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1.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 730-740, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637711

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The prevalence of perinatal anxiety and depressive symptoms have been speculated to increase during an infectious disease outbreak but remains unknown in the context of the COVID-19 situation. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety and depressive symptoms among pregnant women and postpartum mothers during the COVID-19 period. METHODS: Six electronic databases were systematically searched for articles from November 2019 to December 2020. Twenty-six observational studies and brief reports were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of anxiety was greater than depression in both antenatal and postnatal periods, and the prevalence of depression was higher in the antenatal period than the postnatal period. The pooled prevalence for antenatal anxiety symptoms, antenatal depressive symptoms and postnatal depressive symptoms were 40% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.27-0.52), 27% (95% CI: 0.20-0.33) and 17% (95% CI: 0.10-0.24), respectively. Europe (56%, 95% CI: 0.28-0.85) had significantly higher prevalence of antenatal anxiety than Asia (16%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.23). CONCLUSIONS: The heightened prevalence of perinatal psychological disorders served as an impetus for healthcare professionals and policy makers to ramp up their support and mitigation strategies for pregnant women and mothers in times of health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 721-729, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636188

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Maternal mental distress in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother's and child's physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide an insight into mental well-being of pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19 by assessing symptoms of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data from two cohorts of pregnant women recruited from Danish general practice were compared. A COVID-19 lockdown cohort (N=330) completed questionnaires between 8 April and 6 May. Responses were compared to those from a control cohort of women from 2016 (N=1428). Mental well-being was measured with the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Anxiety Symptom Scale (ASS). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 83% of the COVID-19 lockdown cohort and by 93% of the control cohort. Multivariable analysis controlling for age, cohabitation status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, chronic disease, fertility treatment, parity and children living at home showed no difference in depressive symptoms (MDI). Anxiety symptoms (ASS) were slightly worse in the COVID-19 lockdown cohort (mean difference=1.4 points), mainly driven by questions concerning general anxiety. The largest differences in anxiety were seen in first trimester (adjusted mean difference=4.0 points). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women questioned during the COVID-19 pandemic showed no change in symptoms of depression and only a modest elevation of anxiety when compared to pregnant women questioned during a non-pandemic period in 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
3.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 755-765, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634556

ABSTRACT

Aims: To examine perceived consequences for everyday life, learning outcomes, family relations, sleep problems and worries for infection, for friends and their future, among youth aged 12-19 years during weeks 7 to 9 of the COVID-19 lockdown in Norway. We examine variations by age, gender, socioeconomic status and country of birth. Methods: Youth within the municipality of Bergen were invited via SMS to participate in a 15-minute online survey. A total of 2997 (40%) youths participated. The mean age was 17 years (standard deviation 1.7). Results: Overall, 28% reported feeling somewhat to a lot impacted by schools closing, 63% reported learning less. In total, 62% reported improvement of everyday life. The youth's situation in their family was worse for 13%. Regarding sleep problems, 19% reported difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep, 12% had more nightmares, while 90% reported later bedtime and rise time. Seven per cent worried about getting infected, while 53% worried about infection among family members. A total of 19% worried that the outbreak would lead to a more difficult future, and 32%worried that friends were facing a difficult situation at home. Perceived consequences and worries related to the lockdown varied across sociodemographic groups. Conclusions: The perceived consequences and degree of worries varied by age, gender, socioeconomic status and to a certain degree country of birth. Girls, older youth, youth with lower socioeconomic status and with a migrant background from developing countries seemed to experience the lockdown as more difficult, and thereby possibly accentuating the need for services in these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 750-754, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633694

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aims to describe the mean trajectories of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among Swedish university students before and during the second and third waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We recruited 1835 participants in September 2020, of whom 81% provided follow-ups in December 2020-January 2021 and 77% provided follow-ups in March-April 2021. The short-form Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to measure mental health symptoms. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the mean differences in symptom levels over the three time periods. RESULTS: Compared with September, mean depression was 0.91 points of 21 higher (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.13) in December 2020-January 2021 and 0.66 points higher (95% CI 0.43-.88) in March-April 2021. Anxiety levels were 0.20 points higher (95% CI 0.05-0.34) in December 2020-January 2021 and 0.17 points higher (95% CI 0.02-0.33) in March-April 2021. Stress levels were 0.21 points higher (95% CI 0.00-0.41) in December 2020-January 2021 and 0.16 points lower (95% CI -0.38 to 0.05) in March-April 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate relatively stable levels of mental health among Swedish university students during the second and third waves of COVID-19 compared with before the second wave. Mean depression symptom scores increased slightly, but the importance of this small increase is uncertain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Sweden/epidemiology , Universities
5.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 741-749, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633693

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on societies and citizens worldwide, raising concerns about potential mental health impacts. We aimed to describe trajectories of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak compared to before the outbreak, and to determine if trajectories were modified by pre-pandemic loneliness, poor sleep quality and mental health problems. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with 1836 Swedish university students entering the study before 13 March 2020, the onset of the pandemic, with follow-ups within three (FU1) and six months (FU2) of the outbreak. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate mean differences in symptom levels over time-periods, and to estimate potential effect modifications. RESULTS: We found small differences in mean levels of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) over time. Compared to before the pandemic, depression increased by 0.25 points of 21 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.45) at FU1 and decreased by 0.75/21 (95% CI:-0.97 to -0.53) at FU2. Anxiety decreased from baseline to FU1 by 0.09/21 (95% CI: -0.24 to 0.07) and by 0.77/21 (95% CI: -0.93 to -0.61) to FU2. Stress decreased from baseline to FU1 by 0.30/21 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.09) and by 1.32/21 (95% CI: -1.55 to -1.09) to FU2. Students with pre-pandemic loneliness, poor sleep quality or pre-pandemic mental health problems did not have worse trajectories of mean mental health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom levels were relatively stable during the first three months of the pandemic, while there was a slight decrease during the summer months, probably due to seasonality effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweden/epidemiology , Universities
6.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 821-826, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639265

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the sleep and mental health of chronic insomnia patients in China during coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: A total of 764 patients with chronic insomnia were included in this study. From 17 January 2020 to 24 January 2020, insomnia, anxiety and physical symptoms were evaluated online, and they were followed up for 4 and 8 weeks. Main outcomes and indicators were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and each factor score, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), respectively. In addition, insomnia, anxiety and physical symptoms were assessed at baseline and at the end of fourth and eighth weeks. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the changes in patients' scale scores at different time points. RESULTS: Among the 764 participants, there were 755 and 738 evaluators who completed the fourth and eighth weeks, respectively, and the questionnaire completion rates were 98.82% and 96.60%, respectively. Among them, there are 459 (60.0%) aged 41-60 years old, 546 (71.5%) women, 218 (28.5%) men and 313 (41%) college degrees. After 8 weeks of follow-up, the differences in sleep status, anxiety symptoms and physical symptoms were statistically significant. Among the factors of PSQI, there were differences in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep disturbance (disorder), sleep efficiency and daytime function. At 4 weeks of follow-up, there was a statistically significant difference in the use of hypnotic drugs; at 8 weeks of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the use of hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSION: Under the influence of the COVID-19, the sleep status and anxiety of patients with chronic insomnia are affected by the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 845, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has recently become the most important issue in the world. Very few reports in Japan have examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on peripartum mental health. We examined the status of postpartum mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic from a consecutive database in a metropolitan area of Japan. METHODS: The subjects were women who had completed a maternity health check-up at a core regional hospital in Yokohama during the period from April 1, 2017, to December 31, 2020. We collected the subjects' scores for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) at 1 month postpartum. The subjects were divided into four groups (three Before COVID-19 groups and a During COVID-19 group). MANOVA and post-hoc tests were used to determine mental health changes in the postpartum period among the four groups. RESULTS: The Before and During COVID-19 groups contained 2844 and 1095 mothers, respectively. There were no significant difference in the total scores of the EPDS and MIBS among the four groups. However, the EPDS items related to anxiety factors were significantly higher and the EPDS items related to anhedonia and depression factors (excluding thoughts of self-harm) were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: The EPDS scores changed in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety, which represent hypervigilance, was significantly higher and anhedonia and depression were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. Our results may reflect COVID-19-related health concerns and a lack of social support caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Mothers/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adult , Anhedonia , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Retrospective Studies
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 126, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have been published on the predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, some possible predictors remain underexplored. In this study, we explored the associations of unwillingness and indecisiveness regarding COVID-19 vaccination with generalized trust, mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety, and fear of COVID-19. METHODS: Data of wave 1 (from October 27 till November 6, 2020) and wave 3 (from April 23 till May 6, 2021) of a longitudinal online study conducted in Japan were used for the analyses. Unvaccinated participants were asked at wave 3 about their willingness to be vaccinated, with possible responses of willing, unwilling, or undecided. These three responses were used as the outcome variable, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with willingness to be vaccinated as the reference group. Explanatory variables included generalized trust, depression, generalized anxiety, and fear of COVID-19 both at wave 1 and 3, and sociodemographic and health-related variables. RESULTS: Of the 11,846 valid respondents, 209 (1.8%) answered that they had already been vaccinated against COVID-19, 7089 (59.8%) responded that they were willing to be vaccinated, 3498 (29.5%) responded that they were undecided, and 1053 (8.9%) responded that they were unwilling to be vaccinated. After adjusting for covariates, we found that: (1) participants with lower levels of generalized trust at wave 1 and 3 were more likely to be undecided or unwilling at wave 3; (2) respondents with moderately severe or severe depression at wave 1 and 3 were more likely to be undecided at wave 3; (3) participants with moderate or severe levels of generalized anxiety at wave 3 but not at wave 1 were more likely to be unwilling at wave 3; and (4) respondents with high levels of fear of COVID-19 at wave 1 and 3 were less likely to be undecided and unwilling at wave 3. CONCLUSIONS: Generalized trust, mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety, and low level of fear of COVID-19 are associated with unwillingness or indecision regarding being vaccinated against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Fear , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(4): 604-610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The elderly disabled have experienced serious negative emotions during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the causes of anxiety and depression are not clear. This study aims to explore changes in mental states and influencing factors of the elderly disabled under the influence of the COVID-19 outbreak. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 253 cases of elderly disabled in Wuhan, China were selected as the research group and observed from April to June 2020. Another 181 cases of elderly disabled in Yichang, China were observed from April to June 2020 and denoted Group A, while 100 cases of elderly disabled in Wuhan were investigated from August to November 2020 and denoted Group B. Another 100 cases of the elderly without disability were chosen as the control group. The Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) were used. RESULTS: HAMA and HAMD scores of the research group are higher than those of Groups A and B and the control group. HAMA and HAMD scores of Groups A and B are higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). Solitude; pre-existing diseases; no stable and fixed friends; disability level-3 or -4; unmarried, divorced, or widowed; living in Wuhan; COVID-19 are risk factors for developing anxiety and depression in the elderly disabled after multivariate logistics regression (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of anxiety and depression is very high in the elderly disabled under the influence of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 846, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pregnant population experienced unique COVID-19 physical and psychosocial stressors such as direct health concerns related to the virus and loss of access to resources since the COVID-19 emerged as a global pandemic in early 2020. Despite these COVID-19-related stress and concerns, the maternal experience of bonding with their unborn children has not been well studied. This work aimed to study the association between mental health history, current mental health symptoms, psychological factors, COVID-19-related worries, and self-reported maternal-fetal bonding of pregnant women. METHODS: This online, survey-based cross-sectional study focused on women pregnant during the pandemic and assessed 686 women using data collected from May 19, 2020 to October 3, 2020. Enrolled respondents completed assessments in which they self-reported maternal-fetal bonding, mental health symptomatology, psychological factors, and COVID-19-related worries regarding health, pregnancy, and resources. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms in pregnant women were associated with lower quality maternal-fetal bonding, while a higher level of anxiety was positively associated with bonding; however, past history of depression or generalized anxiety diagnosis did not appear to be as relevant as active symptomatology. Maternal resilience, but not distress tolerance, appeared to be a protective factor resulting in improved bonding. Higher levels of worry regarding impact of COVID-19 on health were significantly associated with improved bonding, while worries regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the pregnancy or resources were not significantly associated with bonding. The study also found associations between different sociodemographic variables and bonding, including a strong positive association between first time motherhood and bonding and a negative association between higher education and income and bonding. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to report potential protective and risk factors to the maternal-fetal bonding process in women pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unique COVID-19 concerns exist; however, anxiety and COVID-19 concerns do not appear to undermine maternal-fetal bonding while active depressive symptomatology may negatively influence bonding; interventions increasing maternal resilience may be particularly valuable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262550, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is continuing unabated in Japan, as of October 2021. We aimed to compare first-year university students' psychological distress before the pandemic in 2019, during the pandemic in 2020, and one year after the onset of the pandemic, in 2021. METHODS: The study conducted online surveys over three years from April to May each year. Participants were 400 first-year students in 2019, 766 in 2020, and 738 in 2021. We examined differences in scores on the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-Japanese version (CCAPS-Japanese) between the three years using a one-way analysis of variance, and differences in the CCAPS-Japanese critical items using chi-squared test and residual analysis. RESULTS: The average scores on the Depression and Generalized Anxiety subscale in 2021 were significantly higher than those in 2020, but remained the same as in 2019. The Academic Distress subscale score in 2020 was the worst compared to 2019 and 2021. Meanwhile, the number of students who experienced severe suicidal ideation increased year by year from 2019 to 2021. CONCLUSION: The mean mental health of first-year university students worsened after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and recovered to the pre-pandemic level over the next two years. However, the number of high-risk students with suicidal ideation continued to increase. A system is required for early detection and support for students at high risk of mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
13.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(12): 13-18, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study neurological and mental disorders associated with the inapparent and mild course of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 50 patients (mean age 35.2±11.4 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital due to depressive spectrum disorders. Patients were divided into two groups: patients (n=16) who had IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (main group) and patients (n=34) without a history of COVID-19 (comparison group). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Patients of the main group showed a difference in the structure of asthenic disorders compared with the comparison group. Also, there was a significant predominance of the severity of asthenic symptoms and anxiety in the structure of psychopathological disorders in depressive spectrum disorders. The viral intoxication contributes to the formation of a kind of asthenic «soil¼ (with characteristic manifestations). In the future, in the case of the development of any stress-associated disorder, more pronounced psychopathological disorders are noted compared with patients of the comparison group. The authors describe a variant of the course of COVID-19, in which the development of ischemic stroke was the first clinical manifestation of the disease. These disorders are based on the pronounced neurotropic effect of SARS-CoV-2 and its effect on the neurovascular unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Adult , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262562, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631073

ABSTRACT

Higher education students' mental health has been a growing concern in recent years even before the COVID-19 pandemic. The stresses and restrictions associated with the pandemic have put university students at greater risk of developing mental health issues, which may significantly impair their academic success, social interactions and their future career and personal opportunities. This paper aimed to understand the mental health status of University students at an early stage in the pandemic and to investigate factors associated with higher levels of distress. An online survey including demographics, lifestyle/living situations, brief mental well-being history, questions relating to COVID-19 and standardised measures of depression, anxiety, resilience and quality of life was completed by 1173 students at one University in the North of England. We found high levels of anxiety and depression, with more than 50% experiencing levels above the clinical cut offs, and females scoring significantly higher than males. The survey also suggested relatively low levels of resilience which we attribute to restrictions and isolation which reduced the opportunities to engage in helpful coping strategies and activities rather than enduring personality characteristics. Higher levels of distress were associated with lower levels of exercising, higher levels of tobacco use, and a number of life events associated with the pandemic and lockdown, such as cancelled events, worsening in personal relationships and financial concerns. We discuss the importance of longer-term monitoring and mental health support for university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Internet , Life Style , Linear Models , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Psicothema ; 34(1): 66-73, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to longitudinally assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general Spanish population. It uses four assessment points: two weeks after the start of confinement, one month after, two months after, and one year after the first evaluation. METHODS: Evaluations were conducted through an online survey, with a sample of 3,480 people at the first data collection and 1,041, 569, and 550 people at successive evaluation points. Depressive symptoms (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-2), post-traumatic stress (PCL-C-2), social support (EMAS), loneliness (UCLA-3), and discrimination (InDI-d) were evaluated. RESULTS: Significant changes were found in the variables depression and anxiety with a greater presence of this kind of symptomatology after one year (p < .01). There were also significant changes in the variable social support, which showed a substantial reduction after one year (p < .001). Similarly, there were significant variations in the variable intersectional discrimination (p < .001), with greater levels of discrimination. The temporal models show no significant differences in terms of post-traumatic symptomatology (p = .12) or loneliness (p = .19). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic had a negative impact on mental health and these effects were further exacerbated one year later.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 33, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A global public health emergency triggered by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic may have are markable psychological impact on the population. There is still limited psychological research on police officers, especially prison officers in the process of enforcing the law. The present study aims to identify prevalence and influencing factors on mental health status among frontline prison officers in China during the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with a sample of 981 frontline prison officers was conducted using snowball sampling approach. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: (i) informed consent form; (ii) socio-demographic section; (iii) work and life situations during the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic; (iv) the Chinese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed to identify factors influencing mental health status. RESULTS: The prevalence of being prone to mental health problems (GHQ-12 score ≥ 4) was 33.43% among frontline prison officers. The results of GHQ-12 factors analysis indicated that the prison officers suffered from psychological issues was related to anxiety and depression, which main symptoms were unhappy and depressed, lost sleep over worry and constantly under strain. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male (OR = 1.573, 95% CI:1.385-1.853), lockdown shift inside the prison(OR = 2.203, 95% CI:2.139-2.297), more night shifts (OR = 2.163, 95% CI:2.031-2.317; OR = 2.749, 95% CI:2.194-2.901), more smoking (OR = 1.100, 95% CI:1.037-2.168), poor self-reported physical condition (OR = 1.947, 95% CI:1.478-2.250), chronic or serious illness history(OR = 1.870, 95% CI:1.314-2.660; OR = 2.214, 95% CI:1.460-2.812) were risk factors for mental health among frontline prison officers, while regular diet (OR = 0.779, 95% CI:0.539-0.928), more physical exercise (OR = 0.702, 95% CI:0.548-0.899; OR = 0.641, 95% CI:0.316-0.887), more communication with family members (OR = 0.437, 95% CI:0.295-0.616) were protective factors. CONCLUSION: Chinese frontline prison officers experienced different psychological stress coming from the prevention and control of this epidemic. Therefore, continued surveillance of psychological problems and targeted mental health care for frontline prison officers were urgent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisons , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Health Status , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e047748, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore clinically important increases in depression/anxiety from before to during the first UK COVID-19 lockdown and factors related to this change, with a particular focus on ethnic differences. DESIGN: Pre-COVID-19 and lockdown surveys nested within two longitudinal Born in Bradford cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: 1860 mothers with a child aged 0-5 or 9-13, 48% Pakistani heritage. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ORs for a clinically important increase (5 points or more) in depression (eight item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)) and anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7)) in unadjusted regression analyses, repeated with exposures of interest separated by ethnicity to look for differences in magnitude of associations, and lived experience of mothers captured in open text questions. RESULTS: The number of women reporting clinically important depression/anxiety increased from 11% to 20% (95% CI 10%-13%; 18%-22%) and from 10% to 16% (95% CI 8%-11%; 15%-18%), respectively. Increases in depression/anxiety were associated with loneliness (OR=8.37, 95% CI 5.70 to 12.27; 8.50, 95% CI 5.71 to 12.65, respectively); financial (6.23, 95% CI 3.96 to 9.80; 6.03, 95% CI 3.82 to 9.51), food (3.33, 95% CI 2.09 to 5.28; 3.46, 95% CI 2.15 to 5.58) and housing insecurity (3.29, 95% CI 2.36 to 4.58; 3.0, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.25); a lack of physical activity (3.13, 95% CI 2.15 to 4.56; 2.55, 95% CI 1.72 to 3.78); and a poor partner relationship (3.6, 95% CI 2.44 to 5.43; 5.1, 95% CI 3.37 to 7.62). The magnitude of associations between key exposures and worsening mental health varied between ethnic groups.Responses to open text questions illustrated a complex interplay of challenges contributing to mental ill health including: acute health anxieties; the mental load of managing multiple responsibilities; loss of social support and coping strategies; pressures of financial and employment insecurity; and being unable to switch off from the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Mental ill health has worsened for many during the COVID-19 lockdown, particularly in those who are lonely and economically insecure. The magnitude of associations between key exposures and worsening mental health varied between ethnic groups. Mental health problems may have longer term consequences for public health and interventions that address the potential causes are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
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