 442: 116003, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763987

ABSTRACT

Molnupiravir is an orally active nucleoside analog antiviral drug that recently was approved by the U.S. FDA for emergency treatment of adult patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus and at risk for severe progression. The active form of the drug, N-hydroxycytidine (NHC) triphosphate competes for incorporation by RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) into the replicating viral genome resulting in mutations and arrest of the replicating virus. Historically, some nucleoside analog antiviral drugs have been found to lack specificity for the virus and also inhibit replication and/or expression of the mitochondrial genome. The objective of the present study was to test whether molnupiravir and/or NHC also target mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (PolG) or RNA polymerase (POLRMT) activity to inhibit the replication and/or expression of the mitochondrial genome leading to impaired mitochondrial function. Human-derived HepG2 cells were exposed for 48 h in culture to increasing concentrations of either molnupiravir or NHC after which cytotoxicity, mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial gene expression were determined. The phenotypic endpoint, mitochondrial respiration, was measured with the Seahorse® XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Both molnupiravir and NHC were cytotoxic at concentrations of ≥10 µM. However, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, neither significantly altered mitochondrial gene dose or transcription, or mitochondrial respiration. From this we conclude that mitochondrial toxicity is not a primary off target in the mechanism of cytotoxicity for either molnupiravir or its active metabolite NHC in the HepG2 cell line.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleosides , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Mitochondria/metabolism , RNA , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726014

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease with a high morbidity and mortality by the FIP virus (FIPV, virulent feline coronavirus). Several antiviral drugs for FIP have been identified, but many of these are expensive and not available in veterinary medicine. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a drug approved by several countries to treat malaria and immune-mediated diseases in humans, and its antiviral effects on other viral infections (e.g., SARS-CoV-2, dengue virus) have been confirmed. We investigated whether HCQ in association with interferon-ω (IFN-ω) is effective for FIPV in vitro. A total of 100 µM of HCQ significantly inhibited the replication of types I and II FIPV. Interestingly, the combination of 100 µM of HCQ and 104 U/mL of recombinant feline IFN-ω (rfIFN-ω, veterinary registered drug) increased its antiviral activity against type I FIPV infection. Our study suggested that HCQ and rfIFN-ω are applicable for treatment of FIP. Further clinical studies are needed to verify the combination of HCQ and rIFN-ω will be effective and safe treatment for cats with FIP.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Cats , Cell Line/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Feline/pathogenicity , Drug Combinations , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/drug therapy , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/virology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/veterinary , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/toxicity , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/toxicity , Virulence
5.
Reprod Toxicol ; 108: 56-61, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720799

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir (PF-07321332; NMV) the antiviral component of PAXLOVID™ is a potent and selective inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), which plays a critical role in viral replication. PAXLOVID, comprised of nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (used as a pharmacokinetic enhancer), is an oral therapy currently in development as a therapeutic option for those infected with SARS-CoV-2 to prevent progression to severe disease, hospitalization, and death. PAXLOVID has been shown to be efficacious against hospitalization and death in two Phase 2/3 clinical studies that evaluated non hospitalized patients both with and without high risk factors for progression to severe illness. Given that males and females of reproductive age are included in the intended patient population, we assessed the potential effects of NMV up to the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg/day in ICH guideline embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, and a fertility and early embryonic development study in rats. There were no effects on male and female fertility or early embryonic development in rats, and no severe manifestations of developmental toxicity in rats or rabbits. The lack of adverse findings reported here in nonclinical species is consistent with the intended therapeutic target of NMV (a virus specific protein not present in mammalian cells), the favorable off-target selectivity profile, and lack of genetic toxicity. The results of these nonclinical studies with NMV along with existing ritonavir safety information indicate that there are no clinically relevant risks associated with PAXLOVID administration during pregnancy and in males and females of reproductive age.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Lactams/toxicity , Leucine/toxicity , Nitriles/toxicity , Proline/toxicity , Ritonavir/toxicity , Animals , Drug Combinations , Female , Infertility/chemically induced , Male , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124043, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635125

ABSTRACT

In this review, we present the environmental perspectives of the viruses and antiviral drugs related to SARS-CoV-2. The present review paper discusses occurrence, fate, transport, susceptibility, and inactivation mechanisms of viruses in the environment as well as environmental occurrence and fate of antiviral drugs, and prospects (prevalence and occurrence) of antiviral drug resistance (both antiviral drug resistant viruses and antiviral resistance in the human). During winter, the number of viral disease cases and environmental occurrence of antiviral drug surge due to various biotic and abiotic factors such as transmission pathways, human behaviour, susceptibility, and immunity as well as cold climatic conditions. Adsorption and persistence critically determine the fate and transport of viruses in the environment. Inactivation and disinfection of virus include UV, alcohol, and other chemical-base methods but the susceptibility of virus against these methods varies. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major reserviors of antiviral drugs and their metabolites and transformation products. Ecotoxicity of antiviral drug residues against aquatic organisms have been reported, however more threatening is the development of antiviral resistance, both in humans and in wild animal reservoirs. In particular, emergence of antiviral drug-resistant viruses via exposure of wild animals to high loads of antiviral residues during the current pandemic needs further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollutants , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Adsorption , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Ecotoxicology , Environmental Pollutants/chemistry , Environmental Pollutants/therapeutic use , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Water Purification
7.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624914

ABSTRACT

A novel series of 1-aryl-N-[4-phenyl-5-(arylazo)thiazol-2-yl)methanimines has been synthesized via the condensation of 2-amino-4-phenyl-5-arylazothiazole with various aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized imines were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, namely 1H and 13C-NMR, FTIR, MS, and Elemental Analysis. A molecular comparative docking study for 3a-f was calculated, with reference to two approved drugs, Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, using 7BQY (Mpro; PDB code 7BQY; resolution: 1.7 A°) under identical conditions. The binding scores against 7BQY were in the range of -7.7 to -8.7 kcal/mol for 3a-f. The high scores of the compounds indicated an enhanced binding affinity of the molecules to the receptor. This is due to the hydrophobic interactions and multi-hydrogen bonds between 3a-f ligands and the receptor's active amino acid residues. The main aim of using in silco molecular docking was to rank 3a-f with respect to the approved drugs, Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, using free energy methods as greener pastures. A further interesting comparison presented the laydown of the ligands before and after molecular docking. These results and other supporting statistical analyses suggested that ligands 3a-f deserve further investigation in the context of potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19. Free-cost, PASS, SwissADME, and Way2drug were used in this research paper to determine the possible biological activities and cytotoxicity of 3a-f.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imines/chemistry , Thiazoles/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Binding Sites , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/chemistry , Hydroxylamines/chemistry , Imines/chemical synthesis , Imines/pharmacokinetics , Imines/toxicity , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/chemical synthesis , Thiazoles/pharmacokinetics , Thiazoles/toxicity
8.
JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528616

ABSTRACT

Sangivamycin is a nucleoside analog that is well tolerated by humans and broadly active against phylogenetically distinct viruses, including arenaviruses, filoviruses, and orthopoxviruses. Here, we show that sangivamycin is a potent antiviral against multiple variants of replicative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration in the nanomolar range in several cell types. Sangivamycin suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication with greater efficacy than remdesivir (another broad-spectrum nucleoside analog). When we investigated sangivamycin's potential for clinical administration, pharmacokinetic; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME); and toxicity properties were found to be favorable. When tested in combination with remdesivir, efficacy was additive rather than competitive against SARS-CoV-2. The proven safety in humans, long half-life, potent antiviral activity (compared to remdesivir), and combinatorial potential suggest that sangivamycin is likely to be efficacious alone or in combination therapy to suppress viremia in patients. Sangivamycin may also have the ability to help combat drug-resistant or vaccine-escaping SARS-CoV-2 variants since it is antivirally active against several tested variants. Our results support the pursuit of sangivamycin for further preclinical and clinical development as a potential coronavirus disease 2019 therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pyrimidine Nucleosides , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacokinetics , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacology , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/toxicity , Vero Cells
9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 53: 116523, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525708

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a global pandemic. There is an urgent need for effective and low-toxic antiviral drugs to remedy Remdesivir's limitation. Hydroxychloroquine, a broad spectrum anti-viral drug, showed inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 in some studies. Thus, we adopted a drug repurposing strategy, and further investigated hydroxychloroquine. We obtained different configurations of hydroxychloroquine side chains by using chiral resolution technique, and successfully furnished R-/S-hydroxychloroquine sulfate through chemical synthesis. The R configuration of hydroxychloroquine was found to exhibit higher antiviral activity (EC50 = 3.05 µM) and lower toxicity in vivo. Therefore, R-HCQ is a promising lead compound against SARS-CoV-2. Our research provides new strategy for the subsequent research on small molecule inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , Female , Hydroxychloroquine/chemical synthesis , Hydroxychloroquine/toxicity , Male , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Stereoisomerism , Vero Cells
10.
ChemMedChem ; 16(22): 3418-3427, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525425

ABSTRACT

Currently, limited therapeutic options are available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We have developed a set of pyrazine-based small molecules. A series of pyrazine conjugates was synthesized by microwave-assisted click chemistry and benzotriazole chemistry. All the synthesized conjugates were screened against the SAR-CoV-2 virus and their cytotoxicity was determined. Computational studies were carried out to validate the biological data. Some of the pyrazine-triazole conjugates (5 d-g) and (S)-N-(1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-phenylethyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide 12 i show significant potency against SARS-CoV-2 among the synthesized conjugates. The selectivity index (SI) of potent conjugates indicates significant efficacy compared to the reference drug (Favipiravir).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Pyrazines/chemical synthesis , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/toxicity , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
11.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 61, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in thelate 2019 has caused a devastating global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although vaccines have been and are being developed, they are not accessible to everyone and not everyone can receive these vaccines. Also, it typically takes more than 10 years until a new therapeutic agent is approved for usage. Therefore, repurposing of known drugs can lend itself well as a key approach for significantly expediting the development of new therapies for COVID-19. METHODS: We have incorporated machine learning-based computational tools and in silico models into the drug discovery process to predict Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity (ADMET) profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment identified from two independent studies mainly with the purpose of mitigating late-phase failures because of inferior pharmacokinetics and toxicity. RESULTS: Here, we summarize the cardiotoxicity and general toxicity profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment and outline the risks of repurposing and propose a stratification of patients accordingly. We shortlist a total of five compounds based on their non-toxic properties. CONCLUSION: In summary, this manuscript aims to provide a potentially useful source of essential knowledge on toxicity assessment of 90 compounds for healthcare practitioners and researchers to find off-label alternatives for the treatment for COVID-19. The majority of the molecules discussed in this manuscript have already moved into clinical trials and thus their known pharmacological and human safety profiles are expected to facilitate a fast track preclinical and clinical assessment for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Captopril/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxins/toxicity , Catechols/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Mice , Models, Biological , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Rats , Reproduction/drug effects , Software , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use
12.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 22(3): 268-272, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465907

ABSTRACT

Corona disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread around the world with no efficacious treatment. Intravenous remdesivir is the only authorized drug for treatment of COVID-19 disease under an Emergency Use Authorization. Remdesivir is a 1'-cyano-substituted adenosine nucleotide prodrug which inhibits viral RNA synthesis. This metabolite is an adenosine analog but with a significantly longer half-life than adenosine. Adenosine is a powerful vasodilator that can cause profound hypotension which is followed by the compensatory release of catecholamines. It can also shorten atrial action potential and refractoriness and lead to atrial fibrillation (AF). These effects may also occur in ventricular cells and predispose patients to ventricular fibrillation. Remdesivir can also induce significant cytotoxic effects in cardiomyocytes that is considerably worse than chloroquine cardiotoxic effects. Remdesivir-induced cardiotoxicity is due to its binding to human mitochondrial RNA polymerase. On the other hand, remdesivir can increase field potential duration with decreased Na+ peak amplitudes and spontaneous beating rates in a dose-dependent manner that might induce prolonged QT interval and torsade de point. There are some reports of sinus bradycardia, hypotension, T-wave abnormalities, AF, and a prolonged QT interval and few cases of cardiac arrest and complete heat block following remdesivir infusion. It seems remdesivir have some cardiotoxic and proarrhythmic effects that are especially more pronounced in patients with previous cardiovascular diseases. The current safety profile of remdesivir is still not completely known and further prospective clinical trials are needed to assess its safety profile and potential adverse cardiovascular effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Humans
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 191: 1114-1125, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442393

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), also known as peptidyl-dipeptidase A, belongs to the dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases family has emerged as a potential antiviral drug target against SARS-CoV-2. Most of the ACE2 inhibitors discovered till now are chemical synthesis; suffer from many limitations related to stability and adverse side effects. However, natural, and selective ACE2 inhibitors that possess strong stability and low side effects can be replaced instead of those chemicals' inhibitors. To envisage structurally diverse natural entities as an ACE2 inhibitor with better efficacy, a 3D structure-based-pharmacophore model (SBPM) has been developed and validated by 20 known selective inhibitors with their correspondence 1166 decoy compounds. The validated SBPM has excellent goodness of hit score and good predictive ability, which has been appointed as a query model for further screening of 11,295 natural compounds. The resultant 23 hits compounds with pharmacophore fit score 75.31 to 78.81 were optimized using in-silico ADMET and molecular docking analysis. Four potential natural inhibitory molecules namely D-DOPA (Amb17613565), L-Saccharopine (Amb6600091), D-Phenylalanine (Amb3940754), and L-Mimosine (Amb21855906) have been selected based on their binding affinity (-7.5, -7.1, -7.1, and -7.0 kcal/mol), respectively. Moreover, 250 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations confirmed the structural stability of the ligands within the protein. Additionally, MM/GBSA approach also used to support the stability of molecules to the binding site of the protein that also confirm the stability of the selected four natural compounds. The virtual screening strategy used in this study demonstrated four natural compounds that can be utilized for designing a future class of potential natural ACE2 inhibitor that will block the spike (S) protein dependent entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cell.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Binding Sites , Biological Products/pharmacokinetics , Biological Products/toxicity , Computer Simulation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 46: 116364, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406212

ABSTRACT

The nucleoside metabolite of remdesivir, GS-441524 displays potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy, and is being evaluated in clinical as an oral antiviral therapeutic for COVID-19. However, this nucleoside has a poor oral bioavailability in non-human primates, which may affect its therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we reported a variety of GS-441524 analogs with modifications on the base or the sugar moiety, as well as some prodrug forms, including five isobutyryl esters, two l-valine esters, and one carbamate. Among the new nucleosides, only the 7-fluoro analog 3c had moderate anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, and its phosphoramidate prodrug 7 exhibited reduced activity in Vero E6 cells. As for the prodrugs, the 3'-isobutyryl ester 5a, the 5'-isobutyryl ester 5c, and the tri-isobutyryl ester 5g hydrobromide showed excellent oral bioavailabilities (F = 71.6%, 86.6% and 98.7%, respectively) in mice, which provided good insight into the pharmacokinetic optimization of GS-441524.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine/toxicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Male , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prodrugs/chemical synthesis , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/toxicity , Vero Cells
15.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(9): 4125-4130, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404871

ABSTRACT

A recent publication in Science has proposed that cationic amphiphilic drugs repurposed for COVID-19 typically use phosholipidosis as their antiviral mechanism of action in cells but will have no in vivo efficacy. On the contrary, our viewpoint, supported by additional experimental data for similar cationic amphiphilic drugs, indicates that many of these molecules have both in vitro and in vivo efficacy with no reported phospholipidosis, and therefore, this class of compounds should not be avoided but further explored, as we continue the search for broad spectrum antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipidoses , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Humans , Lipidoses/drug therapy , Phospholipids , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Science ; 373(6554): 541-547, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334531

ABSTRACT

Repurposing drugs as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drawn much attention. Beginning with sigma receptor ligands and expanding to other drugs from screening in the field, we became concerned that phospholipidosis was a shared mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of many repurposed drugs. For all of the 23 cationic amphiphilic drugs we tested, including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, amiodarone, and four others already in clinical trials, phospholipidosis was monotonically correlated with antiviral efficacy. Conversely, drugs active against the same targets that did not induce phospholipidosis were not antiviral. Phospholipidosis depends on the physicochemical properties of drugs and does not reflect specific target-based activities-rather, it may be considered a toxic confound in early drug discovery. Early detection of phospholipidosis could eliminate these artifacts, enabling a focus on molecules with therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Lipidoses/chemically induced , Phospholipids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/virology , Cations , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Drugs R D ; 21(3): 273-283, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a novel disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 virus. It was first detected in December 2019 and has since been declared a pandemic causing millions of deaths worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019. A critical step in the crosstalk between the virus and the host cell is the binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the peptidase domain of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor present on the surface of host cells. METHODS: An in silico approach was employed to design a 13-amino acid peptide inhibitor (13AApi) against the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Its binding specificity for RBD was confirmed by molecular docking using pyDockWEB, ClusPro 2.0, and HDOCK web servers. The stability of 13AApi and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein complex was determined by molecular dynamics simulation using the GROMACS program while the physicochemical and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) properties of 13AApi were determined using the ExPASy tool and pkCSM server. Finally, in vitro validation of the inhibitory activity of 13AApi against the spike protein was performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In silico analyses indicated that the 13AApi could bind to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at the ACE2 binding site with high affinity. In vitro experiments validated the in silico findings, showing that 13AApi could significantly block the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. CONCLUSIONS: Blockage of binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ACE2 in the presence of the 13AApi may prevent virus entry into host cells. Therefore, the 13AApi can be utilized as a promising therapeutic agent to combat coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Binding Sites , Computer Simulation , Drug Design , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Peptides/pharmacokinetics , Peptides/toxicity , Protein Binding/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Substrate Specificity
18.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105196, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322004

ABSTRACT

So far, there is still no specific drug against COVID-19. Taking compound 1 with anti-EBOV activity as the lead, fifty-four 12N-substituted aloperine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities using pseudotyped virus model. Among them, 8a exhibited the most potential effects against both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2, as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, indicating a broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus profile. The mechanism study disclosed that 8a might block a late stage of viral entry, mainly via inhibiting host cathepsin B activity rather than directly targeting cathepsin B protein. Also, 8a could significantly reduce the release of multiple inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner, such as IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8 and MCP-1, the major contributors to cytokine storm. Therefore, 8a is a promising agent with the advantages of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus and anti-cytokine effects, thus worthy of further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Quinolizidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Cathepsin B/antagonists & inhibitors , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Piperidines/chemical synthesis , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Piperidines/toxicity , Quinolizidines/chemical synthesis , Quinolizidines/pharmacokinetics , Quinolizidines/toxicity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
19.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 22(2): 213-231, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288747

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is caused by different SARS viruses. In 2020, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) led to an ongoing pandemic, known as "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". The disease can spread among individuals through direct (via saliva, respiratory secretions, or secretion droplets) or indirect (through contaminated objects or surfaces) contact. The pandemic has spread rapidly from Asia to Europe and later to America. It continues to affect all parts of the world at an increasing rate. There have been over 92 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 by mid-January 2021. The similarity of homological sequences between SARS-CoV-2 and other SARSCoVs is high. In addition, clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and other SARS viruses show similarities. However, some COVID-19 cases show neurologic signs like headache, loss of smell, hiccups and encephalopathy. The drugs used in the palliative treatment of the disease also have some neurotoxic effects. Currently, there are approved vaccines for COVID-19. However, there is a need for specific therapeutics against COVID-19. This review will describe the neurological effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the neurotoxicity of COVID-19 drugs used in clinics. Drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 will be evaluated by their mechanism of action and their toxicological effects.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
20.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153591, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease caused more than 100,000,000 people get infected and over 2,200,000 people being killed worldwide. However, the current developed vaccines or drugs may be not effective in preventing the pandemic of COVID-19 due to the mutations of coronavirus and the severe side effects of the newly developed vaccines. Chinese herbal medicines and their active components play important antiviral activities. Corilagin exhibited antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, whether it blocks the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and hACE2 has not been elucidated. PURPOSE: To characterize an active compound, corilagin derived from Phyllanthus urinaria as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors for its possible preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products. METHODS: Computational docking coupled with bio-layer interferometry, BLI were adopted to screen more than 1800 natural compounds for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD inhibitors. Corilagin was confirmed to have a strong binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2-RBD or human ACE2 (hACE2) protein by the BLI, ELISA and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of viral infection of corilagin was assessed by in vitro pseudovirus system. Finally, the toxicity of corilagin was examined by using MTT assay and maximal tolerated dose (MTD) studies in C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS: Corilagin preferentially binds to a pocket that contains residues Cys 336 to Phe 374 of spike-RBD with a relatively low binding energy of -9.4 kcal/mol. BLI assay further confirmed that corilagin exhibits a relatively strong binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2-RBD and hACE2 protein. In addition, corilagin dose-dependently blocks SARS-CoV-2-RBD binding and abolishes the infectious property of RBD-pseudotyped lentivirus in hACE2 overexpressing HEK293 cells, which mimicked the entry of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human host cells. Finally, in vivo studies revealed that up to 300 mg/kg/day of corilagin was safe in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings suggest that corilagin could be a safe and potential antiviral agent against the COVID-19 acting through the blockade of the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD to hACE2 receptors. CONCLUSION: Corilagin could be considered as a safe and environmental friendly anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent for its potential preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/toxicity , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/toxicity , Lentivirus Infections/drug therapy , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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