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1.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 187: 107575, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595264

ABSTRACT

The threatening context of the COVID-19 pandemic provided a unique setting to study the effects of negative psychological symptoms on memory processes. Episodic memory is an essential function of the human being related to the ability to store and remember experiences and anticipate possible events in the future. Studying this function in this context is crucial to understand what effects the pandemic will have on the formation of episodic memories. To study this, the formation of episodic memories was evaluated by free recall, recognition, and episode order tasks for an aversive and neutral content. The results indicated that aversive episodic memory is impaired both in the free recall task and in the recognition task. Even the beneficial effect that emotional memory usually has for the episodic order was undermined as there were no differences between the neutral and aversive condition. The present work adds to the evidence that indicates that the level of activation does not modify memory processes in a linear way, which also depends on the type of recall and the characteristics of the content to be encoded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Memory, Episodic , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/complications , Depression/etiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Recall , Young Adult
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 799, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, consultations and pregnancy monitoring examinations had to be reorganised urgently. In addition, women themselves may have postponed or cancelled their medical monitoring for organisational reasons, for fear of contracting the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) or for other reasons of their own. Delayed care can have deleterious consequences for both the mother and the child. Our objective was therefore to study the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the first lockdown in France on voluntary changes by pregnant women in the medical monitoring of their pregnancy and the associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2020 using a web-questionnaire completed by 500 adult (> 18 years old) pregnant women during the first French lockdown (March-May 2020). A robust variance Poisson regression model was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs). RESULTS: Almost one women of five (23.4%) reported having voluntarily postponed or foregone at least one consultation or pregnancy check-up during the lockdown. Women who were professionally inactive (aPR = 1.98, CI95%[1.24-3.16]), who had experienced serious disputes or violence during the lockdown (1.47, [1.00-2.16]), who felt they received little or no support (1.71, [1.07-2.71]), and those who changed health professionals during the lockdown (1.57, [1.04-2.36]) were all more likely to have voluntarily changed their pregnancy monitoring. Higher level of worry about the pandemic was associated with a lower probability of voluntarily changing pregnancy monitoring (0.66, [0.46-0.96]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results can guide prevention and support policies for pregnant women in the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pregnant Women , Quarantine , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Poisson Distribution , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0256323, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to a mental health crisis on a global scale. Epidemiological studies have reported a drastic increase in mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety, increased loneliness and feelings of disconnectedness from others, while resilience levels have been negatively affected, indicating an urgent need for intervention. The current study is embedded within the larger CovSocial project which sought to evaluate longitudinal changes in vulnerability, resilience and social cohesion during the pandemic. The current second phase will investigate the efficacy of brief online mental training interventions in reducing mental health problems, and enhancing psychological resilience and social capacities. It further provides a unique opportunity for the prediction of intervention effects by individual biopsychosocial characteristics and preceding longitudinal change patterns during the pandemic in 2020/21. METHODS: We will examine the differential effects of a socio-emotional (including 'Affect Dyad') and a mindfulness-based (including 'Breathing Meditation') intervention, delivered through a web- and cellphone application. Participants will undergo 10 weeks of intervention, and will be compared to a retest control group. The effectiveness of the interventions will be evaluated in a community sample (N = 300), which is recruited from the original longitudinal CovSocial sample. The pre- to post-intervention changes, potential underlying mechanisms, and prediction thereof, will be assessed on a wide range of outcomes: levels of stress, loneliness, depression and anxiety, resilience, prosocial behavior, empathy, compassion, and the impact on neuroendocrine, immunological and epigenetic markers. The multi-method nature of the study will incorporate self-report questionnaires, behavioral tasks, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches, and biological, hormonal and epigenetic markers assessed in saliva. DISCUSSION: Results will reveal the differential effectiveness of two brief online interventions in improving mental health outcomes, as well as enhancing social capacities and resilience. The present study will serve as a first step for future application of scalable, low-cost interventions at a broader level to reduce stress and loneliness, improve mental health and build resilience and social capacities in the face of global stressors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been registered on May 17, 2020 with the ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04889508 registration number (clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04889508).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Mindfulness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Meditation , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Future Oncol ; 17(35): 4871-4882, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394695

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study goal was to evaluate the behavioral response and practices of cancer patients to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Middle East and north Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated anonymous 45-question survey administered via SurveyMonkey® to cancer patients in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. Results: During the study period (from 21 April to 30 May 2020), 3642 patients participated in the study. The majority of patients (84.81%) were worried about contracting the infection. The reported strict adherence to precautions included avoiding the following actions: hand-shaking (77.40%), hugging and kissing (82.89%), social gathering (90.09%), meeting friends (84.68%) and visiting markets (75.65%). In a multivariate analysis, patients with poor precautionary practices were about twice as likely to cancel their medical appointment or a treatment session. Conclusion: Improving cancer patients' knowledge of and adherence to precautionary measures is needed not just to reduce the risk of acquiring infection but also to minimize the interruption of their medical care.


Lay abstract COVID-19 poses a higher risk for patients with cancer than other patients; therefore, it is prudent that they adhere to precautionary measures to protect themselves from the infection. We conducted a study to evaluate the behaviors and practices of these patients in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Middle, East and North Africa. We developed a survey of 45 questions that was distributed in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia between 21 April and 30 May 2020. About 85% of the 3642 patients who participated in the study were worried about contracting the infection. A substantial percentage of them (10­30%) were not adhering to various precautions and social distancing rules. On the other hand, 16% of them canceled medical appointments and 12% canceled treatment sessions. Our study showed the need for better adherence of patients with cancer to the infection precautions and most importantly, the need to have a better compliance with their treatment plans, such as keeping their scheduled appointments, to avoid harms from treatment delays.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During health disaster events such as the current devastating havoc being inflicted on countries globally by the SARS-CoV-19 pandemic, mental health problems among survivors and frontline workers are likely concerns. However, during such health disaster events, stakeholders tend to give more precedence to the socio-economic and biomedical health consequences at the expense of mental health. Meanwhile, studies show that regardless of the kind of disaster/antecedent, all traumatic events trigger similar post-traumatic stress symptoms among survivors, families, and frontline workers. Thus, our study investigated the prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms among survivors of the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease that plagued the West African sub-region. METHODS: We systematically retrieved peer-reviewed articles published between 1970 and 2019 from seven electronic databases, including Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science on Ebola and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. A comprehensive hand search complemented this literature search. Of the 87 articles retrieved, only 13 met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. RESULTS: After heterogeneity, influence, and publication bias analysis, our meta-analysis pooled proportion effects estimates showed a moderate to a high prevalence of anxiety (14%; 99% CI: 0.05-0.30), depression (15%; 99% CI: 0.11-0.21), and insomnia (22%; 99% CI: 0.13-0.36). Effect estimates ranging from (0.13; 99% CI: 0.05, 0.28) through to (0.11; 99% CI: 0.05-0.22), (0.15; 99% CI: 0.09-0.25) through to (0.13; 99% CI: 0.08-0.21) and (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) to (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) were respectively reported for anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. These findings suggest a significant amount of EVD survivors are struggling with anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study provided the first-ever meta-analysis evidence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms among EVD survivors, and suggest that the predominant biomedical health response to regional and global health disasters should be complemented with trauma-related mental health services.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Depression/complications , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Ebolavirus/isolation & purification , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Survivors
8.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(2): 206-209, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic became a challenge to maintain care for patients with epilepsy; we aimed to find out how the pandemic affected them. METHODS: We sent an online 22-item questionnaire to patients from our outpatient clinic, a reference centre in Spain for drug-resistant epilepsy, inquiring about the effects of lockdown, from March to May 2020. RESULTS: We sent the survey to 627 patients; 312 (58% women) sent a complete response and were included. Of all respondents, 57% took >2 antiseizure medications. One-third of respondents (29%) declared an associated cognitive or motor disability. A minority had confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1.92%). Seizure frequency remained like usual in 56% of patients, while 31.2% reported an increase. Less than 10% needed emergent assistance. Almost half reported anxiety or depression, and 25% increased behavioural disorders. Mood (F: 5.40; p: 0.002) and sleep disorders (F = 2.67; p: 0.05) were associated with increase in seizure frequency. Patients were able to contact their physicians when needed and were open to a future telematic approach to follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Seizure frequency and severity remained unchanged in most patients during the lockdown. Mood and sleep disorders were common and associated with seizure worsening. Patients were open to telematic care in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy/therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/complications , Disabled Persons , Epilepsy/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Motor Disorders/complications , Outpatients , Seizures/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/classification , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376916

ABSTRACT

Alcohol consumption is associated with gut dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, and a cascade that leads to persistent systemic inflammation, alcoholic liver disease, and other ailments. Craving for alcohol and its consequences depends, among other things, on the endocannabinoid system. We have analyzed the relative role of central vs. peripheral cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) using a "two-bottle" as well as a "drinking in the dark" paradigm in mice. The globally acting CB1R antagonist rimonabant and the non-brain penetrant CB1R antagonist JD5037 inhibited voluntary alcohol intake upon systemic but not upon intracerebroventricular administration in doses that elicited anxiogenic-like behavior and blocked CB1R-induced hypothermia and catalepsy. The peripherally restricted hybrid CB1R antagonist/iNOS inhibitor S-MRI-1867 was also effective in reducing alcohol consumption after oral gavage, while its R enantiomer (CB1R inactive/iNOS inhibitor) was not. The two MRI-1867 enantiomers were equally effective in inhibiting an alcohol-induced increase in portal blood endotoxin concentration that was caused by increased gut permeability. We conclude that (i) activation of peripheral CB1R plays a dominant role in promoting alcohol intake and (ii) the iNOS inhibitory function of MRI-1867 helps in mitigating the alcohol-induced increase in endotoxemia.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/pathology , Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Endotoxemia/pathology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/antagonists & inhibitors , Alcohol Drinking/blood , Animals , Anxiety/blood , Anxiety/complications , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Catalepsy/chemically induced , Catalepsy/complications , Cyclohexanols/administration & dosage , Elevated Plus Maze Test , Endotoxemia/blood , Endotoxemia/complications , Endotoxins/blood , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Hypothermia, Induced , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/metabolism , Rimonabant/administration & dosage , Rimonabant/pharmacology , Stereoisomerism , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage
10.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(4): 756-764, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366670

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the psychological implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for father-child bonding and mental health among Italian gay fathers pursuing surrogacy in the USA or Canada? DESIGN: Between 20 March and 29 July 2020, this cross-sectional case-control study collected data on father-child bonding quality, depression, anxiety and somatization in 30 Italian gay fathers (n=15 families) who were having or successfully had a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. These fathers were compared with a sociodemographically similar group of 50 Italian gay fathers (n=25 families) who had children through cross-border surrogacy prior to the pandemic. RESULTS: Although father-child bonding quality and the mental health symptoms of fathers scored below the clinical cut-off points in both groups, fathers who had or were having a child during the COVID-19 pandemic reported poorer father-child bonding (estimate 3.04, SE 1.47, P=0.044) and more depressive (estimate -1.47, SE 0.49, P=0.005), anxious (estimate -1.96, SE 0.55, P<0.001) and somatic symptoms (estimate -2.48, SE 0.52, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings call for the development of international guidelines for cross-border surrogacy and underline the need for tailored and ongoing psychological and legal support for intended gay fathers to ease their strain and anxiety related to having a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fathers/psychology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Object Attachment , Parenting/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Canada , Case-Control Studies , Depression/complications , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surrogate Mothers , United States
12.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3671-3679, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had wide-ranging health effects and increased isolation. Older with cancer patients might be especially vulnerable to loneliness and poor mental health during the pandemic. METHODS: The authors included active participants enrolled in the longitudinal Thinking and Living With Cancer study of nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors aged 60 to 89 years (n = 262) and matched controls (n = 165) from 5 US regions. Participants completed questionnaires at parent study enrollment and then annually, including a web-based or telephone COVID-19 survey, between May 27 and September 11, 2020. Mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in loneliness (a single item on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D] scale) from before to during the pandemic in survivors versus controls and to test survivor-control differences in the associations between changes in loneliness and changes in mental health, including depression (CES-D, excluding the loneliness item), anxiety (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and perceived stress (the Perceived Stress Scale). Models were adjusted for age, race, county COVID-19 death rates, and time between assessments. RESULTS: Loneliness increased from before to during the pandemic (0.211; P = .001), with no survivor-control differences. Increased loneliness was associated with worsening depression (3.958; P < .001) and anxiety (3.242; P < .001) symptoms and higher stress (1.172; P < .001) during the pandemic, also with no survivor-control differences. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors reported changes in loneliness and mental health similar to those reported by women without cancer. However, both groups reported increased loneliness from before to during the pandemic that was related to worsening mental health, suggesting that screening for loneliness during medical care interactions will be important for identifying all older women at risk for adverse mental health effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J Psychosom Res ; 147: 110516, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence from previous virus epidemics has shown that infected patients are at risk for developing psychiatric and mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Hence, to collect high-quality data on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 should be the immediate priority. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from January 1, 2020 to December 26, 2020 for eligible studies reporting on the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Studies meeting the following criteria were included in the analysis: (1) included patients with COVD-19; (2) recorded the prevalence of depression, anxiety, or insomnia symptom; (3) sample size ≥30; (4) with validated screening tools; and (5) passed through the international peer-review process. Data extraction and quality assessment was independently performed by two reviewers. The quality effects meta-analysis was conducted further to calculate the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included for analysis with a total of 4318 patients. The pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms was 38% (95% CI = 25-51), 38% (95% CI = 24-52), and 48% (95% CI = 11-85), respectively. Neither subgroup analysis nor sensitivity analysis can explain the source of high heterogeneity. In addition, the prevalence estimates of depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms varied based on different screening tools. CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms are prevalent in a considerable proportion of patients with COVID-19. Thus, early detection and properly intervention for mental illness in this population are of great significance. Additionally, the quality of included studies to date has been variable, and ongoing surveillance is essential.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Prevalence
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 685-688, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218746

ABSTRACT

On April 7, 2021, after 5 weeks' use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), CDC received reports of clusters of anxiety-related events after administration of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine from five mass vaccination sites, all in different states. To further investigate these cases, CDC interviewed vaccination site staff members to gather additional information about the reported events and vaccination site practices. Four of the five sites temporarily closed while an investigation took place. Overall, 64 anxiety-related events, including 17 reports of syncope (fainting), an anxiety-related event, among 8,624 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients, were reported from these sites for vaccines administered during April 7-9. As a follow-up to these interviews, CDC analyzed reports of syncope shortly after receipt of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the vaccine safety monitoring program managed by CDC and FDA. To compare the occurrence of these events with those reported after receipt of other vaccines, reports of syncopal events after influenza vaccine administered in the 2019-20 influenza season were also reviewed. Syncope after Janssen COVID-19 vaccination was reported to VAERS (8.2 episodes per 100,000 doses). By comparison, after influenza vaccination, the reporting rate of syncope was 0.05 episodes per 100,000 doses. Anxiety-related events can occur after any vaccination. It is important that vaccination providers are aware that anxiety-related adverse events might be reported more frequently after receipt of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine than after influenza vaccination and observe all COVID-19 vaccine recipients for any adverse reactions for at least 15 minutes after vaccine administration.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Syncope/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Autism Res ; 14(7): 1496-1511, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206750

ABSTRACT

In the wake of COVID-19, the world has become a more uncertain environment-a breeding ground for stress and anxiety, especially for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined stress, anxiety, and coping in a data-driven, real-time assessment of 122 youth with and without ASD and their parents at the height of the COVID-19 shutdown and three-months later. Standardized measures were administered to ascertain stress and coping explicitly related to the pandemic (RSQ COVID-19-Child [self-report], Adult [self-report from the guardian of youth], Parent [report about child]) and anxiety (STAI-C, STAI-A). Multivariate, univariate analyses of variance and hierarchical regression were used. ASD youth endorsed more Trait anxiety and response to specific stressors (e.g., virus). Caregivers of youth with ASD (Adults) self-reported higher anxiety, yet scores were elevated for both groups. Adults of youth with ASD reported more stress, especially related to the virus, access to healthcare, and concern for the future. In the TD group, youth and adults used more Primary and Secondary Control Coping whereas ASD youth and adults used more Disengagement Coping. Adult stress was the primary predictor of parent perception of child stress as well as Child self-reported stress. While the ASD group was consistently high compared to the TD group, there were no significant changes over time for stress or anxiety. Results reveal striking differences in youth with ASD and their parents regarding stress, anxiety, and coping. Findings highlight the need for essential support, access to services, and strategies to enhance psychological and emotional well-being. LAY SUMMARY: This study examined stress, anxiety, and coping related to the COVID-19 pandemic in 61 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 61 youth with typical development (TD) and their parents. Results showed that ASD youth reported more anxiety and stress. Adults of youth with ASD indicated higher self-reported anxiety and stress than adults of TD youth. TD youth and their parents reported using more adaptive coping strategies. Findings highlight the need for strategies to enhance psychological and emotional well-being.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 55(5): 272-278, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze differences by age group in anxiety, depression, loneliness and comorbid anxiety and depression in young people, middle aged adults and older adults during the lock-down period at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the association between negative self-perceptions of aging and psychological symptoms controlling by age group. METHOD: Participants are 1501 people (age range 18 to 88 years). Anxiety, sadness, loneliness and self-perceptions of aging were assessed. The sample was divided according to the age group and quartiles (lower, intermediate levels, and higher) of anxiety, sadness, loneliness and self-perceptions of aging. RESULTS: Older adults reported lower levels of anxiety and sadness than middle aged adults, and middle aged adults reported lower levels than younger participants. Middle aged adults reported the lowest loneliness, followed by older adults and younger participants. For each age group, those with more negative self-perceptions of aging reported higher anxiety, sadness and loneliness. More comorbid anxiety and sadness was found in younger adults and less in older adults; more depressed participants in the middle aged group, and more older adults and less younger participants were found in the group with the lowest levels of anxiety and sadness. For all the age groups, participants with high levels of comorbid anxiety and sadness are those who report the highest scores in negative self-perceptions of aging. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults reported lower psychological anxiety, sadness and loneliness than the other age groups. Having negative self-perceptions of aging damage psychological health irrespective of the chronological age.


Subject(s)
Aging/psychology , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Self Concept , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110399, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the mental health outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The aims of the study were: (1) to examine the trajectories of anxiety, depression, and pandemic-related stress factors (PRSF) of COVID-19 hospitalized patients one-month following hospitalization; (2) to assess the presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) a month after hospitalization; (3) to identify baseline risk and protective factors that would predict PTSS one month after hospitalization. METHODS: We contacted hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 64) by phone, at three time-points: during the first days after admission to the hospital (T1); after ~two weeks from the beginning of hospitalization (T2), and one month after hospitalization (T3). At all time-points we assessed the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as PRSF. At T3, PTSS were assessed. RESULTS: The levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms decreased one-month following hospitalization. Moreover, higher levels of anxiety (standardized ß = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.81-1.49, p < 0.001) and depression (ß = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.63-1.31 p < 0.001) symptoms during the first week of hospitalization, feeling socially disconnected (ß = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37-0.81 p < 0.001) and experiencing a longer hospitalization period (ß = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.03-0.47 p = 0.026) predicted higher PTSS scores a month post-hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: We identified early hospitalization risk factors for the development of PTSS one month after hospitalization that should be targeted to reduce the risk for PTSS.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Hospitalization , Inpatients/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Symptom Assessment
18.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 51(2): 89-99, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075403

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an adverse effect on anxiety and depression symptoms and disorders in the United States and worldwide. As such, there is considerable interest in better understanding the relationship between COVID-19 and anxiety and depressive disorders. Although individual differences in perceived stress have shown to be related to anxiety and depression in non-COVID-19 work, research has not examined potential factors underlying this relation in the context of COVID-19. Fatigue severity may be a promising mechanistic construct for perceived stress and anxiety and depression relations, as some work has found that perceived stress may predict elevated fatigue symptoms. As such, the current study sought to examine the potential explanatory role of fatigue severity in the relation between COVID-19 specific perceived stress and depression, anxiety, and panic symptoms among 563 adults (41.9% female, Mage = 38.26 years, SD = 12.15). Results suggested that COVID-19 perceived stress, via fatigue severity, significantly predicted depression, anxiety, and panic symptoms. These results provide initial empirical support for the role of fatigue severity in the relation between COVID-19 perceived stress and depression, anxiety, and panic symptoms. Future work would benefit from using longitudinal data to evaluate the current model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Depression/complications , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications
19.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isolation form on the recovery of psychological distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after being discharged from hospital. METHODS: Baseline survey was conducted from February 10, 2020 to February 25, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital on the discharge day. After discharge, patients were free to choose whether isolate in a centralized isolation site (i.e. designated hotel) or their own home for another two weeks. A follow-up survey was conducted at the end of the 2-week post-discharge isolation. Depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health were assessed at both time points using the 9-item patient health questionnaire, 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale and self-rated health scores, respectively. RESULTS: Fifty centrally isolated and 45 home isolated patients completed both the baseline and the follow-up assessments. Significant effects of time and time by isolation form were found on depression and anxiety levels, with a significant decrease in depression and anxiety shown in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. Besides, a significant time effect was identified on self-rated health with significant improvement found in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation is superior to centralized isolation in the recovery of COVID-19-associated depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health. More attention needs to be paid to the psychological well-being of centrally isolated patients. A sustained and integrated rehabilitation plan is warranted for patients with COVID-19 to achieve both physical and psychological recovery.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Patient Discharge , Patient Isolation/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aftercare , China/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Residence Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(12): 791-795, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are a vulnerable population who have been exposed to high work-related stress during the COVID-19 pandemic because of the high risk of infection and excessive workloads. HCWs are at greater risk of mental illness, particularly sleep disturbances, post-trauma stress syndromes, depression and anxiety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to highlight the psychiatric impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on frontline HCWs, the need for screening and early diagnosis by general practitioners (GPs), and the appropriate psychosocial strategies and treatments to address this. DISCUSSION: Opportunistic screening for mental health issues among HCWs is especially important during the current pandemic. Various tools and strategies can be used for efficient assessment and treatment of the common mental health issues HCWs are likely to face.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health/standards , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/complications , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires
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