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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3837, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735271

ABSTRACT

The economic and health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are unequally distributed. A growing literature finds evidence that those with low socioeconomic status have carried a greater burden in terms of both unemployment and infection risk. Against this background, it is natural to also expect increasing socioeconomic inequalities in mental health. We report from a population-based longitudinal study, assessing the mental health of more than 100,000 Norwegian adults during a period of more than 20 years, and into the COVID-19 pandemic. We find substantial, and equally high, increases in depressive symptoms across socioeconomic status. In addition, we show that the increase was particularly strong among women and those with lower levels of depressive symptoms prior to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702557

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, residents of the Bronx, New York experienced one of the first significant community COVID-19 outbreaks in the United States. Focusing on intensive longitudinal data from 78 Bronx-based older adults, we used a multi-method approach to (1) examine 2019 to early pandemic (February-June 2020) changes in momentary psychological well-being of Einstein Aging Study (EAS) participants and (2) to contextualize these changes with community distress scores collected from public Twitter posts posted in Bronx County. We found increases in mean loneliness from 2019 to 2020; and participants that were higher in neuroticism had greater increases in thought unpleasantness and feeling depressed. Twitter-based Bronx community scores of anxiety, depressivity, and negatively-valenced affect showed elevated levels in 2020 weeks relative to 2019. Integration of EAS participant data and community data showed week-to-week fluctuations across 2019 and 2020. Results highlight how community-level data can characterize a rapidly changing environment to supplement individual-level data at no additional burden to individual participants.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/pathology , Loneliness , Social Media , Affect , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262550, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is continuing unabated in Japan, as of October 2021. We aimed to compare first-year university students' psychological distress before the pandemic in 2019, during the pandemic in 2020, and one year after the onset of the pandemic, in 2021. METHODS: The study conducted online surveys over three years from April to May each year. Participants were 400 first-year students in 2019, 766 in 2020, and 738 in 2021. We examined differences in scores on the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-Japanese version (CCAPS-Japanese) between the three years using a one-way analysis of variance, and differences in the CCAPS-Japanese critical items using chi-squared test and residual analysis. RESULTS: The average scores on the Depression and Generalized Anxiety subscale in 2021 were significantly higher than those in 2020, but remained the same as in 2019. The Academic Distress subscale score in 2020 was the worst compared to 2019 and 2021. Meanwhile, the number of students who experienced severe suicidal ideation increased year by year from 2019 to 2021. CONCLUSION: The mean mental health of first-year university students worsened after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and recovered to the pre-pandemic level over the next two years. However, the number of high-risk students with suicidal ideation continued to increase. A system is required for early detection and support for students at high risk of mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262562, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631073

ABSTRACT

Higher education students' mental health has been a growing concern in recent years even before the COVID-19 pandemic. The stresses and restrictions associated with the pandemic have put university students at greater risk of developing mental health issues, which may significantly impair their academic success, social interactions and their future career and personal opportunities. This paper aimed to understand the mental health status of University students at an early stage in the pandemic and to investigate factors associated with higher levels of distress. An online survey including demographics, lifestyle/living situations, brief mental well-being history, questions relating to COVID-19 and standardised measures of depression, anxiety, resilience and quality of life was completed by 1173 students at one University in the North of England. We found high levels of anxiety and depression, with more than 50% experiencing levels above the clinical cut offs, and females scoring significantly higher than males. The survey also suggested relatively low levels of resilience which we attribute to restrictions and isolation which reduced the opportunities to engage in helpful coping strategies and activities rather than enduring personality characteristics. Higher levels of distress were associated with lower levels of exercising, higher levels of tobacco use, and a number of life events associated with the pandemic and lockdown, such as cancelled events, worsening in personal relationships and financial concerns. We discuss the importance of longer-term monitoring and mental health support for university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Internet , Life Style , Linear Models , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575897

ABSTRACT

Medical personnel working in emergency rooms (ER) are at increased risk of mental health problems and suicidality. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions can improve burnout and other mental health outcomes in health care providers. In contrast, few longitudinal prospective studies have examined protective functions of dispositional mindfulness in this population. The objective of this study was to examine whether mindfulness prospectively predicts anxiety, depression, and social impairment in a sample of emergency care professionals. The authors administered online surveys to ER personnel prior to work in ER, and at 3 and 6 months follow up. Participants were 190 ER personnel (73% residents, 16% medical students, 11% nurses). Linear mixed effects regression was used to model longitudinal 3-month and 6-month follow up of depression, anxiety, and social impairment. Predictors included time-varying contemporaneous work stressors, perceived social support at work and life events, and baseline dispositional mindfulness, demographics, and workplace characteristics. Mindfulness indexed when starting ER work predicted less depression, anxiety, and social impairment 6 months later. Mindfulness remained a strong predictor of mental health outcomes after controlling for time-varying stressful events in emergency care, negative life events, and social support at work. Mindfulness moderated the adverse impact of poor social support at work on depression. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study to show that mindfulness prospectively and robustly predicts anxiety, depression, and social impairment. Results support the role of mindfulness as a potential resilience factor in at-risk health care providers.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , Depression/pathology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mindfulness/methods , Adult , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Occupational Stress , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546956

ABSTRACT

The COVID Stress Scales (CSS) were developed to measure stress in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To further investigate the psychometric properties of the CSS, we used data collected in Poland across two waves of assessment (N = 556 at T1 and N = 264 at T2) to evaluate the factor structure, reliability (at the item and scale level), measurement invariance (across the Polish and Dutch translations of the CSS, and time), over time stability, and external associations of the Polish-language version of the CSS (CSS-PL). Overall, results suggest that the CSS-PL is psychometrically robust, largely invariant across the countries and time-lags considered. The CSS-PL was also positively related to other measures of COVID-19 fear, health anxiety, obsessive compulsive symptoms, anxiety, depression, and intent to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. This study thus provides considerable information about the CSS's items and scales, and lays the foundation for future investigations into COVID stress across time and different populations.


Subject(s)
Psychometrics/methods , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Translating , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258493, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic raises concerns about the mental health of the world population. Protection measures to prevention the disease impacted education and undergraduate students were exposed to additional stressors. OBJECTIVES: Analyze depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in undergraduates, their respective predictors and the association with satisfaction with life, psychological well-being and coping strategies. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted from September 14 to October 19, 2020, involving undergraduate students enrolled in 33 courses from 5 public university campuses in the state of Parana, Brazil, using: questionnaire with sociodemographic, academic, health and pandemic effects variables; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21); Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS); Psychological Well-Being (PWB); BriefCOPE. The convenience sample was composed of 1,224 participants, with 18 years old or older, that completed all research instruments. Spearman correlation and logistic analysis (univariate and multivariate) were applied to the collected data. RESULTS: Most of the undergraduates presented symptoms of depression (60.5%), anxiety (52.5%) and stress (57.5%). Depression, anxiety and stress presented significant correlations in common: negative with satisfaction with life, all dimensions of psychological well-being, and 3 adaptive copings (active coping, planning, positive reframing); positive with 5 maladaptive copings (behavioral disengagement, denial, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use). In addition, there were 7 common predictors for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress: female; age 18-24 years old; having a chronic disease; lower scores in 2 dimensions of psychological well-being (positive relations with others, self-acceptance); higher scores in 2 maladaptive copings (self-blame, substance use). CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate a high prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and suggest that higher scores of satisfaction with life, psychological well-being dimensions and adaptive copings may present protective effects in undergraduates during a pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/pathology , Stress, Psychological , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258213, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450733

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to describe how residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, coped psychologically with the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. In a cross-sectional design, we aimed to estimate the rates and correlates of anxiety and depression, examine how specific worries correlated with general anxiety and depression, and synthesize themes of "the most difficult experiences" shared by the respondents. We collected data through an on-line survey in a convenience sample of 1,293 adult residents of Philadelphia, PA between April 17 and July 3, 2020, inquiring about symptoms of anxiety and depression (via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), specific worries, open-ended narratives of "the most difficult experiences" (coded into themes), demographics, perceived sources of support, and general health. Anxiety was evident among 30 to 40% of participants and depression-about 10%. Factor analysis revealed two distinct, yet inter-related clusters of specific worries related to mood disorders: concern about "hardships" and "fear of infection". Regression analyses revealed that anxiety, depression, and fear of infection, but not concern about hardships, worsened over the course of the epidemic. "The most difficult experiences" characterized by loss of income, poor health of self or others, uncertainty, death of a relative or a friend, and struggle accessing food were each associated with some of the measures of worries and mood disorders. Respondents who believed they could rely on support of close personal network fared better psychologically than those who reported relying primarily on government and social services organizations. Thematic analysis revealed complex perceptions of the pandemic by the participants, giving clues to both positive and negative experiences that may have affected how they coped. Despite concerns about external validity, our observations are concordant with emerging evidence of psychological toll of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures employed to mitigate risk of infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18286, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410884

ABSTRACT

Health professionals may be a vulnerable group to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To investigate how health professionals who experienced a traumatic event are expressing PTSS and factors related to risk for higher PTSS symptomatology can inform how health professionals are facing their role in this crisis. This was an Internet cross-sectional survey. Participants were 49,767 Brazilian health professionals who have ever faced a traumatic event, which was about 25.9% of an initial sample of health professionals. PTSS symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and latent profile analysis (LPA) explored subpopulations within participants based on their scores. Distinct profiles were compared for psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) and quality of life. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between IES-R profiles and COVID-19 related experiences, thoughts, and perceptions. A two-profile model was the most appropriate for the IES-R data pointing out a group with a high level of PTSS (named high-PTSS; n = 10,401, 20.9%) and another expressing a low level of symptoms (named low-PTSS; n = 39,366, 79.1%). The high-PTSS profile demonstrated worse psychological scores (global psychological distress, somatization, depression, and anxiety) and worse quality of life (physical, psychological, social, and environmental) with moderate magnitudes. Small but significant predictors of the high-PTSS profile included sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 related experiences, thoughts, and perceptions. Most individuals who experienced a traumatic event were not in the high-PTSS profile. For those who were, however, psychological and quality of life measures were much worse. During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, several characteristics emerged as risks to report trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/pathology , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374153

ABSTRACT

Parent-child conversations are important for children's cognitive development, children's ability to cope with stressful events, and can shape children's beliefs about the causes of illness. In the context of a global pandemic, families have faced a multitude of challenges, including changes to their routines, that they need to convey to their children. Thus, parent-child conversations about the coronavirus pandemic might convey information about the causes of illness, but also about how and why it is necessary for children to modify their behaviors to comply with new social norms and medical guidance. The main goal of this study was to examine the questions children ask about the COVID-19 pandemic and how parents answer them. This survey included responses from a national sample of 349 predominantly white parents of children between the ages of 3 and 12 recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk in United States. Parents reported that although children asked about COVID-19 and its causes (17.3%), children asked primarily about lifestyle changes that occurred as a result of the pandemic (24.0%) and safety (18.4%). Parents reported answering these questions by emphasizing that the purpose of different preventative measures was to protect the child (11.8%) or the family (42.7%) and providing reassurance (13.3%). Many parents discussed how it was their social responsibility to slow the spread of the virus (38.4%). Parents of younger children tended to shield them from information about COVID-19 (p = .038), while parents with more knowledge were more likely to provide explanations (p < .001). Our analysis shows that families not only discuss information about the virus but also information about changes to their lifestyle, preventative measures, and social norms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Parents/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253059, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339408

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown measures have taken a toll on every level of the society, worldwide. This study examines their psychological impact on university students in Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between April and May 2020 in Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, India and Indonesia. The Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and questions on adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies were used in this study. A total of 3,679 students from the seven countries participated in this study. Overall, 21.9% and 13.7% of the students in this study experienced mild to moderate and severe to extreme levels of anxiety. More than 20% of the students from China and Bangladesh reported severe to extreme level of anxiety compared to below 10% of the students from Indonesia, Malaysia and India. Among the female students, 15.9% experienced severe to extreme level of anxiety compared to 10.6% among the males. Females from Bangladesh, China, Malaysia, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia experienced significantly higher levels of anxiety compared to their male counterparts. Acceptance was the most used and Seeking Social Support was the least used coping strategies among the students. There were significant differences in the usage of the four strategies by countries. Stressors are predominantly financial constraints, remote online learning, and uncertainty related to their academic performance, and future career prospects.


Subject(s)
Stress, Psychological , Students/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/pathology , Bangladesh , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India , Indonesia , Malaysia , Male , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During infectious disease outbreaks, healthcare workers are at high risk of infection, infecting others, and psychological distress. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stress and anxiety in physicians during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region and assess their associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, from March 28 to April 15, 2020. An online self-administered survey questionnaire was used to collect data from physicians working in specialized COVID-19 centers and other healthcare facilities. The level of stress was measured based on the 10-items Perceived Stress Scale. The level of anxiety was measured based on the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. RESULTS: A total of 370 participants responded to the perceived stress component of the survey, of whom 57 (15.4%) had low perceived stress, 249 (67.3%) had moderate stress, and 64 (17.3%) had high stress. Being female was significantly associated with having moderate/high stress (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.40 (95% CI 1.31-4.39)). A total of 201 participants responded to the generalized anxiety disorder component of the survey, of whom 19 (9.5%) had no anxiety, 57 (28.4%) had mild anxiety, 79 (39.3%) had moderate anxiety, and 46 (22.9%) had severe anxiety. Working in COVID-19 centers (AOR = 2.23 (95% CI 1.02-4.86)) and being general practitioners (AOR = 4.16 (95% CI 1.14-15.14)) were significantly associated with having moderate/severe anxiety. CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of physicians experience stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 outbreak in Iraqi Kurdistan region. Generalists and those in special COVID-19 units report the greatest anxiety. There a need to establish mechanisms to reduce the risks of stress and anxiety among physicians. Mental health coping interventions through counseling should be based on COVID-19 protocol guidelines. Interventions should also emphasize physicians' ability to work safely and efficiently in providing care to the patients.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , General Practitioners/psychology , Humans , Internet , Iraq/epidemiology , Male , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232463

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-Cov-2 virus pandemic causes serious emotional consequences. It has occurred widespread medical courses suspension, and graduations were anticipated. Field hospitals, set up to treat patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, were the main workplaces of newly graduated doctors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of SARS-Cov-2/COVID-19 pandemic on mental health of medical interns and newly graduated doctors. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study performed using a digital platform. Links to forms were sent in two moments: moment 1 (M1), at the beginning of the pandemic, in the first half of April/2020 and moment 2 (M2), after six months of pandemic, in the second half of September/2020. All students from the medical internship and all doctors graduated since 2018 from the three medical schools in Sergipe-NE-Brazil were invited. RESULTS: 335 forms were answered in April and 148 in September. In M1 88.9% considered themselves exposed to excess of information about COVID-19, which was associated with anxiety symptoms (p = 0.04). Long family physical distance was also associated with these symptoms, as increased appetite (p = 0.01), feeling shortness of breath (p = 0.003) and sweating (p = 0.007). Fear of acquire COVID-19 was reported as intense by almost half of participants, and of transmitting by 85.7% in M1. In M2 41.2% reported the death of friends or relatives. Psychiatric illness was described by 38.5% and psychotropic drugs use by 30.1% in M1, especially those who lived alone (p = 0.03) and the single ones (p = 0.01). Alcohol intake was reported by 54.3%, and among doctors graduated in 2020 it increased from 50% in M1 to 85% in M2 (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The pandemic had a negative impact on the mental health of medical students and newly graduated doctors. Exposure to excessive COVID-19 information and family physical distance were associated to anxiety symptoms. Among doctors graduated in 2020, alcohol intake increased during pandemic evolution.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Physicians/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Anxiety/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency , Male , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250554, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201810

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has become a clinical threat to healthy people as well as immunocompromised patients and those with pre-existing chronic diseases around the world. This study, which used a cross-sectional correlational design, aimed to assess the levels of fear and health anxiety and to investigate their predictors during the current outbreak of COVID-19 in immunocompromised and chronic disease patients in Saudi Arabia. Sociodemographic and clinical data, fear of COVID-19, and health anxiety measurements were collected by online surveys from June 15 to July 15, 2020. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors. A total of 1,030 patients in 13 provinces in Saudi Arabia completed the questionnaire. A significant number of patients with chronic diseases experienced considerable levels of fear and anxiety during the COVID-19 outbreak. It was found that 21.44% of participants met the criteria for anxiety cases, and 19.4% were considered borderline anxiety cases. In regression analysis, significant predictors of fear and health anxiety were female gender, lower education, middle-aged, divorced or widowed, receiving immunosuppressants, type of chronic disease (Crohn's disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases), and media use as a source of knowledge about COVID-19. Immunocompromised and chronic disease patients are vulnerable to fear and anxiety during epidemic infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Optimizing this population's compliance with appropriate infection prevention and control strategies is crucial during the infectious outbreaks to ensure their safety, to decrease the risk of infection and serious complications, and reduce their fear and health anxiety. Effective positive psychological interventions and support strategies also need to be immediately implemented to increase psychological resilience and improve the mental health of these patients. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, chronic disease patients in Saudi Arabia need special attention from health authorities, policymakers, and healthcare professionals to manage maladaptive forms of health anxiety and fear.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Fear , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136299

ABSTRACT

The psychological impact of the Covid 19 pandemic on cancer patients, a population at higher risk of fatal consequences if infected, has been only rarely evaluated. This study was conducted at the Departments of Oncology of four hospitals located in the Verona area in Italy to investigate the psychological consequences of the pandemic on cancer patients under active anticancer treatments. A 13-item ad hoc questionnaire to evaluate the psychological status of patients before and during the pandemic was administered to 474 consecutive subjects in the time frame between April 27th and June 7th 2020. Among the 13 questions, 7 were considered appropriate to elaborate an Emotional Vulnerability Index (EVI) that allows to separate the population in two groups (low versus high emotional vulnerability) according to observed median values. During the emergency period, the feeling of high vulnerability was found in 246 patients (53%) and was significantly associated with the following clinical variables: female gender, being under chemotherapy treatment, age ≤ 65 years. Compared to the pre-pandemic phase, the feeling of vulnerability was increased in 41 patients (9%), remained stably high in 196 (42%) and, surprisingly, was reduced in 10 patients (2%). Overall, in a population characterized by an high level of emotional vulnerability the pandemic had a marginal impact and only a small proportion of patients reported an increase of their emotional vulnerability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Neoplasms/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(5): e608-e612, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733313

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused anxiety among children with hematology-oncology disease and their families, as it has in every segment of society. In this study, we aimed to detect the anxiety levels of children with hematologic or oncologic disease and of their parents after the COVID-19 outbreak. The sample consisted of 15 patients 12 to 18 years of age receiving treatment in the Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Unit in Altinbas University Medical Faculty Bahçelievler Medikalpark Hospital and 33 parents of the same unit patients between 6 and 18 years of age, and their 35 healthy peers and their parents. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied to participant children and their parents to evaluate their general anxiety and pandemic-related anxiety levels. Children with a hematology-oncology disease and their families were compared with healthy peers and their families. No significant difference was observed for pandemic-related anxiety levels (P>0.05). Both parent groups exhibited higher anxiety levels with regard to the pandemic than did their children (P<0.05). Children with hematology-oncology disease reported significantly higher trait anxiety levels when compared with healthy peers (P=0.01). The families of children who had not received stem cell transplantation had higher state and trait anxiety scores than the families of children who had received the transplantation (P<0.05). Even though they were in the high-risk group, children with a hematology-oncology disease and their families had pandemic-related anxiety levels comparable with those of healthy peers and their families.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Health Status , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237056, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711074

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the coronavirus and the strategies to slow it have disrupted just about every aspect of our lives. Such disruption may be reflected in changes in psychological function. The present study used a pre-posttest design to test whether Five Factor Model personality traits changed with the coronavirus outbreak in the United States. Participants (N = 2,137) were tested in early February 2020 and again during the President's 15 Days to Slow the Spread guidelines. In contrast to the preregistered hypotheses, Neuroticism decreased across these six weeks, particularly the facets of Anxiety and Depression, and Conscientiousness did not change. Interestingly, there was some evidence that the rapid changes in the social context had changed the meaning of an item. Specifically, an item about going to work despite being sick was a good indicator of conscientiousness before COVID-19, but the interpretation of it changed with the pandemic. In sum, the unexpected small decline in Neuroticism suggests that, during the acute phase of the coronavirus outbreak, feelings of anxiety and distress may be attributed more to the pandemic than to one's personality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Neuroticism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/pathology , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Consciousness , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Depression/pathology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237301, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695948

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put considerable physical and emotional strain on frontline healthcare workers. Among frontline healthcare workers, physician trainees represent a unique group-functioning simultaneously as both learners and caregivers and experiencing considerable challenges during the pandemic. However, we have a limited understanding regarding the emotional effects and vulnerability experienced by trainees during the pandemic. We investigated the effects of trainee exposure to patients being tested for COVID-19 on their depression, anxiety, stress, burnout and professional fulfillment. All physician trainees at an academic medical center (n = 1375) were invited to participate in an online survey. We compared the measures of depression, anxiety, stress, burnout and professional fulfillment among trainees who were exposed to patients being tested for COVID-19 and those that were not, using univariable and multivariable models. We also evaluated perceived life stressors such as childcare, home schooling, personal finances and work-family balance among both groups. 393 trainees completed the survey (29% response rate). Compared to the non-exposed group, the exposed group had a higher prevalence of stress (29.4% vs. 18.9%), and burnout (46.3% vs. 33.7%). The exposed group also experienced moderate to extremely high perceived stress regarding childcare and had a lower work-family balance. Multivariable models indicated that trainees who were exposed to COVID-19 patients reported significantly higher stress (10.96 [95% CI, 9.65 to 12.46] vs 8.44 [95% CI, 7.3 to 9.76]; P = 0.043) and were more likely to be burned out (1.31 [95% CI, 1.21 to1.41] vs 1.07 [95% CI, 0.96 to 1.19]; P = 0.002]. We also found that female trainees were more likely to be stressed (P = 0.043); while unmarried trainees were more likely to be depressed (P = 0.009), and marginally more likely to have anxiety (P = 0.051). To address these challenges, wellness programs should focus on sustaining current programs, develop new and targeted mental health resources that are widely accessible and devise strategies for creating awareness regarding these resources.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Internet , Linear Models , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Encephale ; 46(3): 169-172, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-322038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused approximately 2,350,000 infections worldwide and killed more than 160,000 individuals. In Sainte-Anne Hospital (GHU PARIS Psychiatrie & Neuroscience, Paris, France) we have observed a lower incidence of symptomatic forms of COVID-19 among patients than among our clinical staff. This observation led us to hypothesize that psychotropic drugs could have a prophylactic action against SARS-CoV-2 and protect patients from the symptomatic and virulent forms of this infection, since several of these psychotropic drugs have documented antiviral properties. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a phenothiazine derivative, is also known for its antiviral activity via the inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Recentin vitro studies have reported that CPZ exhibits anti-MERS-CoV and anti-SARS-CoV-1 activity. METHODS: In this context, the ReCoVery study aims to repurpose CPZ, a molecule with an excellent tolerance profile and a very high biodistribution in the saliva, lungs and brain. We hypothesize that CPZ could reduce the unfavorable course of COVID-19 infection among patients requiring respiratory support without the need for ICU care, and that it could also reduce the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2. For this purpose, we plan a pilot, multicenter, randomized, single blind, controlled, phase III therapeutic trial (standard treatment vs. CPZ+standard treatment). CONCLUSION: This repurposing of CPZ for its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity could offer an alternative, rapid strategy to alleviate infection severity. This repurposing strategy also avoids numerous developmental and experimental steps, and could save precious time to rapidly establish an anti-COVID-19 therapy with well-known, limited and easily managed side effects.


Subject(s)
Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/pathology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clathrin-Coated Vesicles/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/psychology , Endocytosis/drug effects , France/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Mortality , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
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