Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 113
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793522

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented experience of national lockdowns and uncertainty of academic career due to the COVID-19 pandemic has multifaceted impacts on mental health among university students worldwide. This study determined its impact on depression and anxiety level, and associated risk factors among engineering students studying at College of Science and Technology (CST), Phuentsholing, Bhutan during the first lockdown in the country. Self-reported depression and anxiety levels were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) respectively. Data was collected using an e-questionnaire link generated in Google form and the link was shared with students via the student's official email group. A total of 278 students (response rate, 26.9%) completed the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were male (69.8%) and were aged from 18 to 30 (Mean: 21.7 ±SD 2.07) years. The prevalence of self-reported moderate to severe depression and anxiety were 44.2% (95% CI, 38.5-49.6) and 27.3% (95% CI, 22.3-32.4) respectively. Participants having their family members as frontline workers reported a significantly higher level of anxiety (χ2 = 4.85, p = 0.028). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, students who were academically lagging showed a higher risk of depression (AOR = 5.36, 95% CI = 2.86-10.04) and anxiety (AOR = 3.83, 95%CI = 1.86-7.88) as compared to students who were not academically behind. A high percentage of depression and anxiety was reported by students of CST during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings from the study highlight the importance of adopting appropriate online-based teaching and learning methods to ensure timely academic and professional achievements. Moreover, the relevant stakeholders should put health system strategies in place to provide psychological support to university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Bhutan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 75(3-04): 111-116, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771938

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Vaccination refusal is a serious obstacle to minimizing the spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the rejection of vaccine can be considered the result of a negative attitude towards medical treatment, and according to our previously published data, it can be influenced by the underlying affective state. Increased incidence of affective disorders and anxiety could be observed globally during the pandemic, which may have a significant impact on vaccination acceptance. The aim of our pilot study was to determine the association between clinical improvement of affective and neurocognitive symptoms and change of drug attitude and health control beliefs in a sample of psychiatric patients. Methods: A data set of 85 patients with psychiatric disorder has been analysed with the use of Patient's Health Belief Questionnaire on Psychiatric Treatment (PHBQPT) with 5 subscales (Negative Aspect of Medication - NA; Positive Aspect of Medication - PA; Doctor health locus of control- Doctor HLOC; Internal HLOC; Psychological Reactance - PR); Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-Anx; HADS-Dep) and neurocognitive tests, such as the Stroop test and the Trail Making Tests. All the tests were performed before and after a 14 days treatment. Paired t-tests and generalized linear models were performed to assess the associations between the variables. Results: The baseline scores of NA and HADS-Anx correlated significantly (p=0.001) and after two weeks of treatment NA decreased (p=0.001), while Doctor HLOC and Internal HLOC increased (p=0.001 and p=0.006). The patients performance of the neurocognitive tests improved (all p<0.05). The reduction of HADS-Anx (p=0.002) and HADS-Dep (p=0.006) scores showed significant associations with the decrease of NA. Increase of the PA score was associated with reduction of HADS-Dep (p=0.028). Improvement of neurocognitive functions had no effect on PHBQPT scores. Conclusion: Important conclusions can be drawn regarding the rejection of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the associations found between the intensity of affective and anxiety symptoms and the attitude towards treatment. Our findings suggest that affective symptoms have a negative influence on the attitude towards treatment and that the improvement of these symptoms can facilitate the acceptance of the therapy, regardless of diagnosis. The modest effect of the improvement of neurocognitive functioning on the attitude towards drugs and the significant role of affective-emotional factors suggest that the accep-tance of vaccination probably cannot be facilitated solely with the aid of educational programs. Considering the increasing incidence of affective disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic, the screening of affective and anxiety symptoms and treatment of these disorders could be an important step towards the acceptance of the vaccine. Although psychiatry is not considered as a frontline care unit of the COVID cases, more attention is needed to pay on the availability of mental health services because refuse of vaccine can develop due to affective disorders too.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isolation is an indispensable measure to contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but it may have a negative impact on mental health and overall wellbeing. Evidence on the isolation experience, facilitating and complicating factors is needed to mitigate negative effects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational, population-based cohort study enrolled 1547 adults from the general population with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported to authorities between 27 February 2020 and 19 January 2021 in Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed the proportion of individuals reporting symptoms of depression and anxiety before, during and after isolation (by DASS-21), and queried worries, positive experiences, and difficulties. We analyzed the association of these outcomes with socio-demographics using ordinal regression. Additionally, we report free-text statements by participants to capture most important aspects of isolation. The proportion of participants affected by depression or anxiety increased during isolation from 10·0% to 17·1% and 9·1% to 17·6%, respectively. Ordinal regression showed that taking care of children increased the difficulty of isolation (OR 2·10, CI 1·43-3·08) and risk of non-compliance (OR 1·63, CI 1·05-2·53), especially in younger participants. A facilitating factor that individuals commonly expressed was receiving more support during isolation. CONCLUSION: Isolation due to SARS-CoV-2 presents a mental burden, especially for younger individuals and those taking care of children. Public health authorities need to train personnel and draw from community-based resources to provide targeted support, information, and guidance to individuals during isolation. Such efforts could alleviate the negative impact isolation has on the mental and physical health of individuals and ensure compliance of the population with recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(1): 82-90, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737468

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the anxiety and depression symptoms in healthcare professionals in Pakistan as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2020 and included six different hospitals in Pakistan. An English-language demographics questionnaire, a validated COVID-19 fear scale, depression scale PHQ-9 and anxiety scale GAD-7 were sent to doctors, nurses and paramedical staff via WhatsApp. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: A total of 400 participants were included in this study (response rate: 80.0%); 263 (65.8%) were doctors and 137 (34.3%) were nurses and paramedical staff. Of the participants, 57.0% were less than 40 years old and 18.3% were aged above 50. Most of the participants (n = 262; 65.5 %) experienced moderate levels of fear and 16.5% (n = 66) experienced a high level of fear. Moreover, 19.5% feared death and 56.5% reported social media to be responsible for increasing their fears. On the depression PHQ-9 and anxiety GAD-7 scales, 21.8% (n = 87) reported moderate to severe depression and anxiety symptoms. A significant relationship was demonstrated between the depression level and age, education and profession (P <0.001 each). Similarly, anxiety and depression scores were strongly related to the availability of personal protective equipment (P <0.001). Conclusion: It was found that 21.8% of healthcare professionals are suffering from moderate to severe depression symptoms, 15.5% had moderate to severe anxiety, whereas 65.5% had moderate symptoms of fear. The predictors are age, education level and co-morbidities. These moderate to high levels of fear and anxiety and depression raise concerns about the psychological well-being of healthcare staff and should be addressed through different programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 11-17, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719332

ABSTRACT

The severe 2019 outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first reported in Wuhan, would be expected to impact the mental health of local medical and nursing staff and thus lead them to seek help. However, those outcomes have yet to be established using epidemiological data. To explore the mental health status of medical and nursing staff and the efficacy, or lack thereof, of critically connecting psychological needs to receiving psychological care, we conducted a quantitative study. This is the first paper on the mental health of medical and nursing staff in Wuhan. Notably, among 994 medical and nursing staff working in Wuhan, 36.9% had subthreshold mental health disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 2.4), 34.4% had mild disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 5.4), 22.4% had moderate disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 9.0), and 6.2% had severe disturbance (mean PHQ-9: 15.1) in the immediate wake of the viral epidemic. The noted burden fell particularly heavily on young women. Of all participants, 36.3% had accessed psychological materials (such as books on mental health), 50.4% had accessed psychological resources available through media (such as online push messages on mental health self-help coping methods), and 17.5% had participated in counseling or psychotherapy. Trends in levels of psychological distress and factors such as exposure to infected people and psychological assistance were identified. Although staff accessed limited mental healthcare services, distressed staff nonetheless saw these services as important resources to alleviate acute mental health disturbances and improve their physical health perceptions. These findings emphasize the importance of being prepared to support frontline workers through mental health interventions at times of widespread crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Mental Health Services , Middle Aged , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2315, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Minority stress may lead to poorer mental health for sexual and gender minority adolescents, yet no interventions have been tested through an RCT to address these concerns. METHODS: We report on an RCT of an intervention-Proud & Empowered-with four high schools. Measures assess the intervention's impact on mental health symptoms. RESULTS: Compared to the control, participants in the treatment condition reported significant differences in minority stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Moderation analyses showed that the intervention significantly moderated the relationship between minority stress and PTSD (b = -1.28, p = .032), depression (b = -0.79, p = .023), and suicidality (b = 0.14, p = .012) symptoms; those in the intervention condition had mitigated relationships between measures of stress and health outcomes compared to those in the control condition. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that Proud & Empowered help reduce mental health symptoms and exposure to minority stressors and build coping strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The intervention was registered on clinicaltrials.gov on August 1, 2019 under Trial # NCT04041414 .


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adolescent , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Behavioral Symptoms , Depression , Humans , Mental Health , Suicidal Ideation
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
11.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580544

ABSTRACT

There are many ways to regulate emotions. People use both adaptive (e.g., regulation by music) and maladaptive (e.g., regulation by food) strategies to do this. We hypothesized that participants with a high level of food-based regulatory strategies and a low level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the least adaptive form of emotion regulation) would have significantly greater levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress, as well as a significantly lower level of healthy eating behaviours than those with a low level of food-based regulatory strategies and a high level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the greatest adaptive form of emotion regulation). Participants (N = 410; Mage = 31.77, SD = 13.53) completed: the Brief Music in Mood Regulation Scale, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behavior Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and a socio-demographic survey. The four clusters were identified: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 148): low food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (b) Cluster 2 (N = 42): high food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (c) Cluster 3 (N = 70): high food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies; (d) Cluster 4 (N = 150): low food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies. Overall, our outcomes partially support our hypothesis, as higher levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress were observed in participants with high food-based and low music-based regulatory strategies as compared with adults with low food-based and high music-based regulatory strategies. To sum up, the results obtained indicate that during the COVID-19 pandemic the group of people regulating their emotional state and unhealthy eating predominantly with food is potentially characterized by worse functioning than the group of people regulating with music. Therefore, it can be concluded that people who regulate their functioning using food should be included in preventive measures by specialists. During the visit, psychologists and primary care physicians can ask patients about their daily strategies and based on this information specialists can estimate the potential risk of developing high levels of stress and anxiety, depressive disorders and unhealthy eating habits and provide specific (match) intervention.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Music/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cluster Analysis , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Emotional Regulation , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7127-7134, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The anxiety of life that comes with the pandemic process increases the health anxiety and the level of perceived stress. However, there are uncertainties about which individuals are more sensitive. This study aims to investigate the effects of alexithymic characteristics on health anxiety and perceived stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors invited the participants to study via social media and e-mail. The data of 793 individuals, aged 18-65, collected over the internet (Google Forms) between November and December 2020 were statistically evaluated. Evaluations were made with the sociodemographic data form, the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Health Anxiety Scale (HAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). RESULTS: In mediation analyzes between TAS subscales and HAS, Difficulty in Identifying Feelings (DIF) most strongly predicted HAS (B=0.469, p<0.001) and indirectly affected HAS only through GHQ (CS: 0.08, B=0.108, SE:0.021, CI: 0.070, 0.153). However, both PSS (CS: 0.0128, B=0.084, SE:0.027, CI: 0.032, 0.139) and GHQ (CS: 0.02, B=0.139, SE:0.028, CI: 0.090, 0.198) played a mediating role between Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) and HAS. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that individuals with alexithymic features are more sensitive to stress during periods of health-related increased stress, such as pandemics, and that individuals with alexithymic features should be given priority in psychotherapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Adult , Affective Symptoms/diagnosis , Affective Symptoms/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet/instrumentation , Male , Middle Aged , Psychotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 6941-6958, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the continued spread of COVID-19 and the emergence of novel mutated viral variants, families all over the world are experiencing wide-ranging stressors that threaten not only their financial well-being but also their physical and mental health. The present study assessed the association between excessive electronic media exposure of pandemic-related news and mental health of the residents of Ha'il Province, Saudi Arabia. The present study also assessed the prevalence of perceived stress, fear of COVID-19, anxiety, depression, and loneliness due to COVID-19-related restrictions in the same population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 490 residents of Ha'il Province participated in a cross-sectional online survey during a two-month period (March to April 2021). A validated 38-item self-report survey was used to collect the data. RESULTS: Significant associations were reported between excessive electronic media exposure and the prevalence of perceived stress (χ2=140.56; p<.001), generalized anxiety (χ2=74.55; p<.001), depression (χ2=71.58; p<.001), COVID-19-related fear (χ2=24.54; p<.001), and loneliness (χ2=11.46; p<.001). It was also found that participants without depressive symptoms were 0.28 times less likely to have been exposed to excessive electronic media exposure (AOR: 0.28; C.I. 0.16-0.48; p<.001). Similarly, participants with no stress/mild stress were 0.32 times less likely to have been exposed to excessive electronic media exposure (AOR: 0.32; C.I. 0.19-0.52; p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest an urgent need for educational resilience programs (online and in-person) for susceptible individuals (females, unemployed, urban residents, etc.). Such programs would help them to develop skills to cope with the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22305, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514422

ABSTRACT

This study examined whether significantly anxious individuals differed from non-anxious individuals in their perceptual ratings of internet memes related to the Covid-19 pandemic, whilst considering the mediating role of emotion regulation. Eighty individuals presenting clinically significant anxiety symptoms (indicating ≥ 15 on the GAD-7) and 80 non-anxious controls (indicating ≤ 4) rated the emotional valance, humour, relatability, shareability, and offensiveness of 45 Covid-19 internet memes. A measure of emotion regulation difficulties was also completed. The perception of humour, relatability, and shareability were all greater amongst anxious individuals relative to non-anxious controls. These differences were not mediated by emotion regulation deficits. Internet memes related to the current Covid-19 pandemic may tentatively serve as coping mechanism for individuals experiencing severe symptoms of anxiety.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Media , Young Adult
15.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e446-e448, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512790

ABSTRACT

Anxiety is incredibly common and even normal as a waxing and waning dominant emotion for children. However, attention to disruptive symptoms that prevent daily functioning or prevent a child from thriving is within the purview of the general pediatric medical home. We review diagnosis, current tools readily accessible to every pediatrician, and treatment approaches, with special sensitivity to pandemic-related barriers and outcomes related to pediatric anxiety disorders. More than ever, the general pediatrician should be prepared to co-manage anxiety disorders with an interprofessional mental health team. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e446-e448.].


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics
16.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 240-254, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support, coping strategies, anxiety, and depression symptoms among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by comparing them with a matched control group in terms of age, gender, and education level. METHOD: The patient group (n = 84) and the healthy controls (HCs, n = 92) filled in the questionnaire including the socio-demographic form, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced through the online survey link. RESULTS: The COVID-19 patients had higher perceived social support and coping strategies scores than the HCs. However, anxiety and depression scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. In logistic regression analysis performed in COVID-19 patients, the presence of chest CT finding (OR = 4.31; 95% CI = 1.04-17.95) was a risk factor for anxiety and the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.73-0.99) had a negative association with anxiety. In addition, the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.98) and high perceived social support (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.93- 0,99) had a negative association with depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies involving the return to normality phase of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed to investigate the effects of factors such as coping strategies and perceived social support that could increase the psychological adjustment and resilience of individuals on anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Inpatients/psychology , Social Support , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
18.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 210-227, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease which is believed to have initially originated in Wuhan city of China at the end of 2019 was declared as pandemic by March 2020 by WHO. This pandemic significantly impacted the mental health of communities around the globe. This project draws data from available research to quantify COVID-19 mental health issues and its prevalence in China during the early period of the COVID-19 crisis. It is believed that this pooling of data will give fair estimate of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. METHODS: We conducted this study in accordance with PRISMA guidelines 2009. The protocol for this review is registered and published in PROSPERO (CRD42020182893). The databases used were Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar and Scopus. The studies were extracted according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and risk of bias assessment was conducted. The Meta-analysis was done using OpenMeta [analyst]. RESULTS: Total of 62382 participants in nineteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Stress was the most prevalent (48.1%) mental health consequence of Covid-19 pandemic, followed by depression (26.9%) and anxiety (21.8%). After performing subgroup analysis, prevalence of depression and anxiety in both females and frontline health care workers were high as compared to the prevalence in general Chinese population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression and anxiety is moderately high whereas pooled prevalence of stress was found to be very high in Chinese people during this Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18644, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428901

ABSTRACT

The student population has been highly vulnerable to the risk of mental health deterioration during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and predictors of mental health among students in Poland, Slovenia, Czechia, Ukraine, Russia, Germany, Turkey, Israel, and Colombia in a socioeconomic context during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted among 2349 students (69% women) from May-July 2020. Data were collected by means of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Gender Inequality Index (GII), Standard & Poor's Global Ratings, the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT), and a sociodemographic survey. Descriptive statistics and Bayesian multilevel skew-normal regression analyses were conducted. The prevalence of high stress, depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms in the total sample was 61.30%, 40.3%, and 30%, respectively. The multilevel Bayesian model showed that female sex was a credible predictor of PSS-10, GAD-7, and PHQ-8 scores. In addition, place of residence (town) and educational level (first-cycle studies) were risk factors for the PHQ-8. This study showed that mental health issues are alarming in the student population. Regular psychological support should be provided to students by universities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Universities , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Bayes Theorem , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Multilevel Analysis , Prevalence , Regression Analysis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess psychological effects of the initial peak phase of the COVID-19 pandemic on United States (US) medical students in clinical training to anticipate sequelae and prepare for future outbreaks. METHODS: Authors emailed a cross-sectional survey in April-May, 2020 to students in clinical training years at six US medical schools which included validated General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and Primary Care-PTSD (PC-PTSD-5) screening tools, and asked students about pandemic-related stress and specific concerns. Authors used quantitative and thematic analysis to present results. RESULTS: Of 2511 eligible students, 741 responded (29.5%). Most students (84.1%) reported at least "somewhat" increased levels of stress and anxiety related to the pandemic. On the GAD-7, 34.3% showed mild, 16.1% moderate, and 9.5% severe anxiety symptoms, with 39.6% demonstrating no/minimal symptoms. One quarter (25.4%) screened positive for PTSD risk symptoms. Top concerns of students chosen from a pre-populated list included inadequate COVID-19 testing, undiagnosed or asymptomatic spread and racial or other disparities in the pandemic. In thematic analysis, students' reactions to removal from clinical learning included: understanding the need to conserve PPE (32.2%), a desire to help (27.7%), worry over infectious risk to others (25.4%) and self (21.2%), and lost learning opportunities (22.5%). Female students were significantly more likely to report anxiety and PTSD risk symptoms. Asian students had a greater risk of moderate anxiety and those underrepresented in medicine (UIM) had greater risk of moderate and severe anxiety symptoms compared to white students. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial peak phase of COVID-19, over 60% of US medical students screened positive for pandemic-related anxiety and one quarter were at risk for PTSD. Female and UIM students were significantly more affected. Medical schools should consider broad support of students, and targeted outreach to female and UIM students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL