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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 80, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant psychological distress globally. Our study assessed the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors during COVID-19 pandemic among kidney transplant recipients and kidney donors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 497 participants (325 recipients and 172 donors) was conducted from 1st May to 30th June 2020 in Singapore. The survey questionnaire assessed knowledge levels of COVID-19, socio-demographic data, health status, psychosocial impact of COVID-19, and precautionary behaviors during the pandemic. Psychological distress was defined as having anxiety, depression, or stress measured by the validated Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. Linear regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with higher psychological distress. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychological distress was 14.3% (95% confidence interval: 11.5-17.6%) in the overall population; it was 12.8% (9.79-16.6%) in recipients and 13.4% (9.08-19.6%) in donors with no significant difference (P = 0.67). Younger age (21-49 vs. ≥50 years), unmarried status, non-Singapore citizen, worse health conditions, and worrying about physical and mental health were associated with higher psychological distress. Malays (versus Chinese), taking precautionary measures (hand sanitization), and receiving enough information about COVID-19 were associated with lower psychological distress. No interactions were observed between recipients and donors. CONCLUSIONS: At least one in ten recipients and donors suffer from psychological distress during COVID-19 pandemic. Focused health education to younger adults, unmarried individuals, non-Singapore citizens, and those with poor health status could potentially prevent psychological distress in recipients and donors.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Tissue Donors/psychology , Transplant Recipients/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/ethnology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Health Status , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Malaysia/ethnology , Male , Marital Status , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 508-517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Experiences of vicarious racism-hearing about racism directed toward one's racial group or racist acts committed against other racial group members-and vigilance about racial discrimination have been salient during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined vicarious racism and vigilance in relation to symptoms of depression and anxiety among Asian and Black Americans. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of 604 Asian American and 844 Black American adults aged ≥18 in the United States recruited from 5 US cities from May 21 through July 15, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models examined levels of depression and anxiety by self-reported vicarious racism and vigilance. RESULTS: Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, among both Asian and Black Americans, greater self-reported vicarious racism was associated with more symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.92 [95% CI, 0.97-2.87]; Black: ß = 1.72 [95% CI, 0.95-2.49]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 2.40 [95% CI, 1.48-3.32]; Black: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.17-2.78]). Vigilance was also positively related to symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.54 [95% CI, 0.58-2.50]; Black: ß = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.12-1.67]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.05-2.91]; Black: ß = 1.64 [95% CI, 0.82-2.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are a pressing concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results from our study suggest that heightened racist sentiment, harassment, and violence against Asian and Black Americans contribute to increased risk of depression and anxiety via vicarious racism and vigilance. Public health efforts during this period should address endemic racism as well as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Anxiety/ethnology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Racism/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
3.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(4): 596-602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explored stress and coping among pregnant Black women prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, cohort study. SAMPLE: Thirty-three women enrolled in the Biosocial Impact on Black Births study prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and who were still pregnant during the pandemic. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires included the Perceived Stress Scale, Prenatal Coping Inventory, and questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, worry about COVID-19, and coping strategies used during the pandemic. RESULTS: Women reported very much being worried about my child getting COVID-19 (46%) and my family member getting COVID-19 (46%). Women reported specific active coping strategies very much reduced their feelings of discomfort during COVID-19: God, religion, or spirituality (24%), social media (24%), and following government advice (24%). Higher use of avoidance coping prior to the pandemic was associated with higher levels of stress both prior to (r = 0.60, p < .001) and during (r = 0.47, p < .01) the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Women reported worries about COVID-19 and used various strategies to cope with feelings of discomfort due to the pandemic. Nurses should assess the stress level of pregnant Black women and recommend active coping strategies during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/ethnology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/nursing , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5): 162-166, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063529

ABSTRACT

In 2019, approximately 51 million U.S. adults aged ≥18 years reported any mental illness,* and 7.7% reported a past-year substance use disorder† (1). Although reported prevalence estimates of certain mental disorders, substance use, or substance use disorders are not generally higher among racial and ethnic minority groups, persons in these groups are often less likely to receive treatment services (1). Persistent systemic social inequities and discrimination related to living conditions and work environments, which contribute to disparities in underlying medical conditions, can further compound health problems faced by members of racial and ethnic minority groups during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and worsen stress and associated mental health concerns (2,3). In April and May 2020, opt-in Internet panel surveys of English-speaking U.S. adults aged ≥18 years were conducted to assess the prevalence of self-reported mental health conditions and initiation of or increases in substance use to cope with stress, psychosocial stressors, and social determinants of health. Combined prevalence estimates of current depression, initiating or increasing substance use, and suicidal thoughts/ideation were 28.6%, 18.2%, and 8.4%, respectively. Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) adults reported a higher prevalence of psychosocial stress related to not having enough food or stable housing than did adults in other racial and ethnic groups. These estimates highlight the importance of population-level and tailored interventions for mental health promotion and mental illness prevention, substance use prevention, screening and treatment services, and increased provision of resources to address social determinants of health. How Right Now (Qué Hacer Ahora) is an evidence-based and culturally appropriate communications campaign designed to promote and strengthen the emotional well-being and resiliency of populations adversely affected by COVID-19-related stress, grief, and loss (4).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/ethnology , COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Mental Disorders/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Substance-Related Disorders/ethnology , United States/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940689

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety symptoms) among the general population of Hong Kong and migrant Filipina domestic helpers (FDHs). Having to live with the employers by law, FDHs' working environment might affect their well-being during COVID-19 (e.g., household crowdedness/size, insufficiency of protective equipment against COVID-19, increased workload). Research has suggested that coping resources (e.g., social support, COVID-19-related information literacy) and COVID-19-specific worries are associated with people's well-being during COVID-19. This study examined the psychosocial correlates of probable anxiety among FDHs in Hong Kong amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By purposive sampling, FDHs (n = 295) were recruited and invited to complete a cross-sectional survey. Participants' working environment (crowdedness, household size), COVID-19 job arrangements (workload, provision of protective equipment), coping resources (social support, COVID-19 information literacy), COVID-19-specific worries (contracting COVID-19, getting fired if contracting COVID-19), and anxiety symptoms were measured. Multivariate regression results showed that the insufficiency of protective equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.18, 2.11), increased workload (OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.02, 2.25), and worries about being fired if getting COVID-19 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.68) were significantly associated with probable anxiety. This was one of the earliest studies to indicate that job arrangements and COVID-19-specific worries significantly contributed to FDHs' anxiety symptoms. Our findings shed light on the importance of addressing employment-related rights and pandemic-specific worries through interventions among FDHs in Hong Kong during pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Philippines/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(1): 53-56, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922023

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the associations between job insecurity and symptoms of anxiety and depression among U.S. young adults amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed data on young adults aged 18-26 years from June 15 to June 30, 2020, from the weekly, cross-sectional Household Pulse Survey (n = 4,852) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Two job insecurity measures and four anxiety and depression measures were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent of participants experienced direct or household employment loss since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 38% were expected to experience direct or household employment loss in the coming 4 weeks. Recent direct or household employment loss and expected direct or household employment loss, among participants who did not experience recent employment loss, were associated with a greater risk of poor mental health on all four measures. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. young adults experience a significant mental health burden as a result of job insecurity amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Depression , Employment/economics , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/ethnology , Anxiety/psychology , Censuses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/ethnology , Depression/psychology , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , United States , Young Adult
9.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(6): 749-756, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871479

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created a situation of general distress. Although the focus has been initially more on the physical health during the pandemic, mental health concerns linked to the lockdown have quickly risen. This study aims to assess the effect of the COVID-19-related lockdown on Tunisian women's mental health and gender-based violence. An online survey was conducted, using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Facebook Bergen Addiction Scale (FBAS). We chose a female-exclusive social group on Facebook and used the snowball sampling method. A total of 751 participants originating from all the Tunisian regions completed the questionnaire. More than half of the participants (57.3%) reported extremely severe distress symptoms, as per the DASS-21. Those who had a history of mental illness and who were allegedly abused during lockdown were found to have more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Around 40% of women reported problematic social media use. Violence against women also reportedly increased significantly during the lockdown (from 4.4 to 14.8%; p < 0.001). Psychological abuse was the most frequent type of violence (96%). Women who had experienced abuse before the lockdown were at an increased risk of violence during lockdown (p < 0.001; OR = 19.34 [8.71-43.00]). To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the acute impact of COVID-19 on mental health and violence against women in Tunisia, Africa, and the Arab world. It may be a sound basis for developing a more effective psychological intervention aimed at women in these regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Gender-Based Violence/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/ethnology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/ethnology , Domestic Violence/ethnology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Gender-Based Violence/ethnology , Gender-Based Violence/psychology , Health Surveys , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/ethnology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/ethnology , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tunisia/epidemiology
10.
J Psychosom Res ; 139: 110263, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: American Indians (AIs) live with historical trauma, or the cumulative emotional and psychological wounding that is passed from one generation to the next in response to the loss of lives and culture. Psychological consequences of historical trauma may contribute to health disparities. PURPOSE: Here, we investigate whether historical trauma predicts changes in psychological stress associated with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in AI adults. Based on the stress-sensitization theory, we hypothesize that greater historical trauma will predict greater increases in levels of psychological stress from before the onset of the pandemic to after. METHOD: Our analytic sample consisted of 205 AI adults. We measured historical trauma and levels of psychological stress before and after the onset of the pandemic. RESULTS: Using hierarchical regression models controlling for age, biological sex, income, symptoms of depression and anxiety, psychological stress at Time 1, COVID-19 specific stress, and childhood trauma, we found that greater historical trauma preceding the pandemic predicted greater increases in psychological stress (ß = 0.38, t = 5.17 p < .01, ΔR2 = 0.12), and levels of social support interacted with historical trauma to predict changes in psychological stress (ß = -0.19, t = -3.34, p = .001, ΔR2 = 0.04). The relationship between historical trauma and changes in stress was significant for individuals with low levels of social support. CONCLUSIONS: Historical trauma may contribute to AI mental health disparities, through heightened psychological stress responses to life stressors and social support appears to moderate this relationship.


Subject(s)
/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Historical Trauma/psychology , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/ethnology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Forecasting , Historical Trauma/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/ethnology
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926602, 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This study aimed to use online questionnaires to evaluate the factors associated with anxiety and depression in Chinese visiting scholars in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a cross-sectional design, 311 Chinese scholars visiting 41 states in the United States were interviewed on 20 and 21 April 2020 through WeChat using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire. RESULTS Of these 311 visiting scholars, 69 (22.2%) reported no symptoms of anxiety or depression, whereas 63 (20.3%) reported severe anxiety and 67 (21.5%) reported severe depression. Risk of anxiety was 93% higher in visiting scholars with than without accompanying parents in the US (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.68) and was 1.72-fold (95% CI, 1.04-2.84) higher in those experiencing stress about family members with COVID-19. Stresses about personal security and return to China on schedule were associated with 1.73-fold (95% CI, 1.03-2.92) and 3.00-fold (95% CI, 1.51-5.95) higher risks of anxiety, respectively. Risks of depression were 1.86-fold (95% CI, 1.14-3.05), 1.84-fold (95% CI, 1.10-3.07), and 3.45-fold (95% CI, 1.72-6.92) higher in visiting Chinese scholars who were than were not experiencing stresses about financial support, personal security and return to China on schedule, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Chinese scholars visiting the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced severe psychological distress. Surveys that include larger numbers of visiting scholars are warranted.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/etiology , International Educational Exchange , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , Anxiety/ethnology , COVID-19 , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Marriage , Parents , Psychological Tests , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
12.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; 38(3): 340-348, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611372

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The fact that little is yet known about the possible implications of COVID-19 for pregnancy, puts pregnant women at greater risk of heightened anxiety and psychological distress. In this study, we sought to explore the psychological distress and COVID-19-related anxiety of pregnant women during the crisis. METHODS: Israeli Jewish and Arab pregnant women (n = 336) aged 20-47 completed a set of questionnaires during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: The levels of all COVID-19-related anxieties were quite high (much or very much), with the highest regarding public places and transportation (87.5%, 70%, respectively), followed by concerns over the possible infection of other family members and the health of the foetus (71.7%, 70%, respectively), going for pregnancy check-ups (68.7%,), being infected themselves, and the delivery (59.2%, 55.4%, respectively). Although COVID-19-related anxieties were shared by pregnant women characterised by diverse sociodemographic variables, with very small nuances, Arab women were more anxious about each of the issues than Jewish women. DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the importance of assessing anxiety and distress in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the need to be attentive to the double stress of pregnant women in times of crisis and to the potential vulnerability of subgroups, such as cultural minorities.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Arabs/psychology , Arabs/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Jews/psychology , Jews/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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