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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 386, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In March 2020, France faced a health crisis due to the COVID-19 outbreak that, like previous infectious disease crises, involved high psychological and emotional stress, a series of factors that influenced the ongoing mental health crisis. METHODS: We recruited 384 respondents to complete an online questionnaire during the second month of isolation: 176 psychotherapy recipients (68 were currently attending psychiatric care) and 208 healthy controls. We measured demographic characteristics, impulsivity, aggression, hopelessness, suicidal risk, and the global level of anxiety and depression in order to estimate potential discrepancies in clinical measures across these populations. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the group currently undergoing psychiatric care was prone to loneliness and social isolation. Regarding clinical and nonclinical population, there were differences in suicidal risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness but mainly in aggression. Regression analysis also demonstrated that aggression surprisingly influenced anxiety levels. Patients undergoing therapy compared with patients who were not displayed differences only in suicidal risk, anxiety, and hopelessness, with those undergoing therapy having higher scores. The outpatient group undergoing therapy had a significantly lower level of impulsivity. Moreover, the regression to predict anxiety and depression levels from correlated factors highlighted the potentially heightened role of aggression in predicting anxiety in the clinical group. CONCLUSION: New research into stress reactions should assess other clinical signals, such as aggression, and examine preventive mental health interventions in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Aggression/psychology , Mental Health , Depression/psychology
2.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 66(7): 727-735, 2023 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous nationwide health monitoring is important to track the well-being of children and adolescents and to map developmental trajectories. Based on the results of three selected epidemiological studies, developments in child well-being over the past 20 years are presented. METHODS: Data are based on (1) the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey among Children and Adolescents (BELLA study, 2003-2017, N = 1500 to 3000), which is a module of the KiGGS study; (2) the COvid-19 and PSYchological Health Study (COPSY, 2020-2022, N = 1600-1700), which is based on the BELLA Study; and (3) the International Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC, 2002-2018, N = 4300-7300). Well-being was assessed in 7­ to 17-year-olds using indicators of health-related quality of life (KIDSCREEN-10), life satisfaction (Cantril Ladder), and mental health problems (Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)). RESULTS: Overall, children and adolescents show consistently high health-related quality of life and high overall life satisfaction pre-pandemic (2002-2018), which initially worsened with the onset of the 2020 COVID-19-pandemic. Two years later, improvements are evident but have not yet reached baseline levels. Psychological problems, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased by up to 12 percentage points at the beginning of the pandemic and are still higher two years after the onset of the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic studies. CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of child well-being provides a necessary data basis to assess the support needs of children and adolescents and to use this as a basis for developing measures of health promotion, prevention, and intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Health Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies
3.
J Affect Disord ; 338: 17-20, 2023 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status is known to be associated with high mental health burden, there have been few epidemiological studies showing how socioeconomic status has modified the effect of COVID-19 on anxiety and depression. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey in the United States between 2019 and 2021 and used respondents with a documented income-to-poverty ratio as a measure of income level (n = 79,468). We used frequency of medication use and self-reported frequency of anxious and depressive episodes as the main outcome measures. We performed a multivariable logistic regression with a two-way interaction term between income and survey year. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant worsening of depression and anxiety metrics in respondents with higher income levels from 2019 to 2021. We did not observe a significant change in anxiety and depression metrics for low-income respondents over the same period. LIMITATIONS: The data from the NHIS survey is limited primarily by sampling bias (response rate of 50.7 % in 2021), as well as the self-reported nature of the one of the outcome measures. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that, within the limits of the National Health Interview Survey, mental health outcomes were worse but stable in a socioeconomically disadvantaged demographic between 2019 and 2021. In a higher socioeconomic bracket, mental health outcomes were less severe than the disadvantaged demographic but were worsening at a greater rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
4.
J Affect Disord ; 337: 50-56, 2023 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of COVID-19 infections has increased sharply and quickly after optimizing the COVID-19 response in China. In the context of this population-size infection, college students' psychological response is yet to be understood. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate anxiety, depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among college students from December 31, 2022, to January 7, 2023. The questionnaire included the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Impact of Event Scale (IES-R), and self-designed questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 22,624 respondents, the self-reported prevalence of anxiety, depression, insomnia, PTSD, and any of the four psychological symptoms appeared as 12.7 %, 25.8 %, 11.6 %, 7.9 %, and 29.7 %, respectively. The self-reported COVID-19 infection rate was 80.2 %. Changes in the place for learning, longer time online, not recovering after infection, a higher proportion of family member infection, insufficient drug reserve, worry about sequela after infection, future studies, or employment contributed to a higher risk of anxiety/depression/insomnia symptoms or PTSD symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression showed that those who spent more extended time on the Internet, recovered after infection, and had insufficient drug reserves were less likely to have PTSD than anxiety/depression/insomnia symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The study was a non-probability sampling survey. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety, depression, insomnia, and PTSD were common psychological symptoms among college students when infection went through a large-scale population. This study highlights the importance of continuing to care for the psychological symptoms of college students, especially timely responses to their concerns related to the epidemic situation and COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Students/psychology , China/epidemiology
5.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 51(2): 65-75, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326822

ABSTRACT

The early psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown is greater in people with mental disorders. This study explored the differences in the psychological impact on people with an anxiety disorder by sex in Spain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , Pandemics , Sex Characteristics , Anxiety/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Depression
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 95(1): e20220100, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326121

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the mental health of a University community in South Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted between July-August 2020 through a self-administered questionnaire. All University staff and students were eligible. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. To evaluate the effect of social distancing and mental health factors on outcomes, Poisson regression models with robust variance were performed, estimating Prevalence Ratios (PR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). 2,785 individuals participated in the study. Prevalence of depression and anxiety were 39.2% (95%CI 37.3-41.1) and 52.5% (95% CI 50.6-54.4), respectively. Undergraduate students showed a higher prevalence of the outcomes. Not leaving the house routinely, mental health care, and previous diagnosis of mental illness were associated with both outcomes. Those with a previous medical diagnosis of depression had a 58% (PR 1.58; 95%CI 1.44; 1.74) and anxiety a 72% (PR 1.72; 95%CI 1.56; 1.91) greater prevalence of depression than their peers. An alarming prevalence of psychopathologies was observed. Despite the well-known benefits of social distancing to public health, it requires a surveillance on the population's mental health, especially students and those with previous mental illness diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8257, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321490

ABSTRACT

Understanding the connection between physical and mental health with evidence-based research is important to inform and support targeted screening and early treatment. The objective of this study was to document the co-occurrence of physical and mental health conditions during and after the experience of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 illness episodes. Drawing from a national symptoms' surveillance survey conducted in the UK in 2020, this study shows that individuals with symptomatic forms of SARS-CoV-2 (identified by anosmia with either fever, breathlessness or cough) presented significantly higher odds of experiencing moderate and severe anxiety (2.41, CI 2.01-2.90) and depression (3.64, CI 3.06-4.32). Respondents who recovered from physical SARS-CoV-2 symptoms also experienced higher odds of anxiety and depression in comparison to respondents who never experienced symptoms. The findings are robust to alternative estimation models that compare individuals with the same socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and who experienced the same local and contextual factors such as mobility and social restrictions. The findings have important implications for the screening and detection of mental health disorders in primary care settings. They also suggest the need to design and test interventions to address mental health during and after physical illness episodes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2312892, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318716

ABSTRACT

Importance: The long-term consequences of COVID-19 on mental health are a critical issue given the number of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 worldwide since the beginning of the pandemic. Objective: To investigate the associations between self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms or SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent depression or anxiety. Design, Setting, and Participants: This propensity score-matched cohort study began in May 2020, with follow-ups in November 2020 and July 2021. The study used data from a large, randomly selected, national population-based cohort from France, the EpiCoV (Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie) study. Of 85 074 individuals 15 years or older who completed the questionnaires at the 3 collection times, 28 568 were excluded because they did not return a blood sample for serologic testing, 1994 because of missing data on outcomes or exposures, and 9252 to respect the temporal sequence (exposure must precede the outcome). Exposures: Propensity scores based on various socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health variables were computed to match participants who experienced COVID-19-like symptoms between February and November 2020 or showed SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between these occurrences and depression or anxiety assessed in July 2021 using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scales, respectively. Results: Among the 45 260 included participants (mean [SD] age, 51.1 [18.9] years; 52.4% women; 8.0% with depression and 5.3% with anxiety in July 2021), COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with subsequent depression (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.45-1.99) and anxiety (adjusted OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.29-1.92), whereas SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was not. Furthermore, COVID-19-like symptoms, but not anosmia or dysgeusia alone, were associated with subsequent depression and anxiety in both the seropositive and seronegative subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of more than 45 000 individuals drawn from the French general population, SARS-CoV-2 infection was not found as a risk factor of subsequent depression or anxiety. Moreover, self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with depression and anxiety assessed at least 8 months later in both seropositive and seronegative subgroups, suggesting that factors other than SARS-CoV-2 infection are implied in this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Self Report , Cohort Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e410, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Frontline healthcare workers (FHCWs) exposed to COVID-19 patients are at an increased risk of developing psychological burden. This study aims to determine the prevalence of mental health symptoms and associated factors among Mexican FHCWs attending COVID-19 patients. METHODS: FHCWs, including attending physicians, residents/fellows, and nurses providing care to COVID-19 patients at a private hospital in Monterrey, Mexico, were invited to answer an online survey between August 28, and November 30, 2020. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia were evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Multivariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with each outcome. RESULTS: 131 FHCWs, 43.5% attending physicians, 19.8% residents/fellows, and 36.6% nurses were included. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia was 36%, 21%, 23%, and 24% respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that residents/fellows and nurses reported more depression and insomnia than attending physicians. Although not significant, residents/fellows were more likely to experience all symptoms than nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Mexican FHCWs, especially nurses and residents/fellows, experienced a significant psychological burden while attending to COVID-19 patients. Tailored interventions providing support to FHCWs during future outbreaks are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Prevalence , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals
10.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 32(3): 631-653, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311925

ABSTRACT

The literature on anxiety in Black, Indigenous, and other persons of color youth is a developing area. This article highlights distinct areas for the clinician to consider in working with these populations. We highlight prevalence and incidence, race-related stress, social media, substance use, spirituality, the impact of social determinants of health (including COVID-19 and the Syndemic), as well as treatment considerations. Our aim is to contribute to the readers' developing cultural humility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Spirituality
11.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 214-223, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about changes of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in potentially disadvantaged groups. We investigated changes in anxiety and depression symptoms during the first year of the pandemic in six European countries and Australia by prior mental disorders and migration status. METHODS: Overall, 4674 adults answered a web-based survey in May-June 2020 and were followed by three repeated surveys up to February 2021. Information on psychosocial, financial and demographic, living conditions, prior mental disorders, depression and anxiety symptoms during the pandemic and migration status was collected. Weighted general estimation equations modelling was used to investigate the association between prior mental disorders, migration status, and symptoms over time. RESULTS: Most participants were <40 years old (48%), women (78%) and highly educated (62%). The baseline prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms ranged between 19%-45% and 13%-35%, respectively. In most countries, prevalence rates remained unchanged throughout the pandemic and were higher among people with prior mental disorders than without even after adjustment for several factors. We observed interactions between previous mental disorders and symptoms of anxiety or depression over time in two countries. No difference by migration status was noted. LIMITATIONS: Convenience sampling limits generalizability. Self-assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety might involve some misclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety symptoms were worse among individuals with prior mental disorders than without, but there was no clear trend of worsening mental health in the observed groups during the observed period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans
12.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 67: 86-94, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310514

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to identify pathways between psychiatric network symptoms and psychosocial functioning and their associated variables among functioning clusters in the general population. A cross-sectional web-based survey was administered in a total of 3,023 individuals in Brazil. The functioning clusters were derived by a previous study identifying three different groups based on the online Functioning Assessment Short Test. Networking analysis was fitted with all items of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System for depression and for anxiety (PROMIS) using the mixed graphical model. A decision tree model was used to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics of good and low functioning. A total of 926 (30.63%) subjects showed good functioning, 1,436 (47.50%) participants intermediate functioning, and 661 (21.86%) individuals low functioning. Anxiety and uneasy symptoms were the most important nodes for good and intermediate clusters but anxiety, feeling of failure, and depression were the most relevant symptoms for low functioning. The decision tree model was applied to identify variables capable to discriminate individuals with good and low functioning. The algorithm achieved balanced accuracy 0.75, sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.63, positive predictive value 0.63 negative predictive value 0.87 (p<0.001), and an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI:0.79-0.86, p<0.01). Our results show that individuals who present psychological distress are more likely to experience poor functional status, suggesting that this subgroup should receive a more comprehensive psychiatric assessment and mental health care.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Psychosocial Functioning , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Seizures , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(16): e33559, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300896

ABSTRACT

Mental health care for students in general, particularly anxiety, is a significant problem that needs more attention, especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anxiety and examine the associated factors among students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to September 2021 among 5730 students. An online survey was used to collect sociodemographic information, and the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) was used to assess anxiety symptoms among Vietnamese students. Results showed that the prevalence of anxiety among study participants was 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.3%-17.2%). Factors related to anxiety among students were gender, type of housemate, COVID-19 exposure/infection status, vaccination status, health status, academic performance, and social relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant number of students experienced anxiety during COVID-19, and this rate was related to several factors. Psychological interventions are required to support students during and after the COVID-19 pandemic and other health crises. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Southeast Asian People , Vietnam/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Students/psychology
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 35(1): 97-102, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the mental health of the general population, leading to an increase in depression, anxiety and stress. The results of the studies on the psychological effects of the pandemic in patients with psychiatric illnesses were contradictory in that some reported higher adverse effects in patients with psychiatric illnesses compared to the healthy control subjects, whereas some did not. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare the patients with a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder and the healthy control subjects in terms of certain psychological parameters during the pandemic period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 81 patients, who were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and 80 healthy volunteers of matching characteristics were included in this study. Both the patient and control groups were administered a sociodemographic questionnaire, short form of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R). The resulting research data were analyzed using the SPSS 22.0 software. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of depression, stress, intrusion, hyperarousal and avoidance. On the other hand, the increase observed in the anxiety symptoms was found to be significant in the patient group compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study revealed that the depression, stress and trauma-related stress responses of GAD patients have not differred during the COVID-19 pandemic period, whereas that their anxiety levels have increased significantly, as compared to the healthy control subjects. In this context, it is recommended that the clinicians take into consideration that the pandemic may lead to an increase in the symptoms of individuals diagnosed with anxiety disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
15.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284091, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295587

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression are rising worldwide. Studies investigating risk factors on a societal level leading to these rises are so far limited to social-economic status, social capital, and unemployment, while most such studies rely on self-reports to investigate these factors. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate the impact of an additional factor on a societal level, namely digitalization, by using a linguistic big data approach. We extend related work by using the Google Books Ngram Viewer (Google Ngram) to retrieve and adjust word frequencies from a large corpus of books (8 million books or 6 percent of all books ever published) and to subsequently investigate word changes in terms of anxiety disorders, depression, and digitalization. Our analyses comprise and compare data from six languages, British English, German, Spanish, Russian, French, and Italian. We also retrieved word frequencies for the control construct "religion". Our results show an increase in word frequency for anxiety, depression, and digitalization over the last 50 years (r = .79 to .89, p < .001), a significant correlation between the frequency of anxiety and depression words (r = .98, p < .001), a significant correlation between the frequency of anxiety and digitalization words (r = .81, p < .001), and a significant correlation between the frequency of depression and anxiety words (r = .81, p < .001). For the control construct religion, we found no significant correlations for word frequency over the last 50 years and no significant correlation between the frequency of anxiety and depression words. Our results showed a negative correlation between the frequency of depression and religion words (r = -.25, p < .05). We also improved the method by excluding terms with double meanings detected by 73 independent native speakers. Implications for future research and professional and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.


Subject(s)
Depression , Search Engine , Humans , Depression/epidemiology , Language , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
16.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 32(3): 511-530, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305554

ABSTRACT

This review summarizes the developmental epidemiology of childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders. It discusses the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, sex differences, longitudinal course, and stability of anxiety disorders in addition to recurrence and remission. The trajectory of anxiety disorders-whether homotypic (ie, the same anxiety disorder persists over time) or heterotypic (ie, an anxiety disorder shifts to a different diagnosis over time) is discussed with regard to social, generalized, and separation anxiety disorders as well as specific phobia, and panic disorder. Finally, strategies for early recognition, prevention, and treatment of disorders are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Panic Disorder , Phobic Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Male , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/therapy , Panic Disorder/diagnosis , Panic Disorder/epidemiology , Anxiety, Separation/diagnosis
17.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 691, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, increased workload and stress could have increased mental health problems (anxiety and depression) in military personnel. However, the number of studies in military members is scarce, especially in regard to mental health. The objective of this study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with depression and anxiety in Peruvian military personnel. METHODS: We undertook an analytical cross-sectional study. The survey was distributed face to face between November 02 and 09, 2021, during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic among the military personnel. We used some instruments to measure depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder, GAD-7), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index, ISI), food insecurity (Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, HFIAS), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaires, IPAQ-S), resilience (abbreviated CD-RISC), and fear of COVID-19 scale. The exclusion criteria included those who did not completely fill out the evaluation instruments. RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 615 military personnel that participated in the survey. Of them, 93.7% were male and the median age was 22 years old. There was a prevalence of 29.9% and 22.0% in regard to depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. In addition, it was found that being married (PR: 0.63; 95% IC: 0.42-0.94), having a relative with mental health problems (PR: 2.16), having experienced food insecurity (PR: 1.48), insomnia (PR: 2.71), fear of COVID-19 (PR: 1.48), and a high level of resilience (PR: 0.65) were factors associated with depression. In regard to anxiety, the factors associated were working for more than 18 months since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic (PR: 0.52), a high level of resilience (PR: 0.50; 95% IC: 0.33-0.77), insomnia (PR: 3.32), fear of COVID-19 (PR: 2.43). CONCLUSION: We found a prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety of 29.9% and 22.0%, respectively. In regard to the factors that attenuate depression, we can mention being married and having resilience; and among the aggravating factors, having a relative with mental health problems, food insecurity, insomnia, and fear of COVID-19. Finally, anxiety increased through working time, insomnia, and fear of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304816

ABSTRACT

Anxiety disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated, especially in child and adolescent populations. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale 7 (GAD-7) in a sample of French adolescents by combining the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and the Item Response Theory (IRT) and to assess the invariance of items. A total of 284 adolescents enrolled in school in the Lorraine region were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional study. A psychometric evaluation was performed using a combination of CTT and IRT analyses. The study of psychometric properties of GAD-7 revealed poor adequation to the sample population, and engendered the deletion of one item (#7) and the merger of two response modalities (#2 and #3). These modifications generated the new GAD-6 scale, which had a good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach α = 0.85; PSI = 0.83), acceptable goodness-of-fit indices (χ2 = 28.89, df = 9, P = 0.001; RMSEA (90% CI) = 0.088 [0.054; 0.125]; SRMR = 0.063; CFI = 0.857), and an acceptable convergent validity (r = -0.62). Only one item (#5) had a consistent Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by gender. This study evaluated the structure of the GAD-7 scale, which was essentially intended at discriminating adolescent patients with high levels of anxiety, and adapted it to a population of adolescents from the general population. The GAD-6 scale presents better psychometric properties in this general population than the original GAD-7 version.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Reproducibility of Results , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires
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