Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 258
Filter
1.
Trials ; 23(1): 899, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had major impacts in many different spheres, including mental health. Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable because their central nervous system is still in development and they have fewer coping resources than do adults. Increases in the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptomatology have been reported worldwide. However, access to mental health care is limited, especially for the paediatric population and in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, we developed a brief internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural intervention for children and adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this proposed study is to test the efficacy of the intervention. METHODS: We will conduct a two-arm, parallel randomised controlled trial involving children and adolescents (8-11 and 12-17 years of age, respectively) with symptoms of anxiety, depression or both, according to the 25-item Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (t-score > 70). A total of 280 participants will be randomised to the intervention group or the active control group, in a 1:1 ratio. Those in the intervention group will receive five weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy via teleconference. The sessions will focus on stress responses, family communication, diaphragmatic breathing, emotions, anger management, behavioural activation and cognitive restructuring. Participants in both groups will have access to 15 videos covering the same topics. Participant-guardian pairs will be expected to attend the sessions (intervention group), watch the videos (control group) or both (intervention group only). A blinded assessor will collect data on symptoms of anxiety, depression and irritability, at baseline, at the end of the intervention and 30 days thereafter. Adolescents with access to a smartphone will also be invited to participate in an ecological momentary assessment of emotional problems in the week before and the week after the intervention, as well as in passive data collection from existing smartphone sensors throughout the study. DISCUSSION: Internet-delivered interventions play a major role in increasing access to mental health care. A brief, manualised, internet-delivered intervention might help children and adolescents with anxiety or depressive symptomatology, even outside the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05139433. Registered prospectively in November 2021. Minor amendments made in July 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Internet-Based Intervention , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/therapy , Cognition , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/therapy , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(4)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066794

ABSTRACT

Objective: The conditions created by the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression, anxiety, and mother-infant bonding among women seeking treatment for postpartum depression (PPD).Methods: Baseline data collected in two separate randomized controlled trials of a psychoeducational intervention for PPD in the same geographic region, one prior to COVID-19 (March 2019-March 2020) and one during the COVID-19 pandemic (April-October 2020), were compared. Eligible participants had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥ 10, were ≥ 18 years of age, had an infant < 12 months old, and were fluent in English. Outcomes included PPD (EPDS), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]), and mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ]). All were measured continuously and dichotomized at accepted clinical cutoffs.Results: Of the 603 participants (305 pre-COVID-19; 298 during COVID-19), mothers enrolled during the COVID-19 pandemic reported higher levels of symptoms of PPD (B = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.64 to 2.06; Cohen d = 0.31) and anxiety (B = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.32; Cohen d = 0.30). During COVID-19, women had 65% higher odds of clinically significant levels of depression symptoms (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.31) and 46% higher odds of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in mother-infant bonding.Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that rates and severity of PPD and anxiety symptoms among women seeking treatment for PPD have worsened in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, treatment-seeking mothers have consistently maintained good relationships with their infants. Considering the difficulties women with PPD face when accessing treatment, it is important that strategies are developed and disseminated to safely identify and manage PPD to mitigate potential long-term adverse consequences for mothers and their families.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT03654261 and NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 427, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The large-scale changes in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme delivery in response to COVID-19 has led to diminished provision. The influence of these service changes on the depression symptoms of patients in CR programmes is unknown. Our study investigated the extent of depressive symptoms prior to and during the COVID-19 periods in patients with a previous history of depression at the start of CR. METHODS: Use of Registry routine practice data, National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR), from COVID-19 period Feb 2020 and Jan 2021, as well as pre COVID-19 period Feb 2019 and Jan 2020, was extracted. Depressive symptoms were defined according to Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score ≥ 8. Chi-square tests and independent samples t-tests were used to investigate baseline characteristics. Additionally, a binary logistic regression to examine the factors associated with high levels of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: In total 3661 patients with a history of depression were included in the analysis. Patients attending CR during COVID-19 were found to be 11% more likely to have high levels of acute depressive symptoms compared to patients attending CR prior to COVID-19. Physical inactivity, increased anxiety, a higher total number of comorbidities, increased weight, and living in the most deprived areas were statistically significant factors associated with high levels of acute depressive symptoms at the start of CR following multivariate adjustments. CONCLUSION: Our research suggests that following a cardiac event patients with prior history of depression have high levels of acute depressive symptoms at CR baseline assessment. This finding exists in both the pre Covid-19 and Covid-19 periods in patients with a history of depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans
4.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 227, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health of students is affected by COVID-19. We aim to evaluate the anxiety and depression symptoms among college students during COVID-19 pandemic, analyze the influence factors that contribute to college students' anxiety and depression symptoms, and provide some suggestions for improving the mental health of college students. METHODS: With 179 college students participating, an online questionnaire consisting of a general questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was conducted in universities in Shanghai. The anxiety and depression symptoms among college students were evaluated using GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scales, and influence factors were analyzed using an unordered multi-class Logistic regression model. RESULTS: The reliability and validity of the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scales were good (reliability ≥ 0.9, validity = 100%). The incidence of anxiety was 32.4%, of which were 23.5%, 8.4%, and 0.6% in mild, moderate, and severe, respectively; and the incidence of depression was 46.40%, of which in mild, moderate, moderate to severe, and severe were 28.5%, 10.1%, 7.3%, and 0.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that male students with strong psychological quality, who were not easily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, who received less negative or false information, and who had a strong grasp of psychology and related knowledge were less likely to suffer from mild or moderate anxiety symptoms [OR (95% CI) 0.18 (0.04, 0.81), 0.12 (0.05, 0.33), 0.23 (0.06, 0.89) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.74)]. Furthermore, college students who were not affected by the COVID-19 pandemic were less likely to suffer from mild, moderate, and moderate to severe depression symptoms [OR (95% CI) 0.23 (0.08, 0.65), 0.22 (0.05, 0.93), 0.10 (0.02, 0.54)]. CONCLUSION: The GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scales are suitable for evaluating anxiety and depression symptoms in college students. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a high incidence of anxiety and depression symptoms among college students, although gender and mental state fluctuations during the pandemic, negative and false information, and exposure to psychology and related courses were the main influencing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032937

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients tend to have a high psychological burden. Half of cancer patients suffer from severe affective disorders and anxiety disorders, while one-third struggle with mild forms of these. The COVID-19 pandemic is damaging the mental health of the population due to social restrictions. A growing number of studies note the role of COVID-19 anxiety in the health and quality of life of cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to estimate the level of COVID-19 anxiety among oncology patients and to test the utility of the FCV-19S scale in a population study of cancer patients. The study included 600 respondents (300 oncology patients and 300 control subjects not undergoing oncological treatment). The FCV-19S scale and the GAD-7 scale were used in the study. The results were interpreted according to the following verbal scale: 76-100%, high anxiety; 56-75%, moderate anxiety; 26-55%, low COVID-19 anxiety; <25%, no COVID-19 anxiety. In the analysis of the GAD-7 questionnaire results, the mean score obtained was 8.21 (min. 0; max. 21; SD 5.32). For 81% of respondents in the group of oncology patients, the total score indicated the presence of anxiety symptoms with varying degrees of severity; in the control group, this proportion was 55% of respondents. The FCV-19S scale score as a percentage was 57.4% for oncology patients, indicating a moderate level of fear of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and 30.3% for the control group, indicating a low level of fear of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. One-fifth of oncology patients were afraid of losing their lives due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus; in the control group, this proportion was 13% of respondents. Oncology patients were characterized by a higher prevalence of sleep disturbance than control group respondents, which was associated with greater anxiety. The study, therefore, shows that oncology patients have moderate levels of anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, and non-oncology patients show lower levels of anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023697

ABSTRACT

Viral epidemics have surfaced frequently over the past quarter-century, with multiple manifestations of psychological distress. This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of the Malay version of SAVE-9 among healthcare workers. A total of 203 healthcare workers across Malaysia participated in the research. The Malay version of SAVE-9 was translated and back-translated using the WHO instrument validation protocols. Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Rasch analysis were used to assess the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the SAVE-9 scale. The analysis was run using IBM SPSS 26.0 and JAPS. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the internal consistency of SAVE-9, which was found to be satisfactory (Cronbach's α = 0.795). The correlations between the SAVE-9 and other measured scales (GAD-7 and PHQ-9) were statistically significant. A score of 22 was defined as a cut-off point with good sensitivity (0.578) and specificity (0.165). The Malay version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) scale is valid and reliable after testing among healthcare workers. It is psychometrically suitable to be used in assessing healthcare workers' stress and anxiety specific to viral epidemics.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Health Personnel , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 49(5): 461-470, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between levels of anxiety about COVID-19 and attitudes toward colorectal cancer screening in adult men in Turkey. SAMPLE & SETTING: The participants in this study were 188 adult men, aged 50-70 years, who were not diagnosed with cancer, and who could use social media. The researchers shared the link to the study forms through social media, and data were collected between February 2021 and May 2021. METHODS & VARIABLES: A personal information form, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, and the Attitude Scale for Cancer Screening were used to collect descriptive research data. RESULTS: Participants had mean scores of 1.04 (SD = 2.12) for the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and 95.28 (SD = 16.91) for the Attitude Scale for Cancer Screening. There was no significant correlation between the scores (p > 0.05). Family structure and the reasons for applying for colorectal cancer screening were significantly related to participation in colorectal cancer screening programs (p < 0.05). IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Individualized screening models can be used to prevent the deferral of cancer screenings. To ensure early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, nurses should be encouraged to use telehealth applications and help individuals perform immunochemical tests at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adenosine Monophosphate , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Male , Turkey
8.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 86(3): 223-248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009733

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, activities involving a large part of life have started to be carried out via videoconferencing. Videoconferencing can be disadvantageous for individuals with social anxiety due to increased social presence, decreased mutual understanding, and awkward communication. The authors aimed to develop a scale to explore the difficulties experienced by individuals with social anxiety during videoconferencing. A total of 598 children and adolescents participated in the study. The data were collected with the Sociodemographic Information Form, the Videoconference Anxiety Scale, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. According to exploratory factor analysis, the scale consisted of 25 items and a single factor. Factor loads were between 0.62 and 0.81; the single factor explained 52.95% of the variance. This study shows that the Videoconference Anxiety Scale is a valid and reliable instrument for Turkish children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Child , Concept Formation , Humans , Videoconferencing
9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 14(1): 126, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic may worsen the mental health of people reporting subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and therefore their clinical prognosis. We aimed to investigate the association between the intensity of SCD and anxious/depressive symptoms during confinement and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Two hundred fifty cognitively unimpaired participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and SCD-Questionnaire (SCD-Q) and underwent amyloid-ß positron emission tomography imaging with [18F] flutemetamol (N = 205) on average 2.4 (± 0.8) years before the COVID-19 confinement. During the confinement, participants completed the HADS, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), and an ad hoc questionnaire on worries (access to primary products, self-protection materials, economic situation) and lifestyle changes (sleep duration, sleep quality, eating habits). We investigated stress-related measurements, worries, and lifestyle changes in relation to SCD. We then conducted an analysis of covariance to investigate the association of SCD-Q with HADS scores during the confinement while controlling for pre-confinement anxiety/depression scores and demographics. Furthermore, we introduced amyloid-ß positivity, PSS, and BRS in the models and performed mediation analyses to explore the mechanisms explaining the association between SCD and anxiety/depression. RESULTS: In the whole sample, the average SCD-Q score was 4.1 (± 4.4); 70 (28%) participants were classified as SCD, and 26 (12.7%) were amyloid-ß-positive. During the confinement, participants reporting SCD showed higher PSS (p = 0.035) but not BRS scores (p = 0.65) than those that did not report SCD. No differences in worries or lifestyle changes were observed. Higher SCD-Q scores showed an association with greater anxiety/depression scores irrespective of pre-confinement anxiety/depression levels (p = 0.002). This association was not significant after introducing amyloid-ß positivity and stress-related variables in the model (p = 0.069). Amyloid-ß positivity and PSS were associated with greater HADS irrespective of pre-confinement anxiety/depression scores (p = 0.023; p < 0.001). The association of SCD-Q with HADS was mediated by PSS (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intensity of SCD, amyloid-ß positivity, and stress perception showed independent associations with anxious/depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 confinement irrespective of pre-confinement anxiety/depression levels. The association of SCD intensity with anxiety/depression was mediated by stress perception, suggesting stress regulation as a potential intervention to reduce affective symptomatology in the SCD population in the face of stressors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Perception
10.
J Affect Disord ; 317: 79-83, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women themselves are at higher risk for psychological symptoms. The impact of ongoing COVID-19 may increase the risk. However, it is uncertain whether COVID-19 affects pregnant women's psychological symptoms directly or indirectly being mediated. METHODS: This survey was conducted in four obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in Beijing from February 28, 2020, to April 26, 2020. Pregnant women who visited the antenatal-care clinic were mobilized to finish the online questionnaires, including the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and Insomnia Severity Index. RESULTS: A total of 828 pregnant women were included in the analysis. The estimated self-reported rates of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and any of the three were 12.2 %, 24.3 %, 13.3 %, and 33.1 %, respectively. Mediating effect analysis showed that pregnant women's response to COVID-19 was not directly associated with psychological symptoms but indirectly through the mediating effect of maternal concerns, which accounted for 32.35 % of the total effect. Stratified analysis by psychological resilience showed that women's attitude toward COVID-19 (OR, 2.68, 95 % CI: 1.16-6.18) was associated with a higher risk of psychological symptoms in those with poor psychological resilience. LIMITATIONS: The study was a non-probability sampling survey, and the causal relationship between maternal concerns and psychological symptoms could not be determined due to the study's design. CONCLUSIONS: Under public health emergencies such as COVID-19, routine antenatal care should still be prioritized, and concerns related to childbirth-related caused by such emergencies should also be addressed, especially for those with weak psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1589, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The elderly population has proven to be a particularly vulnerable group with regard to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to study the psychometric properties of the Ansiedad y MIedo a Covid-19 scale (AMICO) on a population-based sample of elderly people. METHODS: A descriptive and psychometric cross-sectional study, based on questionnaires, was carried out. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed, as well as a bivariate analysis between the different sociodemographic variables with respect to the total scale score. RESULTS: A sample of 720 adults over 65 years of age was obtained, 52.2% of whom were women. The structure of the factor of the scale showed two factors (fear and anxiety) and was confirmed with good fit parameters. The overall reliability of the scale in terms of internal consistency was α = 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: The AMICO scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure anxiety and fear of COVID-19 in the Spanish population over 65 years of age. Women and subjects with a partner showed the highest values of fear and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Affect Disord ; 317: 84-90, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 outbreak, clinical experience on its management during the acute phase has rapidly grown, including potential effects on the psychopathological dimension. However, still few data are available regarding the impact on survivors' mental health over the long-term. METHODS: A sample of 1457 COVID-19 patients underwent a multidisciplinary follow-up protocol, approximately 3 months after hospital discharge, including a psychological evaluation. The primary outcomes were anxiety, depression, resilience, post-traumatic symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Furthermore, we examined the potential role of hospitalization and delay in the follow-up assessment on the increased burden of illness. RESULTS: Although a general high level of resilience emerged, suggesting most patients relied on their individual and interpersonal resources to face difficulties related to the pandemic, almost one third of the sample reported signs of psychological distress over time, especially post-traumatic symptoms, with anxiety being more represented than depression. Furthermore, hospitalization - regardless of the setting of care - and promptness in follow-up evaluation were found to play a protective role on patients' recovery and mental wellbeing. LIMITATIONS: Selection bias of patients exclusively admitted to the hospital; absence of a control group; psychological assessment relying on self-reported instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The current crisis demands resilience and adjustment resources, either in the acute and post-acute phase. Thus, the clinical effort should aim at relieving the traumatic impact of such condition through timely interventions. Further investigation may address potential predictors of developing a traumatic stress response, in order to identify and promptly treat at-risk subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1563, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding how pandemics differentially impact on the socio-protective and psychological outcomes of males and females is important to develop more equitable public health policies. We assessed whether males and females differed on measures of major depression and generalized anxiety during the COVID-19 the pandemic, and if so, which sociodemographic, pandemic, and psychological variables may affect sex differences in depression and anxiety. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of Irish adults (N = 1,032) assessed between April 30th to May 19th, 2020, during Ireland's first COVID-19 nationwide quarantine. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9), as well as 23 sociodemographic pandemic-related, and psychological variables. Sex differences on measures of depression and anxiety were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis and differences in sociodemographic, pandemic, and psychological variables assessed using chi-square tests of independence and independent samples t-tests. RESULTS: Females were significantly more likely than males to screen positive for major depressive disorder (30.6% vs. 20.7%; χ2 (1) = 13.26, p < .001, OR = 1.69 [95% CI = 1.27, 2.25]), and generalised anxiety disorder (23.3% vs. 14.4%; χ2 (1) = 13.42, p < .001, OR = 1.81 [95% CI = 1.31, 2.49]). When adjusted for all other sex-varying covariates however, sex was no longer significantly associated with screening positive for depression (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.51, 1.25) or GAD (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.60, 1.57). CONCLUSION: Observed sex-differences in depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Ireland are best explained by psychosocial factors of COVID-19 related anxiety, trait neuroticism, lower sleep quality, higher levels of loneliness, greater somatic problems, and, in the case of depression, increases in childcaring responsibilities and lower trait consciousnesses. Implications of these findings for public health policy and interventions are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 662, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Family and friend caregivers play significant roles in advocating for and ensuring quality health and social care of residents in Assisted Living (AL) homes. However, little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic and related visitor restrictions affected their health and mental well-being. We examined the prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depressive symptoms among caregivers of AL residents during the initial wave of COVID-19 in two Canadian provinces. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted among family/friend caregivers of AL residents in Alberta and British Columbia (Oct 28, 2020-Mar 31, 2021) to collect data on their sociodemographic, health and caregiving characteristics, as well as concerns about residents' health and social care before and during the first wave of the pandemic. A clinically significant anxiety disorder and depressive symptoms were assessed with the GAD-7 and CES-D10 instruments, respectively. Separate multivariable (modified) Poisson regression models identified caregiver correlates of each mental health condition. RESULTS: Among the 673 caregivers completing the survey (81% for Alberta residents), most were women (77%), white (90%) and aged ≥ 55 years (81%). Clinically significant anxiety and depression were present in 28.6% and 38.8% of caregivers respectively. Both personal stressors (comorbidity level, income reduction, low social support) and caregiving stressors exacerbated by the pandemic were independently associated with caregiver anxiety and depression. The latter included increased concern about the care recipients' depression (adjusted risk ratio [adjRR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.85 for caregiver anxiety and adjRR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.26-2.44 for caregiver depressive symptoms) and reported intention to withdraw the resident from AL because of COVID-19 (adjRR = 1.24, 95%CI 0.95-1.63 for caregiver anxiety and adjRR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.13-1.67 for caregiver depressive symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers of residents in AL homes reported significant personal and caregiving-related stressors during the initial wave of COVID-19 that were independently associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing clinically significant anxiety and depressive symptoms. Healthcare providers and AL staff should be aware of the prevalence and varied correlates of caregivers' mental health during public health crises so that appropriate screening and support may identified and implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Alberta , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14042, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991677

ABSTRACT

To investigate the relationships between communicative and critical health literacy (CCHL) and anxiety and depressive symptoms (ADs) in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 5466 pregnant women responded in Japan in September 2020. A Kessler 6 scale (K6) score ≥ 10, an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥ 13, and four CCHL groups were analyzed using a logistic regression model and trend test. The proportions of pregnant women with a K6 score ≥ 10 and EPDS score ≥ 13 were 13.5 and 15.4%, respectively. In comparisons with the low CCHL group, the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for anxiety symptoms was 0.770 (0.604-0.982) in the high CCHL group, while those for depressive symptoms were 0.777 (0.639-0.946), 0.665 (0.537-0.824), and 0.666 (0.529-0.838) in the lower, higher, and high CCHL groups (all p < 0.05), respectively, after adjustments for potential confounding factors, such as age, weeks of gestation, complications, history, number of children, marital status, education, employment, and income. Higher CCHL was associated with significantly lower adjusted odds ratios for anxiety (p for trend = 0.019) and depressive symptoms (p for trend < 0.001). These results suggest a relationship between CCHL and ADs in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987761

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the reliability and validity of viral anxiety rating scales (developed for the general population) among healthcare workers. In addition, we compared the psychometric properties of rating scales in accordance with the Generalized Anxiety Scale-7 items (GAD-7) during this COVID-19 pandemic. The viral anxiety of 330 healthcare workers was measured with Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 items (SAVE-9), SAVE-6, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), and COVID-19 Anxiety Scale (CAS-7). Factor analyses, item response theory, and Rasch model analyses were conducted to confirm the construct validities of the scales and compare the psychometric properties of rating scales. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis examined the cutoff scores of rating scales in accordance with a mild degree of generalized anxiety. The SAVE-9, SAVE-6, CAS, FCV-19S, and CAS-7 scales showed good reliability of internal consistency among healthcare workers. Their construct validity and convergent validity of each scale were similarly good. Furthermore, in comparing the psychometric properties of rating scales, we observed that the CAS scale was the most discriminating and difficult among the scales. The CAS and FCV-19S provided more information and were more efficient than the SAVE-9, SAVE-6, and CAS-7 scales when they were used to measure healthcare workers' viral anxiety. Viral anxiety rating scales can be applied to healthcare workers with good reliability and validity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who are post-COVID-19 will require more treatment soon. Therefore, it is important to understand the root cause of their psychological and somatic conditions. Previous studies showed contradictory results on the influence of pre-existing mental conditions. The present study examines the influence of these pre-existing conditions and their pre-treatment on the severity of post-COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: This analysis employs questionnaire data from a large study sample in Germany. Overall, 801 participants were included. All participants rated their health status on a scale from 0 to 100. Fatigue, depression, and anxiety were measured using the FAS, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 scales. RESULTS: All pre-pandemic values showed no significant differences between the groups. The current health status was rated similarly by the recovered patients (µ = 80.5 ± 17.0) and the control group (µ = 81.2 ± 18.0) but significantly worse by acutely infected (µ = 59.0 ± 21.5) and post-COVID-19 patients (µ = 54.2 ± 21.1). Fatigue, depression, and anxiety were similar for recovered patients and the control group. By contrast, there were significant differences between the control and the post-COVID-19 groups concerning fatigue (45.9% vs. 93.1%), depression (19.3% vs. 53.8%), and anxiety (19.3% vs. 22.3%). CONCLUSION: Fatigue and psychological conditions of post-COVID-19 patients are not associated with pre-existing conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Preexisting Condition Coverage , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited access to SARS-CoV-2 testing has been identified as a potential source of anxiety among healthcare workers (HCWs), but the impact of repeated testing on pandemic-related anxiety in pediatric HCWs has not been examined. We sought to understand the impact of repeated SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing on pediatric HCWs' COVID-19 anxiety. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study was conducted between April and July 2020. Participants, 362 pediatric HCWs, underwent rapid SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing either every 96 h or weekly and were asked to rate their COVID-19 anxiety on a visual analog scale. Changes in self-reported anxiety from the study baseline were calculated for each testing day response. Bivariate analyses, repeated measures, and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine demographics associated with changes in anxiety. RESULTS: Baseline COVID-19 anxiety was significantly higher in HCWs with less than 10 years of experience (Z = -2.63, p = 0.009), in females compared to males (Z = -3.66 p < 0.001), and in nurses compared to other HCWs (F (3,302) = 6.04, p = 0.003). After excluding participants who received a positive test result, repeated measures analyses indicated that anxiety decreased over time (F (5,835) = 3.14, p = 0.008). Of the HCWs who reported decreased anxiety, 57 (29.8%) had a clinically meaningful decrease (≥30%) and Emergency Department (ED) HCWs were 1.97 times more likely to report a clinically meaningful decrease in anxiety (X2 (1) = 5.05, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that repeated SARS-CoV-2 antibody serology testing is associated with decreased COVID-19 anxiety in HCWs. Routine screening for the disease may be a helpful strategy in attenuating pandemic-related anxiety in pediatric HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Nurs Res ; 31(8): 1405-1421, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968498

ABSTRACT

This systematic review and meta-analysis study aims to determine the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the prevalence of insomnia, anxiety, and depression symptoms during pregnancy. Reviews were done through PubMed, EBSCO (Medline, CINAHL), Embase (OVID), Web of Science, PsycINFO, TR Index, Turkish Thesis Center databases using (pregnancy OR pregnant) and (sleep OR sleep disorders OR insomnia), and (anxiety OR depression) keywords between April and May 2021. The meta-analysis included 48 articles (sample: 77,299). It was found that the Covid-19 pandemic did not affect the prevalence of depression symptoms and anxiety during pregnancy, but it increased insomnia. While insomnia ratio was reported 39.6% (95% CI: 0.253-0.560) in the studies conducted before the pandemic, it was reported 88.8% (95% CI: 0.821-0.921) in the studies conducted during the pandemic. This study found that the Covid-19 pandemic did not have effects on depression symptoms and anxiety, but it increased insomnia complaints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis
20.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(1): 16, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968404

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the process of implementing a screening questionnaire for depression and anxiety, the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), in low-vision service (LVS) organizations. Methods: This study consisted of three parts: (1) a usability study combined with semistructured interviews, in which clients (n = 10) of LVS organizations expressed their preference for using the PHQ-4; (2) a feasibility study, in which the PHQ-4 was implemented on a small scale and its use was evaluated, involving health care providers (n = 6) and clients (n = 9); and (3) semistructured interviews to identify barriers and facilitators for implementing the PHQ-4 according to health care providers (n = 6) and managers (n = 4) of LVS organizations. Results were integrated into themes and linked to constructs of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results: Six themes were derived from the substudies: (1) quality of the intervention, (2) applicability for clients of LVS organizations, (3) attitude and needs of clients, (4) attitude of health care providers, (5) support within LVS organizations, and (6) embedment in current practice. Results could be linked to 12 CFIR constructs. The constructs "relative advantage," "patient needs and resources," and "available resources" emerged most prominently in our themes as either barrier or facilitator. Conclusions: The PHQ-4 seems an appropriate screening instrument for use in LVS organizations because of its quality and adaptable use. It might provide opportunities to timely detect depression and anxiety, but challenges in implementing the PHQ-4 should be considered. Translational Relevance: Barriers and facilitators for implementing the PHQ-4 may also apply to implementing other questionnaires in LVS organizations.


Subject(s)
Depression , Patient Health Questionnaire , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Humans , Qualitative Research
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL