Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 457
Filter
1.
Lancet ; 398(10312): 1700-1712, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before 2020, mental disorders were leading causes of the global health-related burden, with depressive and anxiety disorders being leading contributors to this burden. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has created an environment where many determinants of poor mental health are exacerbated. The need for up-to-date information on the mental health impacts of COVID-19 in a way that informs health system responses is imperative. In this study, we aimed to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence and burden of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders globally in 2020. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of data reporting the prevalence of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and published between Jan 1, 2020, and Jan 29, 2021. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, preprint servers, grey literature sources, and consulted experts. Eligible studies reported prevalence of depressive or anxiety disorders that were representative of the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic and had a pre-pandemic baseline. We used the assembled data in a meta-regression to estimate change in the prevalence of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders between pre-pandemic and mid-pandemic (using periods as defined by each study) via COVID-19 impact indicators (human mobility, daily SARS-CoV-2 infection rate, and daily excess mortality rate). We then used this model to estimate the change from pre-pandemic prevalence (estimated using Disease Modelling Meta-Regression version 2.1 [known as DisMod-MR 2.1]) by age, sex, and location. We used final prevalence estimates and disability weights to estimate years lived with disability and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. FINDINGS: We identified 5683 unique data sources, of which 48 met inclusion criteria (46 studies met criteria for major depressive disorder and 27 for anxiety disorders). Two COVID-19 impact indicators, specifically daily SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and reductions in human mobility, were associated with increased prevalence of major depressive disorder (regression coefficient [B] 0·9 [95% uncertainty interval 0·1 to 1·8; p=0·029] for human mobility, 18·1 [7·9 to 28·3; p=0·0005] for daily SARS-CoV-2 infection) and anxiety disorders (0·9 [0·1 to 1·7; p=0·022] and 13·8 [10·7 to 17·0; p<0·0001]. Females were affected more by the pandemic than males (B 0·1 [0·1 to 0·2; p=0·0001] for major depressive disorder, 0·1 [0·1 to 0·2; p=0·0001] for anxiety disorders) and younger age groups were more affected than older age groups (-0·007 [-0·009 to -0·006; p=0·0001] for major depressive disorder, -0·003 [-0·005 to -0·002; p=0·0001] for anxiety disorders). We estimated that the locations hit hardest by the pandemic in 2020, as measured with decreased human mobility and daily SARS-CoV-2 infection rate, had the greatest increases in prevalence of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. We estimated an additional 53·2 million (44·8 to 62·9) cases of major depressive disorder globally (an increase of 27·6% [25·1 to 30·3]) due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such that the total prevalence was 3152·9 cases (2722·5 to 3654·5) per 100 000 population. We also estimated an additional 76·2 million (64·3 to 90·6) cases of anxiety disorders globally (an increase of 25·6% [23·2 to 28·0]), such that the total prevalence was 4802·4 cases (4108·2 to 5588·6) per 100 000 population. Altogether, major depressive disorder caused 49·4 million (33·6 to 68·7) DALYs and anxiety disorders caused 44·5 million (30·2 to 62·5) DALYs globally in 2020. INTERPRETATION: This pandemic has created an increased urgency to strengthen mental health systems in most countries. Mitigation strategies could incorporate ways to promote mental wellbeing and target determinants of poor mental health and interventions to treat those with a mental disorder. Taking no action to address the burden of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders should not be an option. FUNDING: Queensland Health, National Health and Medical Research Council, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 98, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795801

ABSTRACT

Network analysis is an effective approach for examining complex relationships between psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to examine item-level relationships between depressive and anxiety symptoms using network analysis in an adolescent sample and identified the most central symptoms within the depressive-anxiety symptoms network model. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7), respectively. The structure of depressive and anxiety symptoms was characterized using "Strength" and "Bridge Strength" as centrality indices in the symptom network. Network stability was tested using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. Finally, a Network Comparison Test (NCT) was conducted to examine whether network characteristics differed on the basis of gender, school grade and residence. Network analysis revealed that nodes PHQ2 ("Sad mood"), GAD6 ("Irritability"), GAD3 ("Worry too much"), and PHQ6 ("Guilty") were central symptoms in the network model of adolescents. Additionally, bridge symptoms linking anxiety and depressive symptoms in this sample were nodes PHQ6 ("Guilty"), PHQ2 ("Sad mood"), and PHQ9 ("Suicide ideation"). Gender, school grade and residence did not significantly affect the network structure. Central symptoms (e.g., Sad mood, Irritability, Worry too much, and Guilty) and key bridge symptoms (e.g., Guilty, Sad mood, and Suicide ideation) in the depressive and anxiety symptoms network may be useful as potential targets for intervention among adolescents who are at risk for or suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793522

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented experience of national lockdowns and uncertainty of academic career due to the COVID-19 pandemic has multifaceted impacts on mental health among university students worldwide. This study determined its impact on depression and anxiety level, and associated risk factors among engineering students studying at College of Science and Technology (CST), Phuentsholing, Bhutan during the first lockdown in the country. Self-reported depression and anxiety levels were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) respectively. Data was collected using an e-questionnaire link generated in Google form and the link was shared with students via the student's official email group. A total of 278 students (response rate, 26.9%) completed the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were male (69.8%) and were aged from 18 to 30 (Mean: 21.7 ±SD 2.07) years. The prevalence of self-reported moderate to severe depression and anxiety were 44.2% (95% CI, 38.5-49.6) and 27.3% (95% CI, 22.3-32.4) respectively. Participants having their family members as frontline workers reported a significantly higher level of anxiety (χ2 = 4.85, p = 0.028). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, students who were academically lagging showed a higher risk of depression (AOR = 5.36, 95% CI = 2.86-10.04) and anxiety (AOR = 3.83, 95%CI = 1.86-7.88) as compared to students who were not academically behind. A high percentage of depression and anxiety was reported by students of CST during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings from the study highlight the importance of adopting appropriate online-based teaching and learning methods to ensure timely academic and professional achievements. Moreover, the relevant stakeholders should put health system strategies in place to provide psychological support to university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Bhutan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
4.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604218, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789432

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Recent literature points out that elderly people are psychologically resilient to COVID-19, but the studies were performed in specific contexts. We measured the link between the worsening of mental health symptoms, the epidemiologic situation, and control measures among European people aged 50 or older. Methods: We used data from the 2020 wave of SHARE, merged with Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker data (n = 38,358). We modeled the risk of worsening of depression, anxiety, sleeping trouble, and loneliness symptoms' self-perception, as functions of control measures and 7-days death incidence, using logistic regressions. Results: The worsening of anxiety and depression perception were more common (16.2 and 23.1%, respectively), compared to that of sleeping troubles and loneliness (8.1 and 11.5%, respectively). The worsening of depression and anxiety perception was negatively related to the rigor of control measures. The seven-days death incidence was positively linked to all symptoms except sleeping troubles. Conclusion: Older people were the most exposed to death risk and were affected psychologically by the COVID-19 epidemiological situation; yet control measures were protective (or neutral) to their mental health condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are continuously exposed to a high level of stress, especially emergency department professionals. In the present research, we aimed to determine the internal consistency and validity of the Stress Factors and Manifestations Scale for in-hospital and out-of-hospital emergency workers. METHODS: A quantitative, prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study including 269 emergency service professionals. RESULTS: The scale was composed of 21 items, with a Cronbach's α value of 0.908. The hospital workers (38.4 ± 10.8 vs. 35.1 ± 9.9, p = 0.014) and women (39.3 ± 11.4 vs. 34.2 ± 8.6, p < 0.001) had higher levels of stress. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scale were adequate. CONCLUSION: In the present study, including in-hospital and out-of-hospital emergency workers, the Stress Factors and Manifestations Scale presented appropriate usefulness, internal consistency, and validity, with optimal predictive ability. Higher levels of anxiety, female gender, being less optimistic, and working in hospital emergency departments were related to increased stress levels. Further studies are warranted to validate our results and potentially extend the Stress Factors and Manifestations Scale to other contexts.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Personnel, Hospital , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780008

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the changes in prevalence estimates, severity, and risk factors of anxiety among healthcare workers (HCWs) over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was distributed among HCWs using snowball sampling, collecting their socio-demographics, occupation, and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale. It was distributed one month after the pandemic's onset in Jordan between 15 and 30 April 2020 (onset group) and after one year between 15 and 30 March 2021 (one-year group). A total of 422 HCWs were included (211 in each group). The one-year group reported a higher risk of GAD (30.8% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.001), a higher mean (SD) GAD-7 score (7.94 (5.29) vs. 6.15 (4.15); p < 0.001), and more severe symptoms (p = 0.003). Univariate analyses showed that participants who were younger, women, unmarried, had lower monthly incomes, underwent testing for COVID-19, had higher contact with COVID-19 patients, did not receive special education, and were unsatisfied with the institutional COVID-19 preparedness scored higher on the GAD-7 scale and had more severe symptoms than their counterparts in both groups. Unlike the onset group, occupation as a physician, COVID-19 infection history, and perception of remarkable changes in work were associated with higher anxiety scores and severity among the one-year group. The COVID-19 vaccine was a relative protective action. Logistic regression analyses showed that the female gender was a risk factor for developing GAD at the pandemic onset, while poor satisfaction with institutional preparedness was a significant GAD risk factor in the one-year group. Low monthly income and lack of special education were the shared risk factors for GAD in both groups. This study reveals a significant rise in anxiety among HCWs over a year of the COVID-19 pandemic and shows the vulnerable sub-groups who likely need psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 827238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779969

ABSTRACT

Background: Teachers play a central role in successful education. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, regular in-person attendance in classes at all levels of education has been disrupted for more than 1 year in many countries. These lockdowns, which include the discontinuation of in person learning at schools and universities has presented a significant challenge for teachers to adapt to online teaching. Given this rapid format change, occupational anxiety levels among educators has increased. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety among teachers in Saudi Arabia. A secondary objective was to explore characteristics of teachers associated with the level of anxiety level during the period of lockdown. Methods: An anonymous, online cross-sectional study was carried for 3 months (February 2021 through April 2021). The questionnaire consisted of four sections and included the Generalized Anxiety Disorder instrument (GAD-7). Chi-square tests were completed for categorical comparisons while binary logistic regressions were used for associative relationship exploration. The IRB at King Saudi University Medical City, Saudi Arabia approved this study. Results: A total of 742 respondents completed the survey yielding an anxiety prevalence of 58.2 % among teachers. Medium degree of statistically significant differences identified as marital status (p = 0.046). women had higher anxiety (65.3%) than men (34.7%) but gender with anxiety was low degree of statistical significance compared with non-anxiety status (p = 0.697). The odds of anxiety among middle teachers was twice (OR = 2.01) as high as the odds of anxiety among other levels of teacher (p = 0.01, 95% CI 0.94-4.26). Conclusions: This study identified that many teachers experienced anxiety during the lockdown, especially women and middle school teachers. Future studies should identify contributing factors to estimate the magnitude of the exposure to anxiety between different types of teachers to help establish better preventive measures based on the workplace environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
8.
J Anxiety Disord ; 87: 102554, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No studies have examined whether levels of COVID stress vary across anxiety-related disorders. Likewise, no studies have assessed structural invariance of the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) across clinical diagnoses. We sought to address these issues in the present study. Given the dynamic nature of pandemics, we also assessed whether COVID stress changed from the first to third wave in those with clinical diagnoses and those with no mental health conditions. METHOD: Data were collected during COVID-19 from two independent samples of adults assessed about a year apart (early-mid in 2020, N = 6854; and early-mid 2021, N = 5812) recruited from Canada and the United States through an online survey. Participants provided demographic information, indicated the presence of current (i.e., past-year) anxiety-related or mood disorder, and completed the CSS. RESULTS: The five CSS were reliable (internally consistent), and the five-factor structure was stable across samples. Scores tended to be highest in people with anxiety-related or mood disorders, particularly panic disorder. As expected, scores fluctuated over time, being higher during the early phases of the pandemic when threat was greatest and lower during the later phases, when vaccines were deployed and the COVID-19 threat was reduced. CONCLUSION: The findings add to the growing number of studies supporting the psychometric properties of the CSS. The results encourage further investigations into the utility of the scales, such as their ability to detect treatment-related changes in COVID-19-related distress. The scales also show promise for studies of future pandemics or outbreaks because the CSS can be modified, with minor wording changes, to assess distress associated with all kinds of disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression , Humans , Psychometrics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United States
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 692162, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775812

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Firefighters were working in exceptionally difficult conditions during the Fort McMurray/Horse River fire in May 2016. Methods: From mid-May, we recruited firefighters from 13 fire services as they returned from the fire. In October 2016 we extended recruitment to all Alberta-based firefighters deployed to the fire. In December 2017-May 2018 we sent a first online follow-up: this concentrated on mental health supports. The second follow-up, in October 2018-January 2019, included screening scales for respiratory ill-health and PTSD. All three contacts included visual analogue scales for chest symptoms and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We estimated exposure to PM2.5, and calculated an exposure mitigation index from reports of respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Results: We recruited 1,234 firefighters and examined the relation of respiratory symptoms to estimated particulate exposure. The relation was strong immediately post fire but weakened over time. We found less chest tightness and cough in those whose RPE in the first week mitigated exposure by at least 10%. We examined the relation between particulate exposure and mental ill-health from screening questionnaires and found those with high exposure (reflecting the ferocity of the fire) had poorer mental health scores. Firefighters reporting their "worst moment during the fire" was life threatening were more anxious at second follow-up. Overall both anxiety and depression scores increased at successive contacts, more so in those with mental ill-health recorded in physician billing records before the fire. Discussion: The results from this study overall suggest on-going fire-related health effects in a substantial minority of firefighters, similar to those reported in the longitudinal follow-up of firefighters after the collapse of the World Trade Centre. Self-reports of both respiratory symptoms and mental ill-health were strongly related, soon after the fire, to estimated particulate exposures. Anxiety increased over time since the fire in those who felt their life or safety had been threatened, underlining the need for ongoing support. Our conclusions about the benefits of rapid research relate particularly to the collection of biomarkers of exposure as quickly and widely as possible, and the establishment of a nominal list of participants before they are too widely dispersed.


Subject(s)
Firefighters , Anxiety Disorders , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 859107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776087

ABSTRACT

Studying in college can be a challenging time for many students, which can affect their mental health. In addition to academic pressure and stressful tasks, another aggravating factor in student life is the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms in Czech and Slovak college students during the COVID-19 pandemic and to evaluate possible socio-demographic determinants of mental health problems. A total of 3,099 respondents participated in this cross-sectional study (Czech Republic: 1,422, Slovakia: 1,677). The analyzes included the Patient Health Questionnaire for somatic symptoms (PHQ-15), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder instrument (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9). Socio-demographic factors were gender, age, family structure, marital status, form of study, degree of study, year of study, field of study, distance between home and college, residence, and housing during the semester. Among Czech students, prevalence of somatic complaints, anxiety and depression was 72.2, 40.3, and 52%, respectively. Among Slovak students, prevalence of somatic complaints, anxiety and depression was 69.5, 34.6, and 47%, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the most severe mental health problems were identified in a non-negligible part of the sample (Czech Republic: PHQ-15 = 10.1%, GAD-7 = 4.9%, PHQ-9 = 3.4%; Slovakia: PHQ-15 = 7.4%, GAD-7 = 3.5%, PHQ-9 = 2.7%). Regarding the differences between the analyzed countries, a significantly higher score in somatic symptoms, anxiety, and depression was identified in the Czech Republic. Significant differences in mental disorders were found in most socio-demographic characteristics. The main results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that risk factors for mental health disorders in Czech and Slovak students were female gender, younger age, third degree of study, and study of Informatics, Mathematics, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Especially in the case of these high-risk groups of students, public policies should consider a response to impending problems. The findings are an appeal for a proactive approach to improving the mental health of students and for the implementation of effective prevention programs, which are more than necessary in the Czech and Slovak college environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Slovakia/epidemiology , Students/psychology
11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2055294, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774261

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-hospitalisation, hospitalisation and post-hospitalisation factors may significantly affect depression, anxiety and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among COVID-19 survivors. Objective: Our study investigated depression, anxiety and PTG and their correlates among COVID-19 survivors. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey recruited 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7; 53.3% females) at six-month follow-up after hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan and Nanning). Their demographic information, clinical records and experiences during (e.g. severity of covid-19 symptoms, treatment and exposure to other patients' suffering) and after hospitalisation (e.g. perceived impact of covid-19, somatic symptoms after hospitalisation), and psychosocial factors (e.g. perceived discrimination, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, resilience and social support) were investigated. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. PTG was examined by the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) instrument. Results: The proportion of depressive symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 76.9%, 12.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The proportion of anxiety symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 77.4%, 15.1% and 7.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived affiliate stigma and perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 were significantly and positively associated with probable depression. Significant correlates of probable anxiety also included permanent residents of the city, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 and self-stigma. Social support, self-stigma and receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation were positively associated with PTG.Conclusions: The results suggest that post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors. Promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve the mental health of COVID-19 survivors. HIGHLIGHTS: • Post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors, promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve mental health of COVID-19 survivors.


Antecedentes: Los factores pre-hospitalización, durante la hospitalización y post-hospitalización pueden afectar significativamente la depresión, la ansiedad y el crecimiento postraumático (CPT) en los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Objetivo: Nuestro estudio investigó la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT y sus correlatos en sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Método: Una encuesta telefónica transversal reclutó a 199 pacientes con COVID-19 (edad promedio = 42,7; 53,3% mujeres) a los seis meses de seguimiento después del alta hospitalaria en cinco ciudades chinas (Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan y Nanning). Su información demográfica, registros clínicos y experiencias durante la hospitalización (e.g. gravedad de los síntomas de COVID-19, tratamiento, exposición al sufrimiento de otros pacientes) y después de la hospitalización (e.g. impacto percibido de COVID-19, síntomas somáticos después de la hospitalización) y factores psicosociales (e.g. discriminación percibida, autoestigma, estigma de afiliación, resiliencia, apoyo social) fueron investigados. Los síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad se midieron mediante el Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente (PHQ-9 en su sigla en inglés) y la escala de trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (GAD-7 en su sigla en inglés) respectivamente, el CPT se examinó mediante el instrumento Inventario de Crecimiento Postraumático (PTGI en su sigla en inglés).Resultados: La proporción de síntomas depresivos <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue 76,9%, 12,0% y 11,1% respectivamente. La proporción de síntomas de ansiedad <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue del 77,4%, 15,1% y 7,5% respectivamente. La regresión logística multivariante mostró que recibir servicios de atención de salud mental durante la hospitalización, los síntomas somáticos después del alta, el estigma de afiliación percibido y el impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 se asociaron significativa y positivamente con una probable depresión. Los correlatos significativos de ansiedad probable también incluyeron ser residente permanente de la ciudad, síntomas somáticos después del alta, impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 y autoestigma. El apoyo social, el autoestigma y recibir servicios de salud mental durante la hospitalización se asociaron positivamente con el CPT.Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los factores psicosociales y posteriores a la hospitalización tuvieron asociaciones relativamente más fuertes con la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT que los factores previos a la hospitalización y hospitalización. Promover el apoyo social y la inclusión social pueden ser estrategias útiles para mejorar la salud mental de los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Survivors
12.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 75(3-04): 111-116, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771938

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Vaccination refusal is a serious obstacle to minimizing the spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the rejection of vaccine can be considered the result of a negative attitude towards medical treatment, and according to our previously published data, it can be influenced by the underlying affective state. Increased incidence of affective disorders and anxiety could be observed globally during the pandemic, which may have a significant impact on vaccination acceptance. The aim of our pilot study was to determine the association between clinical improvement of affective and neurocognitive symptoms and change of drug attitude and health control beliefs in a sample of psychiatric patients. Methods: A data set of 85 patients with psychiatric disorder has been analysed with the use of Patient's Health Belief Questionnaire on Psychiatric Treatment (PHBQPT) with 5 subscales (Negative Aspect of Medication - NA; Positive Aspect of Medication - PA; Doctor health locus of control- Doctor HLOC; Internal HLOC; Psychological Reactance - PR); Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-Anx; HADS-Dep) and neurocognitive tests, such as the Stroop test and the Trail Making Tests. All the tests were performed before and after a 14 days treatment. Paired t-tests and generalized linear models were performed to assess the associations between the variables. Results: The baseline scores of NA and HADS-Anx correlated significantly (p=0.001) and after two weeks of treatment NA decreased (p=0.001), while Doctor HLOC and Internal HLOC increased (p=0.001 and p=0.006). The patients performance of the neurocognitive tests improved (all p<0.05). The reduction of HADS-Anx (p=0.002) and HADS-Dep (p=0.006) scores showed significant associations with the decrease of NA. Increase of the PA score was associated with reduction of HADS-Dep (p=0.028). Improvement of neurocognitive functions had no effect on PHBQPT scores. Conclusion: Important conclusions can be drawn regarding the rejection of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the associations found between the intensity of affective and anxiety symptoms and the attitude towards treatment. Our findings suggest that affective symptoms have a negative influence on the attitude towards treatment and that the improvement of these symptoms can facilitate the acceptance of the therapy, regardless of diagnosis. The modest effect of the improvement of neurocognitive functioning on the attitude towards drugs and the significant role of affective-emotional factors suggest that the accep-tance of vaccination probably cannot be facilitated solely with the aid of educational programs. Considering the increasing incidence of affective disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic, the screening of affective and anxiety symptoms and treatment of these disorders could be an important step towards the acceptance of the vaccine. Although psychiatry is not considered as a frontline care unit of the COVID cases, more attention is needed to pay on the availability of mental health services because refuse of vaccine can develop due to affective disorders too.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e31831, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health and pregnancy apps are widely available and have the potential to improve health outcomes and enhance women's experience of pregnancy. Women frequently access digital information throughout their pregnancy. However, health care providers and women have little information to guide them toward potentially helpful or effective apps. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to evaluate a methodology for systematically searching and reviewing commercially available apps that support pregnant women with symptoms of anxiety in order to assist maternity care professionals in identifying resources that they could recommend for these women. METHODS: A stepwise systematic approach was used to identify, select, describe, and assess the most popular and highly user-rated apps available in the United Kingdom from January to March 2021. This included developing a script-based search strategy and search process, writing evaluation criteria, and conducting a narrative description and evaluation of the selected apps. RESULTS: Useful search terms were identified, which included nonclinical, aspirational, and problem-based phrases. There were 39 apps selected for inclusion in the review. No apps specifically targeted women with anxiety in pregnancy. Of the 39 apps included in the review, 33 (85%) focused solely on mind-body techniques to promote relaxation, stress reduction, and psychological well-being. Only 8 of the 39 (21%) apps included in the review reported that health care professionals had contributed to app development and only 1/39 (3%) provided empirical evidence on the effectiveness and acceptability of the app. The top 12/39 (31%) apps were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers using the developed criteria and scores. There was a small negative correlation between the reviewers' scores and app user rating scores, with higher user rating scores associated with lower reviewer scores. CONCLUSIONS: App developers, publishers, and maternity care professionals should seek advice from women with lived experience of anxiety symptoms in pregnancy to locate, promote, and optimize the visibility of apps for pregnant women. There is a lack of resources that provide coping strategies based on current evidence for the treatment of anxiety in pregnancy. Maternity care providers are limited in their ability to locate and recommend acceptable and trustworthy apps because of the lack of information on the evidence base, development, and testing of apps. Maternity care professionals and women need access to libraries of trusted apps that have been evaluated against relevant and established criteria.


Subject(s)
Maternal Health Services , Mobile Applications , Obstetrics , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 272, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antenatal anxiety has been linked to adverse obstetric outcomes, including miscarriage and preterm birth. However, most studies investigating anxiety during pregnancy, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, have focused on symptoms during the second and third trimester. This study aims to describe the prevalence of anxiety symptoms early in pregnancy and identify predictors of early pregnancy anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We assessed baseline moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms after enrollment in the UCSF ASPIRE (Assessing the Safety of Pregnancy in the Coronavirus Pandemic) Prospective Cohort from May 2020 through February 2021. Pregnant persons < 10 weeks' gestation completed questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric/medical history, and pandemic-related experiences. Univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses determined predictors of moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire score ≥ 10). All analyses performed with Statistical Analysis Software (SAS®) version 9.4. RESULTS: A total of 4,303 persons completed the questionnaire. The mean age of this nationwide sample was 33 years of age and 25.7% of participants received care through a fertility clinic. Over twelve percent of pregnant persons reported moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms. In univariate analysis, less than a college education (p < 0.0001), a pre-existing history of anxiety (p < 0.0001), and a history of prior miscarriage (p = 0.0143) were strong predictors of moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms. Conversely, having received care at a fertility center was protective (26.6% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.0009). COVID-19 related stressors including job loss, reduced work hours during the pandemic, inability to pay rent, very or extreme worry about COVID-19, and perceived stress were strongly predictive of anxiety in pregnancy (p < 0.0001). In the hierarchical logistic regression model, pre-existing history of anxiety remained associated with anxiety during pregnancy, while the significance of the effect of education was attenuated. CONCLUSION(S): Pre-existing history of anxiety and socioeconomic factors likely exacerbated the impact of pandemic-related stressors on early pregnancy anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite on-going limitations for in-person prenatal care administration, continued emotional health support should remain an important focus for providers, particularly when caring for less privileged pregnant persons or those with a pre-existing history of anxiety.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
15.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(1): 5-10, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the rates of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after hospital discharge among COVID-19 survivors and to determine the associated risk factors. METHODS: Adult COVID-19 survivors discharged from hospitals between March 2020 and March 2021 were asked to complete a questionnaire at 4 weeks after discharge. The Chinese version of the 22-item Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) was used to measure symptoms of PTSD. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of major depressive disorder. The 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) was used to measure symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder. The rates of anxiety, depression, and PTSD among discharged patients were determined, as were associations between psychosocial factors and outcome measures and predictors for moderate-tosevere symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. RESULTS: 96 men and 103 women aged 18 to 81 years returned the completed questionnaire. 12.1% to 20.1% of them reported symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, or depression. Higher symptom severity was associated with higher perceived life threat, lower emotional support, lower disease severity upon admission, and longer hospital stay. Women had more PTSD symptoms than men, particularly when knowing someone under quarantine. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 survivors with higher perceived life threat, lower emotional support, lower disease severity upon admission, and longer hospital stay were associated with higher severity of symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Timely intervention should provide to at-risk survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors , Young Adult
16.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 249-256, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764699

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 outbreak imposed stress worldwide, as daily routine changed almost overnight, with no time to prepare. A pandemic like this may trigger a chain reaction starting out as surprise, continuing to uncertainty and ending up either in adaptation or in symptoms of fear, anxiety, and/or depression. Resilience on the other hand could lessen anxiety and prove to be a prophylactic coping mechanism against distress. This study explored peritraumatic distress, intolerance of uncertainty (IU), and resilient coping in a sample of 2717 adults who voluntarily and anonymously participated in an online survey conducted in April 2020, in Greece.Results indicated a moderate pandemic-related mental burden and medium resilient coping and designated IU as a significant positive predictor of peritraumatic distress; resilient coping proved to be a significant moderator that alters the strength of the association between IU and distress reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Uncertainty
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760612

ABSTRACT

Eating disorders are among the most common clinical manifestations in children, and they are frequently connected with maternal psychopathological risk, internalizing/externalizing problems in children, and poor quality of mother-child feeding exchanges. During the COVID-19 lockdown, in person assessment and intervention were impeded due to the indications of maintaining interpersonal distancing and by limits to travel. Therefore, web-based methods were adopted to meet patients' needs. In this study N = 278 participants completed the SCL-90/R and the CBCL to examine the psychopathological symptoms of mothers and children (age of the children = 24 months); moreover, the dyads were video-recorded during feeding and followed an online video-feedback based intervention. Maternal emotional state, interactive conflict, food refusal in children, and dyadic affective state all improved considerably, as did offspring internalizing/externalizing problems and mothers' depression, anxiety, and obsession-compulsion symptoms. This study showed that video-feedback web-based intervention might be employed successfully to yield considerable beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Internet-Based Intervention , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760605

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Ongoing specialized programs for health professionals (HPs) adapted their treatment services during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of medical e-records of HPs with mental disorders working in Catalonia that were consecutively admitted to the Galatea Care Program Clinical Unit. The sample (N = 1461) was divided into two periods: 21.5 months before (n = 637) and after (n = 824) 14 March 2020. (3) Results: There was a significant increase (29.4%) in the number of referrals to the specialized Clinical Unit during the pandemic, especially with respect to physicians compared to nurses. The percentage of HP women at admission and the clinical severity of the first treatment episode remained without changes before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The most prevalent main diagnoses also remained similar: adjustment disorders (41.5%), mood disorders (24.9%), anxiety disorders (14.4%), and substance use disorders (11.8%). (4) Conclusions: HPs, particularly physicians, more frequently sought voluntary help from specialized mental health programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies are needed to analyze the reasons behind this finding and the evolution of referrals to these types of programs after the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychotherapy
19.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604430, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753425

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To examine the association of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) with anxiety and depressive symptoms among adults and determine if these associations varied by gender and age. Methods: We combined survey data from 16,177,184 adults from 43 countries who participated in the daily COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey via Facebook with time-varying NPI data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker between 24 April 2020 and 20 December 2020. Using logistic regression models, we examined the association of [1] overall NPI stringency and [2] seven individual NPIs (school closures, workplace closures, cancellation of public events, restrictions on the size of gatherings, stay-at-home requirements, restrictions on internal movement, and international travel controls) with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results: More stringent implementation of NPIs was associated with a higher odds of anxiety and depressive symptoms, albeit with very small effect sizes. Individual NPIs had heterogeneous associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms by gender and age. Conclusion: Governments worldwide should be prepared to address the possible mental health consequences of stringent NPI implementation with both universal and targeted interventions for vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Humans
20.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 25, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753135

ABSTRACT

Spatial skills are critical for student success in K-12 STEM education. Teachers' spatial skills and feelings about completing spatial tasks influence students' spatial and STEM learning at both the primary and secondary levels. However, whether spatial skills and spatial anxiety differ or not between these two teacher levels is unknown. Additionally, the relations between teachers' spatial skills, spatial anxiety, and their use of spatial pedagogical practices in remote learning settings is unknown. Here, we investigated if spatial skills and spatial anxiety differ between teachers working at primary versus secondary levels, and examined the relations between their spatial skills and spatial anxiety while accounting for additional influential factors-general reasoning ability and general anxiety. Lastly, we investigated how teachers' spatial skills in conjunction with their spatial anxiety relate to their use of spatial teaching practices for online instruction. Sixty-two K-12 teachers completed measures of spatial skills, spatial anxiety, general anxiety, general reasoning, and a teaching activities questionnaire. Results indicate that spatial skills and spatial anxiety may not vary between teachers working at primary versus secondary levels, but that higher spatial skills in teachers are associated with lower spatial anxiety for mental manipulation tasks. Additionally, teachers with weaker spatial skills and lower mental manipulation anxiety reported more frequently using spatial teaching practices when teaching remotely due to COVID-19. These findings may have broad implications for teacher professional development with regards to developing students' spatial skills during remote learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Educational Personnel , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Learning , Students
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL