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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769345

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought a great deal of pressure for medical students, who typically show elevated anxiety rates. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of anxiety in medical students during this pandemic. This systematic review and mini meta-analysis has been conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Two researchers independently searched PubMed on 26 August 2020 for cross-sectional studies on medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak, with no language restrictions applied. We then performed a manual search to detect other potentially eligible investigations. To the 1361 records retrieved in the initial search, 4 more were added by manual search on medRxiv. Finally, eight studies were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analysis, which yielded an estimated prevalence of anxiety of 28% (95% CI: 22-34%), with significant heterogeneity between studies. The prevalence of anxiety in medical students is similar to that prior to the pandemic but correlates with several specific COVID-related stressors. While some preventive and risk factors have been previously identified in a non-pandemic context, knowledge and cognitions on COVID-19 transmission, treatment, prognosis and prevention negatively correlate with anxiety, emerging as a key preventive factor that may provide a rationale for why the levels of anxiety have remained stable in medical students during the pandemic while increasing in their non-medical peers and the general population. Other reasons for the invariability of anxiety rates in this population are discussed. A major limitation of our review is that Chinese students comprised 89% the total sample, which could compromise the external validity of our work.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, China has been affected by a severe outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Frontline medical workers experienced difficulty due to the high risk of being infected and long and distressing work shifts. The current study aims to evaluate psychological symptoms in frontline medical workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China and to perform a comparison with the general population. METHODS: An online survey was conducted from 14 February 2020 to 29 March 2020. A total of 899 frontline medical workers and 1104 respondents in the general population participated. Depression, anxiety, insomnia, and resilience were assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and abbreviated Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 30.43%, 20.29%, and 14.49% of frontline medical workers in Hubei Province and 23.13%, 13.14%, and 10.64% of frontline medical workers in other regions reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia, respectively. In addition, 23.33%, 16.67%, and 6.67% of the general population in Hubei Province and 18.25%, 9.22%, and 7.17% of the general population in other regions reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia, respectively. The resilience of frontline medical staff outside Hubei Province was higher than that of the general population outside Hubei Province. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of frontline medical workers and the general public experienced psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychological services for frontline medical workers and the general public are needed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1395, 2020 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 poses the greatest challenge for the entire world since the Second World War. Governments are forced to define strict measures to avoid the spreading of the virus, which may further impose psychological burden for the majority of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological distress in Austria during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: From 25 March to 3 April 2020, an anonymous online survey was conducted. Target group included all members of the Austrian population older than 16 years. The survey addressed the following areas (1) and sociodemographic data, (2) physical and mental health; (3) knowledge and concerns about COVID-19; (4) contact with infected people; (5) prevention efforts; (6) need for further information. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used to assess mental health. Analyses were based on 4126 individuals (74% female, age: M = 38.68, SD = 13.36). RESULTS: 43.3% rated the psychological impact as moderate (5.6%) or severe (37.7%). 26.5% reported moderate (13.3%) to severe (13.2%) depression; 20.3% moderate (8.9%) to severe (11.4%) anxiety and 21.2% reported to suffer from moderate (10.5%) or severe stress (10.7%). Being female, higher age, lower levels of education, concern about family members, internet as main source of information, student or pupil status, poor self-rated health, and downplaying the seriousness of the problem were significantly associated with higher psychological burden. Protective factors were the possibility to work in home office, frequent (indirect) contact with family or friends, the availability of virus-specific information, confidence in the diagnosis capability, and physical activity during the crisis. CONCLUSION: This study is among the first in Europe on the psychological correlates of the COVID-19 pandemic. 37.7% of the Austrian study population reported a severe psychological impact on the event and 1 in 10 is considered to suffer from severe depression, anxiety or stress. The present findings inform about the identification of protective factors, psychologically vulnerable groups and may guide the development of psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
4.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 50(4): 533-540, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749154

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate nursing students' understanding of the prevention of COVID-19, as well as their anxiety towards the disease and their perception of their professional identity in the wake of the pandemic, in Zhengzhou, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate 474 nursing students by cluster sampling using a stratified questionnaire from February 15 to March 31, 2020. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the factors affecting professional identity. Binary and multiple logistic regression were used to identify the factors affecting anxiety. RESULTS: Responders with a high level of understanding of COVID-19 and frequent use of behavioral strategies for its prevention comprised 93.2% and 30.0% of the cohort, respectively. Professional identity was significantly associated with gender and anxiety (p < .050). The prevalence of anxiety among nursing students was 12.4%. Male (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26~4.52), sophomores (OR = 5.30; 95% CI = 1.61~7.45), and infrequent use of prevention measures (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.16~5.19) had a significant effect on anxiety. CONCLUSION: Anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic gives an adverse effect on the professional identity of nursing in students. Nursing education institutions need to provide psychological counseling services for nursing students, in addition to improving their teaching of COVID-19 prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Knowledge , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Professional Role , Students, Nursing/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(9): 597-598, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743640
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22227, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread dramatically worldwide, raising considerable concerns and resulting in detrimental effects on the psychological health of people who are vulnerable to the disease. Therefore, assessment of depression in members of the general public and their psychological and behavioral responses is essential for the maintenance of health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and the associated factors among the general public during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression.aA cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic was 182/1342 (13.6%). Regression analysis indicated that feeling stressed, feeling helpless, persistently being worried even with support, never feeling clean after disinfecting, scrubbing hands and items repeatedly, hoarding food, medicine, or daily supplies, and being distracted from work or study were positively associated with depression, while social support and being calm were negatively associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The general public suffered from high levels of depression during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, COVID-19-related mood management and social support should be provided to attenuate depression in the general public.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Self Report , Smartphone
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(17)2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of COVID-19 along with strict public health measures have resulted in unintended adverse effects, including greater levels of distress, anxiety, and depression. This study examined relative presentations of these psychopathologies in different age groups in a Canadian cohort during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: Participants were subscribers to the Text4Hope program, developed to support Albertans during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey link was used to gather demographic information and responses on several self-report scales, such as Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: There were 8267 individuals who completed the survey, giving a response rate of 19.4%. Overall, 909 (11.0%) respondents identified as ≤25 years, 2939 (35.6%) identified as (26-40) years, 3431 (41.5%) identified as (41-60) years, 762 (9.2%) identified as over 60 years, and 226 (2.7%) did not identify their age. Mean scores on the PSS, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scales were highest among those aged ≤25 and lowest amongst those aged >60 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that the prevalence rates and the mean scores for stress, anxiety, and depression on standardized scales to decrease from younger to older subscribers is an interesting observation with potential implications for planning to meet mental health service needs during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Distribution , Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238761, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742546

ABSTRACT

The psychological impacts of the lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic are widely documented. In India, a family-centric society with a high population density and extreme social stratification, the impact of the lockdown might vary across diverse social groups. However, the patterning in the psychological impact of the lockdown among LGBT adults and persons known to be at higher risk of the complications of Covid-19 (such as persons with comorbidities or a history of mental illness) is not known in the Indian context. We used mixed methods (online survey, n = 282 and in-depth interviews, n = 14) to investigate whether the psychological influence of the lockdown was different across these groups of Indian adults. We fitted linear and logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Thematic analysis helped us identify emergent themes in our qualitative narratives. Anxiety was found to be higher among LGBT adults (ß = 2.44, CI: 0.58, 4.31), the high-risk group (persons with comorbidities) (ß = 2.20, CI:0.36, 4.05), and those with a history of depression/loneliness (ß = 3.89, CI:2.34, 5.44). Persons belonging to the LGBT group reported a greater usage of pornography than the heterosexuals (ß = 2.72, CI: 0.09, 5.36) during the lockdown. Qualitative findings suggested that LGBT adults likely used pornography and masturbation to cope with the lockdown, given the limited physical access to sexual partners in a society that stigmatizes homosexuality. Moreover, both qualitative and quantitative study findings suggested that greater frequency of calling family members during lockdown could strengthen social relationships and increase social empathy. The study thereby urgently calls for the attention of policymakers to take sensitive and inclusive health-related decisions for the marginalized and the vulnerable, both during and after the crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3481-3491, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to understand how men's feelings and emotions contribute to the Covid-19 framing in Brazil. METHOD: Asocial-historical, qualitative study, carried out with 200 men resident in Brazil, through online search on digital platform.The grasped data were analyzed by the Collective Subject Discourse method in the light of the reference of epidemic disease proposed by Charles Rosemberg. RESULTS: Negative feelings and anxiety prevailed due to the knowledge about the growing number of hospitalized patients and deaths from the pandemic conveyed in the news. For men, the optimism is necessary to encourage attitudes with responsibility and trust that the crisis will be overcome.Subsequently, men present a set of attitudes and behaviors for coping with the pandemic.Moreover,the acceptance signals the emergence of the fourth dramaturgical act of the Covid-19framing. CONCLUSION: Men's feelings and emotions, in this historic context, pervade three of the four acts of the Covid-19 framingin Brazil.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Men/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(17)2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739004

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown has taken the world by storm. This study examines its impact on the anxiety level of university students in Malaysia during the peak of the crisis and the pertinent characteristics affecting their anxiety. A cross-sectional online survey, using Zung's self-rating anxiety questionnaire was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Out of the 983 respondents, 20.4%, 6.6%, and 2.8% experienced minimal to moderate, marked to severe, and most extreme levels of anxiety. Female gender (OR = 21.456, 95% CI = 1.061, 1.998, p = 0.020), age below 18 years (OR = 4.147, 95% CI = 1.331, 12.918, p = 0.014), age 19 to 25 (OR = 3.398, 95% CI = 1.431, 8.066, p = 0.006), pre-university level of education (OR = 2.882, 95% CI = 1.212, 6.854, p = 0.017), management studies (OR = 2.278, 95% CI = 1.526, 3.399, p < 0.001), and staying alone (OR = 2.208, 95% CI = 1.127, 4.325, p = 0.021) were significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety. The main stressors include financial constraints, remote online teaching and uncertainty about the future with regard to academics and career. Stressors are predominantly financial constraints, remote online learning, and uncertainty related to their academic performance, and future career prospects.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaysia , Male , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Universities
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21662, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733319

ABSTRACT

The first case of atypical pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Since then, cases of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP) have been reported throughout China as well as in 25 other countries. With the rapid growth of this global outbreak, psychological disorders or impact among the healthcare nurses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is of great importance and worth to be evaluated. Here, we aimed to determine the levels of stress and psychological disorders of nurses who provided nursing care during the COVID-19 outbreak. A total of 159 nurses who provided healthcare work for COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. The psychological disorders and stress level were assessed via a questionnaire implemented by the mobile app. The results showed that the nurses who worked in the non-critical care ward (general ward in which the invasive medical procedure such as mechanical ventilation is absent) scored significantly higher on the traumatization condition (P < .05) and stress level (P < .01) as well as the impact of event scale -revised level (P < .01) compared with those worked in the critical care ward. In contrast to the previous report, our findings revealed that the future intervention for preventing the mental crisis among the healthcare nurses needs to be focusing on the individuals in the non-critical care ward instead of those in the critical care ward under the spreading of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Workplace/psychology
12.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e77, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND.: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), people are under the dual pressure of interpersonal isolation and concerns about infection. An evaluation of people's psychological status and risk factors is needed to conduct target interventions. METHODS.: This was a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study using quota and snowball sampling methods during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Participants' characteristics and experiences were obtained by an online questionnaire and telephone review. Psychological distress and sleep problems were measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Insomnia Severity Index. RESULTS.: A total of 23,500 participants were recruited, and 19,372 valid questionnaires were received from 11 centers. Overall, 11.0-13.3% of the participants had anxiety, depression, or insomnia symptoms, and 1.9-2.7% had severe symptoms. The prevalence of psychological and sleep problems has increased. Working as frontline medical staff (Odds Ratio OR = 3.406), living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.237), close contacts with COVID-19 (OR = 1.808), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.310) were risk factors for anxiety symptoms; no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 2.167) and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.198) were risk factors for depression symptoms; and living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.376), no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 1.927), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.262) were risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Only 1.9% of participants received counseling during the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS.: Psychological and sleep problems increased during interpersonal isolation due to COVID-19. Current psychological interventions are far from sufficient.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238416, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732991

ABSTRACT

Fangcang shelter hospitals were established in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as a countermeasure to stop the spread of the disease. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted on mental health problems among patients in Fangcang shelter hospitals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and major influencing factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among COVID-19 patients admitted to Fangcang shelter hospitals. From February 23, 2020, to February 26, 2020, we obtained sociodemographic and clinical characteristics information of COVID-19 patients in Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital (Wuhan, China) and assessed their mental health status and sleep quality. Data were obtained with an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a set of items on demographic characteristics, a set of items on clinical characteristics, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Three hundred seven COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital participated in this study. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 18.6% and 13.4%, respectively. Poor sleep quality and having ≥ two current physical symptoms were independent risk factors for anxiety symptoms. Female sex, having a family member with confirmed COVID-19, and having ≥ two current physical symptoms were independent risk factors for depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were found to be common among COVID-19 patients in Fangcang Shelter Hospital, with some patients being at high risk.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22002, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 global pandemic has impacted the whole of society, requiring rapid implementation of individual-, population-, and system-level public health responses to contain and reduce the spread of infection. Women in the perinatal period (pregnant, birthing, and postpartum) have unique and timely needs for directives on health, safety, and risk aversion during periods of isolation and physical distancing for themselves, their child or children, and other family members. In addition, they are a vulnerable group at increased risk of psychological distress that may be exacerbated in the context of social support deprivation and a high-risk external environment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the public discourse of a perinatal cohort to understand unmet health information and support needs, and the impacts on mothering identity and social dynamics in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: A leading Australian online support forum for women pre- through to postbirth was used to interrogate all posts related to COVID-19 from January 27 to May 12, 2020, inclusive. Key search terms included "COVID," "corona," and "pandemic." A three-phase analysis was conducted, including thematic analysis, sentiment analysis, and word frequency calculations. RESULTS: The search yielded 960 posts, of which 831 were included in our analysis. The qualitative thematic analysis demonstrated reasonable understanding, interpretation, and application of relevant restrictions in place, with five emerging themes identified. These were (1) heightened distress related to a high-risk external environment; (2) despair and anticipatory grief due to deprivation of social and family support, and bonding rituals; (3) altered family and support relationships; (4) guilt-tampered happiness; and (5) family future postponed. Sentiment analysis revealed that the content was predominantly negative (very negative: n=537 and moderately negative: n=443 compared to very positive: n=236 and moderately positive: n=340). Negative words were frequently used in the 831 posts with associated derivatives including "worried" (n=165, 19.9%), "risk" (n=143, 17.2%), "anxiety" (n=98, 11.8%), "concerns" (n=74, 8.8%), and "stress" (n=69, 8.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Women in the perinatal period are uniquely impacted by the current pandemic. General information on COVID-19 safe behaviors did not meet the particular needs of this cohort. The lack of nuanced and timely information may exacerbate the risk of psychological and psychosocial distress in this vulnerable, high-risk group. State and federal public health departments need to provide a central repository of information that is targeted, consistent, accessible, timely, and reassuring. Compensatory social and emotional support should be considered, using alternative measures to mitigate the risk of mental health disorders in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Internet , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/psychology , Parenting/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parturition/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Social Support
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238162, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731086

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Bangladeshi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also aimed at identifying the determinants of depression and anxiety. A total of 476 university students living in Bangladesh participated in this cross-sectional web-based survey. A standardized e-questionnaire was generated using the Google Form, and the link was shared through social media-Facebook. The information was analyzed in three consecutive levels, such as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. Students were experiencing heightened depression and anxiety. Around 15% of the students reportedly had moderately severe depression, whereas 18.1% were severely suffering from anxiety. The binary logistic regression suggests that older students have greater depression (OR = 2.886, 95% CI = 0.961-8.669). It is also evident that students who provided private tuition in the pre-pandemic period had depression (OR = 1.199, 95% CI = 0.736-1.952). It is expected that both the government and universities could work together to fix the academic delays and financial problems to reduce depression and anxiety among university students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 417, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the resilience of non-local medical workers sent to support local medical workers in treating the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: In February 2020, non-local medical workers who had been sent to Wuhan as support staff to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak were asked to complete an online survey composed of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). RESULTS: Survey responses from 114 non-local medical workers were analyzed. CD-RISC scores were high (67.03 ± 13.22). The resilience level was highest for physicians (73.48 ± 11.49), followed by support staff, including health care assistants, technicians (67.78 ± 12.43) and nurses (64.86 ± 13.46). Respondents differed significantly in the levels of education, training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital (where he or she normally works), and in their feelings of being adequately prepared and confident to complete tasks (P < 0.05). Resilience correlated negatively with anxiety (r = -.498, P < 0.01) and depression (r = -.471, P < 0.01) but positively with active coping styles (r = .733, P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that active coping (ß = 1.314, p < 0.05), depression (ß = -.806, p < 0.05), anxiety (ß = - 1.091, p < 0.05), and training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital (ß = 3.510, p < 0.05) were significant associated with resilience. CONCLUSION: Our data show that active coping, depression, anxiety, and training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital are associated with resilience. Managers of medical staff should use these data to develop psychosocial interventions aimed at reinforcing the resilience of medical workers during highly stressful and prolonged medical emergencies, as seen during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 291, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724023

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is a global calamity posing an unprecedented opportunity to study resilience. We developed a brief resilience survey probing self-reliance, emotion-regulation, interpersonal-relationship patterns and neighborhood-environment, and applied it online during the acute COVID-19 outbreak (April 6-15, 2020), on a crowdsourcing research website ( www.covid19resilience.org ) advertised through social media. We evaluated level of stress (worries) regarding COVID-19: (1) contracting, (2) dying from, (3) currently having, (4) family member contracting, (5) unknowingly infecting others with (6) experiencing significant financial burden following. Anxiety (GAD7) and depression (PHQ2) were measured. Totally, 3042 participants (n = 1964 females, age range 18-79, mean age = 39) completed the resilience and COVID-19-related stress survey and 1350 of them (mean age = 41, SD = 13; n = 997 females) completed GAD7 and PHQ2. Participants significantly endorsed more distress about family contracting COVID-19 (48.5%) and unknowingly infecting others (36%), than getting COVID-19 themselves (19.9%), p < 0.0005 covarying for demographics and proxy COVID-19 exposures like getting tested and knowing infected individuals. Patterns of COVID-19 related worries, rates of anxiety (GAD7 > 10, 22.2%) and depression (PHQ2 > 2, 16.1%) did not differ between healthcare providers and non-healthcare providers. Higher resilience scores were associated with lower COVID-19 related worries (main effect F1,3054 = 134.9; p < 0.00001, covarying for confounders). Increase in 1 SD on resilience score was associated with reduced rate of anxiety (65%) and depression (69%), across healthcare and non-healthcare professionals. Findings provide empirical evidence on mental health associated with COVID-19 outbreak in a large convenience sample, setting a stage for longitudinal studies evaluating mental health trajectories following COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(4): 298-305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719925

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic can have important psychosocial consequences in the population. Objective: To determine the levels of anxiety, depression and self-care symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Method: Online survey distributed over three weeks using a non-probability sampling. The PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, the GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and Visual analog scale for self-care behaviors were used. Between-group (anxiety and depression) descriptive and comparison analyses were carried out. Results: Out of 1508 included participants, 20.8% had symptoms of severe anxiety, while 27.5% showed symptoms of severe depression. Being a woman, being single, having no children, having medical comorbidities and a history of mental health care were risk factors for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression; 66 to 80 % of the population complied with self-care recommendations. A need for receiving mental health care was identified in our study population. Conclusion: A larger number of individuals with moderate to severe anxiety and depression symptoms were observed than in other pandemics. COVID-19 pandemic psychological effects are considered an emerging public health problem, and implementation of programs for their care is therefore recommended.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Surveys , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
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