Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 315
Filter
2.
J Affect Disord ; 310: 384-395, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131258

ABSTRACT

Studies conducted during the pandemic revealed strong associations between gender and COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. Females perceive coronavirus as a greater threat to personal health and population than males. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to estimate gender difference in COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. The second purpose of this study is to clarify the role of potential moderators in COVID-19 fear and anxiety. For these reasons, studies published between March 2020 and October 2021 were searched in various databases (Web of Science, SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar). In total, 315 studies met the inclusion criteria, and 60 studies for COVID-19 related fear and 23 studies for COVID-19 related anxiety were included in the current study. Cohen's d effect size values were calculated based on these individual studies showing the difference between males and females in terms of COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. Results revealed that gender has a moderate and statistically significant effect on COVID-19 related fear (ES = 0.307) and anxiety (ES = 0.316) in favor of females. Moderator analyses showed that continent variable was a statistically significant moderator of gender difference in COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. The highest effect size of gender differences in COVID-related fear and anxiety were obtained from the studies conducted in Europe. However, other moderators (the average age of sample, culture, timing, and population) were not statistically significant. Although this meta-analysis has a few limitations, the findings showed that COVID-19 outbreak negatively affected females more.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fear , Female , Humans , Male
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 996386, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123474

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses are at high risk for depression and anxiety symptoms after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to assess the network structure of anxiety and depression symptoms among Chinese nurses in the late stage of this pandemic. Method: A total of 6,183 nurses were recruited across China from Oct 2020 to Apr 2021 through snowball sampling. We used Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7 (GAD-7) to assess depression and anxiety, respectively. We used the Ising model to estimate the network. The index "expected influence" and "bridge expected influence" were applied to determine the central symptoms and bridge symptoms of the anxiety-depression network. We tested the stability and accuracy of the network via the case-dropping procedure and non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. Result: The network had excellent stability and accuracy. Central symptoms included "restlessness", "trouble relaxing", "sad mood", and "uncontrollable worry". "Restlessness", "nervous", and "suicidal thoughts" served as bridge symptoms. Conclusion: Restlessness emerged as the strongest central and bridge symptom in the anxiety-depression network of nurses. Intervention on depression and anxiety symptoms in nurses should prioritize this symptom.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Humans , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110088

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that during the COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety and depression during the perinatal period increased. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of risk for both maternal depression and anxiety among women attending 18 healthcare centres in Italy during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic and to investigate the psychosocial risks and protective factors associated. It was divided into a retrospective phase (2019, 2020, and the first nine months of 2021) and a prospective phase (which began in November 2021 and it is still ongoing), which screened 12,479 and 2349 women, respectively, for a total of 14,828 women in the perinatal period. To evaluate the risk of anxiety and depression, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and an ad hoc form were used to collect sociodemographic variables. In the prospective study, the average age of the women is 31 (range 18-52) years. Results showed that the percentage of women who had EPDS score ≥9 increased from 11.6% in 2019 to 25.5% in the period ranging from November 2021 to April 2022. In logistic regression models, the variables associated with the risk of depression at a level ≤0.01 include having economic problems (OR 2.16) and not being able to rely on support from relatives or friends (OR 2.36). Having the professional status of the housewife is a lower risk (OR 0.52). Those associated with the risk of anxiety include being Italian (OR 2.97), having an education below secondary school level (OR 0.47), having some or many economic problems (OR 2.87), being unable to rely on support from relatives or friends (OR 2.48), and not having attended an antenatal course (OR 1.41). The data from this survey could be useful to determine the impact of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic on women and to establish a screening program with common and uniformly applied criteria which are consistent with national and international women's mental health programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Retrospective Studies , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2062, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic that has resulted in social distancing, lockdowns, and increase in media posts has taken a toll on the mental health of many people especially those living with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The main objective of this study is to understand whether the source of information people use to receive information about COVID-19 and increase or decrease in personal weekly habits during the pandemic were associated with severity of GAD.  METHODS: This study was a cross sectional design and was based on data from Canada. The Canadian Perspective Survey Series (CPSS) 4, 2020: Information Sourced Consulted During the Pandemic was used for the study. The outcome variable was severity of GAD. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out using STATA IC 13. RESULTS: Severity of GAD was significantly associated with being a female, the type of information source used to find out about COVID-19 and change in weekly habits (consuming alcohol, consuming cannabis spending time on the internet and eating junk foods or sweets). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that getting information from credible sources about the pandemic, staying connected with family and friends, seeking virtual mental health services, and learning positive coping strategies can help reduce the severity of GAD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Canada/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
6.
Work ; 73(3): 809-818, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to determine nurses' levels of knowledge, health-protective practices for work and social life, and mental health states at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the pandemic and minimize further problems. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships between knowledge levels, health-protective practices, and anxiety among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out with the online participation of 605 nurses in Turkey. The researchers prepared a questionnaire form to evaluate the participants' knowledge of COVID-19 and their awareness and health-protective behaviours in work and social life. The mental health statuses of the participants were assessed with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaire. RESULTS: Most of the participants (87.8%) had high levels of knowledge of COVID-19, while 28.8% had severe levels of anxiety disorder. The use of alcohol-based hand disinfectants (88.2%) and the use of N95 or N99 masks (88.5%) were the least frequently practiced protective behaviours at work, while in social life, a healthy and balanced diet (61.6%), social distancing (72.8%), and paying attention to one's sleep pattern (77.3%) were the least frequently practiced protective behaviours. Older age (41-50 years), higher education (master's degree) and having a work experience of 10 years or more were determined to increase the knowledge levels of the participants about COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Anxiety levels were higher in those with a history of mental illness (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Determining the knowledge levels, health-protective practices, and anxiety levels of nurses who are struggling in the frontlines in the field of health during the pandemic period can make a great contribution to the management of different current epidemics and pandemics and future ones by showing the areas in which nurses need to be empowered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Workplace/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study will evaluate the association that the COVID-19 pandemic has had with health-care workers and identify the factors that influenced the female gender being more affected. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in two hospitals in Arequipa (a Peruvian city). The participants were health-care workers. We applied a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and three scales: the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screen for DSM-5. The main outcomes were anxiety, depression, and PTSD scores. The exposure of interest was gender. The scores of the scales were estimated by medians and percentiles 25-75 (p25-p75), and we used linear regression to estimate the crude and adjusted coefficients and their respective confidence intervals at 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: There were 109 participants, and 43.1% were women. The anxiety, depression, and PTSD median (p25-p75) scores in the study population were 6 (2-11), 6 (2-10), and 1 (0-3), respectively. The adjusted analysis showed that the female sex had 4.48 (CI 95% 2.95-6.00), 4.50 (CI 95% 2.39-6.62), and 1.13 (CI 95% 0.50-1.76) higher points on average for the scales of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms in comparison to males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female health-care workers showed increased scores of mental health issues in comparison to male health-care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 678, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2020 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has been raging for more than 20 months, putting significant strain on public health systems around the world. Despite the fact that the pandemic has been effectively managed in certain countries, regional outbreaks and viral mutations continue to pose a threat to people's lives. The likelihood of post-pandemic changes in people's psychological situations warrants more investigation. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted in the context of another outbreak in Zhangjiajie, China, respondents (infected patients, healthy population) were required to complete self-administered questions and standardized questionnaires, including the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ). MEASURES: We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey of infected patients (excluding critically ill patients) in the confirmed COVID-19 ward of Zhangjiajie City People's Hospital's East Hospital from August 14 to 24, 2021, and used convenience sampling to survey medical staff and the general public to assess the psychological reactions of different populations during the delta variant outbreak pandemic. Differences in anxiety and depression severity were compared between groups, with logistic regression models constructed to explore potential factors associated with scoring clinical significant levels of depression and/or anxiety. RESULTS: There is no significant difference (p value = 0.228) between anxiety and depression in patients (n = 53), general public (n = 97), medical personnel (n = 103), and support workers (n = 65). Females reported higher scores on the GAD-7 and the BIPQ, reduced communication with family and friends appeared to be a risk factor for clinically significant anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in anxiety and depression across populations explored in this study, but females had higher anxiety and illness perception than males, and effective communication may help improve mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Surveys and Questionnaires , China/epidemiology , Mutation
9.
J Anxiety Disord ; 92: 102633, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105256

ABSTRACT

A growing body of research examines the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on well-being. Only few studies focus on older adults or explore the predictors of COVID-19-related anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and some behaviors (e.g., avoidance, procrastination) are linked to anxiety among older adults and could both be relevant to consider in a pandemic context. This study measured the occurrence and anxiety levels among older adults and verified the possible role of IU and behaviors in predicting anxiety symptoms, impairment and distress related to COVID-19 health standards. It also examined the indirect effect of IU on symptoms, impairment and distress through behaviors. Participants aged 60 and over (N = 356) were recruited and administered questionnaires. Anxiety levels and symptom impairment were high and appeared to have increased since the beginning of the pandemic. IU and behavioral manifestations of anxiety were associated with higher anxiety symptoms, impairment and distress related to COVID-19 health standards. The indirect effects of IU on the tendency to worry and COVID-19-related anxiety through behavioral manifestations of anxiety were confirmed. This study provides knowledge on the relationship between COVID-19 and anxiety in older adults and identifies predictors relevant to this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Uncertainty
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 549-556, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health of medical workers treating patients with COVID-19 is an issue of increasing concern worldwide. The available data on stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 are relatively limited and have not been evaluated in Russia yet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional anonymous survey included 1,090 healthcare workers. Stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics - 9 (SAVE-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7) scales. Logistic regression, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin two component factor model, Cronbach's alpha and ROC-analysis were performed to determine the influence of different variables, internal structure and consistency, sensitivity and specificity of SAVE-9 compared with GAD-7. RESULTS: The median scores on the GAD-7 and SAVE-9 were 5 and 14, respectively. 535 (49.1%) respondents had moderate and 239 (21.9%) had severe anxiety according to SAVE-9. 134 participants (12.3%) had severe anxiety, 144 (13.2%) had moderate according to GAD-7. The component model revealed two-factor structure of SAVE-9: "anxiety and somatic concern" and "social stress". Female gender (OR - 0.98, p=0.04) and younger age (OR - 0.65, p=0.04) were associated with higher level of anxiety according to regression model. The total score of SAVE-9 with a high degree of confidence predicted the GAD-7 value in comparative ROC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers in Russia reported high rates of stress and anxiety. The Russian version of the SAVE-9 displayed a good ratio of sensitivity to specificity compared with GAD-7 and can be recommended as a screening instrument for detection of stress and anxiety in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e76, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to delineate the role of preexisting depression for changes in common mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using mixed-effects linear regression models, we analyzed data on the course of depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2) symptoms as well as loneliness (three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a subset of the Socio-Economic Panel Study, a large and nationally representative household panel study from Germany. Participants were assessed during the first COVID-19 wave in Germany (March 31 to July 4, 2020; n = 6,694) and prospectively followed up at the peak of the second COVID-19 wave (January 18 to February 15, 2021; n = 6,038). RESULTS: Overall, anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased, whereas loneliness increased from the first to the second COVID-19 wave. However, depressive symptoms increased and the surge in loneliness was steeper in those with versus without clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 2019 or a history of a depressive disorder before the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety symptoms remained stable throughout the pandemic in individuals with versus without clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 2019. Pre-pandemic depression was associated with overall higher depressive and anxiety symptoms and loneliness across both assessments. The stringency of lockdown measures did not affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of depressive symptoms before the COVID-19 pandemic are at increased risk to experience an escalation of mental health problems due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, they might particularly profit from targeted prevention and early intervention programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Loneliness/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Sampling Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Germany/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(2): 123-131, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the psychological and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with established anxiety disorders during a period of stringent mandated social restrictions. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 individuals attending the Galway-Roscommon Mental Health Services with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of an anxiety disorder to determine the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions on anxiety and mood symptoms, social and occupational functioning and quality of life. RESULTS: Twelve (40.0%) participants described COVID-19 restrictions as having a deleterious impact on their anxiety symptoms. Likert scale measurements noted that the greatest impact of COVID-19 related to social functioning (mean = 4.5, SD = 2.9), with a modest deleterious effect on anxiety symptoms noted (mean = 3.8, SD = 2.9). Clinician rated data noted that 8 (26.7%) participants had disimproved and 14 (46.7%) participants had improved since their previous clinical review, prior to commencement of COVID-19 restrictions. Conditions associated with no 'trigger', such as generalised anxiety disorder, demonstrated a non-significant increase in anxiety symptoms compared to conditions with a 'trigger', such as obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatric or physical comorbidity did not substantially impact on symptomatology secondary to COVID-19 mandated restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological and social impact of COVID-19 restrictions on individuals with pre-existing anxiety disorders has been modest with only minimal increases in symptomatology or social impairment noted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care
13.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 464-473, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054022

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate stress levels among the health care workers (HCWs) of the radiation oncology community in Asian countries. METHODS: HCWs of the radiation oncology departments from 29 tertiary cancer care centers of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Nepal were studied from May 2020 to July 2020. A total of 758 eligible HCWs were identified. The 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, and 22-Item Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used for assessing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify the causative factors affecting mental health. RESULTS: A total of 758 participants from 794 HCWs were analyzed. The median age was 31 years (IQR, 27-28). The incidence of moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress was 34.8%, 31.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. Severe personal concerns were noticed by 60.9% of the staff. On multivariate analysis, the presence of commonly reported symptoms of COVID-19 during the previous 2 weeks, contact history (harzard ratio [HR], 2.04; CI, 1.15 to 3.63), and compliance with precautionary measures (HR, 1.69; CI, 1.19 to 2.45) for COVID-19 significantly predicted for increasing anxiety (HR, 2.67; CI, 1.93 to 3.70), depression (HR, 3.38; CI 2.36 to 4.84), and stress (HR, 2.89; CI, 1.88 to 4.43) (P < .001). A significant regional variation was also noticed for anxiety, stress, and personal concerns. CONCLUSION: This survey conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic revealed that a significant proportion of HCWs in the radiation oncology community experiences moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. This trend is alarming and it is important to identify and intervene at the right time to improve the mental health of HCWs to avoid any long-term impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Radiation Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Radiation Oncology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275292, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054371

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: National mental health surveys have demonstrated increased stress and depressive symptoms among high-school students during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, but objective measures of anxiety after the first year of the pandemic are lacking. METHODS: A 25-question survey including demographics, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) a validated self-administered tool to evaluate anxiety severity, and questions on achievement goals and future aspirations was designed by investigators. Over a 2-month period, all students from grade 9-12 in a single high-school (n = 546) were invited to complete an online survey after electronic parental consent and student assent. Bi-variate and chi-square analyses examined demographic differences in anxiety scores and the impact on outcomes; qualitative analyses examined related themes from open-ended questions. RESULTS: In total, 155/546 (28%) completed the survey. Among students with binary gender classifications, 54/149 (36%) had GAD-7 scores in the moderate or severe anxiety range (scores≥10), with a greater proportion among females than males (47% vs 21%, P<0.001). Compared to students with GAD-7<10, those with ≥ 10 were more likely to strongly agree that the pandemic changed them significantly (51% vs 28%, p = 0.05), made them mature faster (44% vs 16%, p = 0.004), and affected their personal growth negatively (16% vs 6%, p = 0.004). Prominent themes that emerged from open-ended responses on regrets during the pandemic included missing out on school social or sports events, missing out being with friends, and attending family events or vacations. CONCLUSION: In this survey of high school students conducted 2 years after the onset of COVID-19 in the United States, 47% of females and 21% of males reported moderate or severe anxiety symptoms as assessed by the GAD-7. Whether heightened anxiety results in functional deficits is still uncertain, but resources for assessment and treatment should be prioritized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16033, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050533

ABSTRACT

We documented changes in depressive and anxiety symptoms from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic among young adults and investigated whether changes differed across participant characteristics. Data were available in an investigation of 1294 grade 7 students recruited in 1999-2000. For this analysis, we used data collected pre-pandemically in 2017-20 (mean (SD) age = 30.6 (1.0)) and during the pandemic in 2020-21 (mean (SD) age = 33.6 (0.6)). 673 participants with data in both cycles were retained for analysis. Symptoms were measured using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) of changes in MDI and GAD-7 values between cycles were calculated across participant characteristics. On average, MDI scores increased by 2.1 (95%CI 1.4, 2.8) points during the pandemic from mean 10.5; GAD-7 scores increased by 1.2 (0.8, 1.5) points from mean 4.7. The SMD was 0.24 (0.14, 0.33) for MDI, and 0.24 (0.13, 0.34) for GAD-7. No differences in MDI change scores were observed across participant characteristics. Differences in GAD-7 change scores were observed by mood/anxiety disorder (SMD - 0.31 (- 0.58, - 0.05)), household income (0.24 (0.02, 48)), living with young children (- 0.56 (- 1.23,- 0.05)), and adherence to public health recommendations 0.58 (0.19, 1.03)). Increases in depressive and anxiety symptoms were observed 10-16 months into the COVID-19 pandemic among adults age 32-36.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Birth and pregnancy complications increased by 10.2% during the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Pregnant women are at high risk for anxiety, which might trigger physio-logical stress, leading to pregnancy complications. AIM: This study aimed to investigate factors leading to antenatal anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also aimed to discuss our find-ings with regard to the current literature about pregnancy complications. METHODS: This cross-sectional study interviewed 377 pregnant women and assessed anxiety using a validated 7-item general anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale. Anxiety was related to physiological and demo-graphic parameters. Anxiety was subdivided into pandemic- and pregnancy-related anxiety to minimize results bias. RESULTS: Our results showed that 75.3% of pregnant women were anxious. The mean GAD-7 score was 8.28 ± 5. Linear regression analysis showed that for every increase in the number of previous pregnancies, there was a 1.3 increase in anxiety level (p < 0.001). Women with no previous miscarriages were more anxious (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, pregnant women who were previously infected with COVID-19 were 6% less stressed. Pregnant women with comorbid-ities were more stressed (p < 0.001). Low income (p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.05) were the demo-graphic factors most significantly related to increased anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of pregnancy-related anxiety increased threefold in Saudi Arabia due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare support should be available remotely during pandemics; pregnant women (especially those with comorbidities) should be educated about the risks of infection and complications to prevent anxiety-related complications during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 957597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043531

ABSTRACT

An isolation strategy was used to control the transmission and rapid spread of COVID-19 in Yunnan. As a result, students were supposed to stay at home and disrupted their outside activities. It led to a detrimental influence on students' mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of depression and anxiety among medical students and to provide ideas for the prevention of depression and anxiety in medical students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,116 medical students at Kunming Medical University from July 8 to July 16, 2020. Participants' demographic and living conditions were collected. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and General Anxiety Disorder-7, respectively. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to detect risk factors associated with depression and anxiety. The prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among medical students were 52.5 and 29.6%, respectively. Depression was more likely to be caused by low grades, lack of physical exercise, drug use, irregular diet, extensive screen time on mobile phones, being greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and inadaptability to offline courses. Anxiety was more likely to be caused by lack of physical exercise, drug use, irregular diet, and inadaptability to offline courses. Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid. Our study showed predictive factors for depression and anxiety and identified a major mental health burden on medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak. More targeted measures should be taken to improve the mental state of students to reduce the incidence of depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274052, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between perceived manageability of debt and risk of depression, anxiety, and mental health help-seeking among a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Data was derived from the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study Wave 6 (August/September 2021) which examined the psychological, social, and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the UK adult population. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between different levels of perceived debt manageability (i.e., "easily manageable", "some problems", "quite serious problems", "very serious problems", "cannot manage at all") and mental health related outcomes. RESULTS: Almost a quarter of the sample (24%, n = 494) reported debt management problems, and debt manageability associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and mental health help-seeking. After adjusting for demographic variables (e.g. income, receipt of benefits), logistic regression analysis demonstrated a dose-response association between increasing levels of debt manageability problems and mental health outcomes. Specifically, adjusted odds ratios for anxiety ranged from 2.28 ('some problems') to 11.18 ('very serious problems'), for depression ranged from 2.80 ('some problems') to 16.21 ('cannot manage at all'), and for mental health help-seeking ranged from 1.69 ('some problems') to 3.18 ('quite serious problems', 'very serious problems'). CONCLUSION: This study highlights that debt manageability problems represent a robust predictor of depression, anxiety, and mental-health help seeking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032937

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients tend to have a high psychological burden. Half of cancer patients suffer from severe affective disorders and anxiety disorders, while one-third struggle with mild forms of these. The COVID-19 pandemic is damaging the mental health of the population due to social restrictions. A growing number of studies note the role of COVID-19 anxiety in the health and quality of life of cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to estimate the level of COVID-19 anxiety among oncology patients and to test the utility of the FCV-19S scale in a population study of cancer patients. The study included 600 respondents (300 oncology patients and 300 control subjects not undergoing oncological treatment). The FCV-19S scale and the GAD-7 scale were used in the study. The results were interpreted according to the following verbal scale: 76-100%, high anxiety; 56-75%, moderate anxiety; 26-55%, low COVID-19 anxiety; <25%, no COVID-19 anxiety. In the analysis of the GAD-7 questionnaire results, the mean score obtained was 8.21 (min. 0; max. 21; SD 5.32). For 81% of respondents in the group of oncology patients, the total score indicated the presence of anxiety symptoms with varying degrees of severity; in the control group, this proportion was 55% of respondents. The FCV-19S scale score as a percentage was 57.4% for oncology patients, indicating a moderate level of fear of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and 30.3% for the control group, indicating a low level of fear of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. One-fifth of oncology patients were afraid of losing their lives due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus; in the control group, this proportion was 13% of respondents. Oncology patients were characterized by a higher prevalence of sleep disturbance than control group respondents, which was associated with greater anxiety. The study, therefore, shows that oncology patients have moderate levels of anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, and non-oncology patients show lower levels of anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Dent Med Probl ; 59(3): 343-350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant risk of cross-infection in dental practice has caused indecision among dental patients about whether to attend dental appointments. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant psychological impact on dental patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of and the associated factors for fear and anxiety among dental patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey consisting of 6 parts was conducted. The 6 parts were sociodemographic data, knowledge about COVID-19, information sources, the perception of COVID-19, the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S), and the generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale (GAD-7). A total of 301 participants completed the survey. RESULTS: As many as 81% of the participants perceived COVID-19 as a serious disease, and 73% reported the fear of visiting their dental clinic due to the possibility of being infected with COVID-19. The participants' knowledge about COVID-19 was significantly correlated with gender, the educational status and the use of the Internet. There was a strong negative correlation between the participants' levels of knowledge and the FCoV-19S and GAD-7 scores. A significant positive correlation was observed between the FCoV-19S score and the GAD-7 score. In regression analysis, being female, perceiving COVID-19 as a serious disease, being afraid of going to the dentist, having a low knowledge score, and having a high GAD-7 score were the predictors of a high FCoV-19S score. CONCLUSIONS: This study determined that the COVID-19 pandemic had had significant psychological effects on dental patients in Turkey. The results also underline the importance of providing more educational information to the public about the strict infection control measures taken by dental clinics against COVID-19 transmission in order to eliminate misperception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Turkey/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL