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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789449

ABSTRACT

Mental health effects secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic were till recently considered less important or were neglected. Portugal and Brazil are facing the pandemic in quite different ways. This study aimed to describe the mental health status of the general adult population in Portugal and Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyze the differences between the two countries. A cross-sectional quantitative study was based on an online questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were collected in addition to four validated scales: CAGE (acronym cut-annoyed-guilty-eye) Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. For each outcome, a multiple linear regression was performed. Five hundred and fifty people answered the questionnaire (435 women). The median age was 38 (Q1, Q3: 30, 47) years, 52.5% resided in Brazil and 47.5% in Portugal. The prevalence of anxiety was 71.3% (mild anxiety was present in 43.1%), the prevalence of depression was 24.7% and 23.8% of the sample had both depression and anxiety. Isolation was a significant factor for depression but not for anxiety. Well-being was below average. Mental illness was considerably higher than pre-COVID-19 levels. Portugal and Brazil will have to be prepared for future consequences of poor mental health and contribute immediate psychological support to their adult populations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Portugal/epidemiology
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113294, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640985

ABSTRACT

To cope with Covid-19 and limits its spread among residents, retirement homes have prohibited physical contact between residents and families and friend and, in some cases, even between residents or between residents and caregivers. We investigated the effects of measures against Covid-19 on the mental health of participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who live in retirement homes in France. We instructed on-site caregivers to assess depression and anxiety in participants with mild AD who live in retirement homes. Fifty-eight participants consented to participate in the study. The participants rated their depression and anxiety during and before the Covid-19 crisis. Participants reported higher depression (p = .005) and anxiety (p = .004) during than before the Covid-19 crisis. These increases can be attributed to the isolation of the residents and/or to the drastic changes in their daily life and care they receive. While, in their effort to prevent infections, retirement homes are forced to physically separate residents from the outside world and to drastically reduce residents' activities, these decisions are likely to come at a cost to residents with AD and their mental health.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/complications , Anxiety/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/diagnosis , Homes for the Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Caregivers , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Female , France , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes , Severity of Illness Index
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 206, 2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic has resulted in unprecedented public health measures. This has impacted the UK education sector with many universities halting campus-based teaching and examinations. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of COVID-19 on final year medical students' examinations and placements in the United Kingdom (UK) and how it might impact their confidence and preparedness going into their first year of foundation training. METHODS: A 10-item online survey was distributed to final year medical students across 33 UK medical schools. The survey was designed by combining dichotomous, multiple choice and likert response scale questions. Participants were asked about the effect that the COVID-19 global pandemic had on final year medical written exams, electives, assistantships and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). The survey also explored the student's confidence and preparedness going into their first year of training under these new unprecedented circumstances. RESULTS: Four hundred forty students from 32 UK medical schools responded. 38.4% (n = 169) of respondents had their final OSCEs cancelled while 43.0% (n = 189) had already completed their final OSCEs before restrictions. 43.0% (n = 189) of assistantship placements were postponed while 77.3% (n = 340) had electives cancelled. The impact of COVID-19 on OSCEs, written examinations and student assistantships significantly affected students' preparedness (respectively p = 0.025, 0.008, 0.0005). In contrast, when measuring confidence, only changes to student assistantships had a significant effect (p = 0.0005). The majority of students feel that measures taken during this pandemic to amend their curricula was necessary. Respondents also agree that assisting in hospitals during the outbreak would be a valuable learning opportunity. CONCLUSIONS: The impact on medical student education has been significant, particularly affecting the transition from student to doctor. This study showed the disruptions to student assistantships had the biggest effect on students' confidence and preparedness. For those willing to assist in hospitals to join the front-line workforce, it is crucial to maintain their wellbeing with safeguards such as proper inductions, support and supervision.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Clinical Competence , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Young Adult
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760920

ABSTRACT

Due to discrimination and media literacy, middle-aged and elderly individuals have been easily reduced to marginalized groups in the identification of rumours during a public health crisis and can easily spread rumours repeatedly, which has a negative impact on pandemic prevention and social psychology. To further clarify the factors influencing their behaviours, this study used a questionnaire to survey a sample of 556 individuals in China and used multiple linear regression and analysis of variance to explore influencing factors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We found that, first, in the COVID-19 pandemic, middle-aged and elderly adults' willingness to re-spread rumours is positively related to their degree of believing rumours and to personal anxiety and is negatively related to their rumour-discrimination ability and to their perception of serious consequences to rumour spreading. Second, the degree of believing rumours plays an intermediary role in the willingness to re-spread rumours. It plays a partial mediating role in the path of anxiety's influence on behaviour, suggesting that an anxious person will spread a rumour even if he or she does not have a strong belief in the rumour. Third, interpersonal communication has a greater credibility and a greater willingness to re-spread than does mass communication. This suggests the importance of increasing public knowledge expertise and of reducing public panic. This also has important implications for the future design of public health policies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Deception , Information Dissemination , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Aged , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Propaganda , Public Health
5.
Inquiry ; 57: 46958020957114, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751317

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus pneumonia broke out and gradually developed into a global public health problem. Health care workers, especially nurses, suffered from great occupational pressure and psychological distress during the outbreak of infectious diseases. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the psychological status and self-efficacy of nurses in public hospital during COVID-19 outbreak between 16th and 25th February 2020. A total of 223 nurses participated in this study. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 40.8% (CI 95%: 34.4%-47.2%) and 26.4% (CI 95%: 20.6%-42.2%), respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of anxiety symptoms among demographic variables. There was significant differences in the prevalence of depression symptoms according to professional titles (P = .020). The mean score of self-efficacy was 25.90 ± 7.55. The self-efficacy was negatively correlated with anxiety (r = -0.161, P < .05). The psychological status of nurses in public hospital during COVID-19 outbreak needs our attention. Improving nurses' self-efficacy in dealing with emerging infectious diseases may be helpful to their psychology.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Self Efficacy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22227, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread dramatically worldwide, raising considerable concerns and resulting in detrimental effects on the psychological health of people who are vulnerable to the disease. Therefore, assessment of depression in members of the general public and their psychological and behavioral responses is essential for the maintenance of health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and the associated factors among the general public during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression.aA cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic was 182/1342 (13.6%). Regression analysis indicated that feeling stressed, feeling helpless, persistently being worried even with support, never feeling clean after disinfecting, scrubbing hands and items repeatedly, hoarding food, medicine, or daily supplies, and being distracted from work or study were positively associated with depression, while social support and being calm were negatively associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The general public suffered from high levels of depression during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, COVID-19-related mood management and social support should be provided to attenuate depression in the general public.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Self Report , Smartphone
8.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(9): 597-598, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743640
9.
Sleep Med ; 75: 12-20, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731180

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health emergency. The extreme actions aimed to reduce virus diffusion have profoundly changed the lifestyles of the Italian population. Moreover, fear of contracting the infection has generated high levels of anxiety. This study aimed to understand the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on sleep quality, general anxiety symptomatology, and psychological distress. Methods: An online survey collected information on socio-demographic data and additional information concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, sleep quality, sleep disorders, generalized anxiety symptoms, psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology related to COVID-19 were assessed. Results: This study included 2291 respondents. The results revealed that 57.1% of participants reported poor sleep quality, 32.1% high anxiety, 41.8% high distress, and 7.6% reported PTSD symptomatology linked to COVID-19. Youth and women, those uncertain regarding possible COVID-19 infection, and greater fear of direct contact with those infected by COVID-19 had an increased risk of developing sleep disturbances, as well as higher levels of anxiety and distress. Finally, a significant relationship between sleep quality, generalized anxiety, and psychological distress with PTSD symptoms related to COVID-19 was evidenced. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic appears to be a risk factor for sleep disorders and psychological diseases in the Italian population, as previously reported in China. These results should be used as a starting point for further studies aimed to develop psychological interventions to minimize the brief and long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology
10.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520948382, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729469

ABSTRACT

Rehabilitation is important for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Given the lack of guidelines in English on the rehabilitation of these patients, we conducted a review of the most recent reports. We performed this literature review using the principal research databases and included randomized trials, recommendations, quasi-randomized or prospective controlled clinical trials, reports, guidelines, field updates, and letters to the editor. We identified 107 studies in the database search, among which 85 were excluded after screening the full text or abstract. In total, 22 studies were finally included. The complexity of the clinical setting and the speed of spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which leads to rapid occupation of beds in the intensive care unit, make it necessary to discharge patients with COVID-19 who have mild symptoms as soon as possible. For these reasons, it is necessary to formulate rehabilitation programs for these patients, to help them restore physical and respiratory function and to reduce anxiety and depression, particularly patients with comorbidities and those who live alone or in rural settings, to restore a good quality of life.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Patient Discharge Summaries , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 417, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the resilience of non-local medical workers sent to support local medical workers in treating the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: In February 2020, non-local medical workers who had been sent to Wuhan as support staff to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak were asked to complete an online survey composed of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). RESULTS: Survey responses from 114 non-local medical workers were analyzed. CD-RISC scores were high (67.03 ± 13.22). The resilience level was highest for physicians (73.48 ± 11.49), followed by support staff, including health care assistants, technicians (67.78 ± 12.43) and nurses (64.86 ± 13.46). Respondents differed significantly in the levels of education, training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital (where he or she normally works), and in their feelings of being adequately prepared and confident to complete tasks (P < 0.05). Resilience correlated negatively with anxiety (r = -.498, P < 0.01) and depression (r = -.471, P < 0.01) but positively with active coping styles (r = .733, P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that active coping (ß = 1.314, p < 0.05), depression (ß = -.806, p < 0.05), anxiety (ß = - 1.091, p < 0.05), and training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital (ß = 3.510, p < 0.05) were significant associated with resilience. CONCLUSION: Our data show that active coping, depression, anxiety, and training/support provided by the respondent's permanent hospital are associated with resilience. Managers of medical staff should use these data to develop psychosocial interventions aimed at reinforcing the resilience of medical workers during highly stressful and prolonged medical emergencies, as seen during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Clin Ther ; 42(6): 962-963, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716622

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic embodies overwhelming stresses-unemployment, death, and isolation, among others. When called upon, clinicians must try to sort out demoralization from depression. This commentary discerns the characteristics of demoralization versus depression, and suggests solutions for both, together with a cautionary word on the use chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Depression/psychology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Unemployment/psychology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717743

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 health crisis has had a global effect, but the consequences in the different countries affected have been very different. In Spain, in a short period of time, health professionals went from a situation of stability to living with a working environment characterized by overcrowded hospitals, lack of individual protection equipment, non-existent or contradictory work protocols, as well as an unknown increase in mortality. Although in their professional activity health workers are closely linked to death processes, in recent months, working conditions and health emergencies have drawn an unheard of working scenario, with the stress and anxiety they may suffer when faced with the death of their patients. The present quantitative research was carried out in different hospitals in Spain on health professionals during the month of April 2020. Through the subscale of anxiety in the face of the death of others, developed by Collett-Lester, it has been verified that health professionals have had to develop their work in a context of precariousness, putting at risk both their individual and collective health, notably increasing anxiety in the face of the death of their patients. The predictive variables of this anxiety have been the absence of individual protection equipment, as well as high levels in the burnout subscales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spain/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We tested whether the tendency to worry could affect psychological responses to quarantine by capitalizing on the opportunity of having collected data before the COVID-19 outbreak on measures of worry, anxiety, and trait mindfulness in a group of university students. METHODS: Twenty-five participants completed self-report measures assessing worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, PSWQ), anxiety (Anxiety Sensitivity Index, ASI-3), and trait mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS) at T0 (pre-lockdown, 4 November 2019-17 February 2020) and T1 (at the end of lockdown, 26 April-30 April 2020). We compared assessments at the two time points in the whole sample and in high and low worriers (defined at T0 by scores on PSWQ respectively above and below 1.5 SD from mean of the Italian normative sample). OUTCOMES: High worriers showed at T1 a significant increase of anxiety sensitivity and fear of mental health in comparison to low worriers. Moreover, in the whole sample, at T1 trait mindfulness was inversely related to worry and fear of mental health. INTERPRETATION: A valuable approach to support individuals experiencing anxiety related to the COVID-19 outbreak could be represented by mindfulness-based interventions improving the ability to focus attention and awareness on the present moment.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Fear , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mindfulness , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Psychometrics , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 79-85, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714533

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the psychological impact and mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, and insomnia during COVID-19 crisis among ophthalmologists. METHODS: This was a simple random study in which ophthalmologists practicing in Saudi Arabia were asked to fill in a self-administered online survey during the period from March 28, 2020, to April 04, 2020. Four validated psychiatric assessment tools were used to detect symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and stress perception. RESULTS: One hundred and seven participants successfully completed the survey with a response rate of 30.6%. Males constituted 56.1% (n = 60). Ophthalmology residents constituted the majority (n = 66, 61.7%). About half of the physicians exhibited symptoms of depression (n = 56, 50.5%), anxiety (n = 50, 46.7%), and insomnia (n = 48, 44.9%). Symptoms of stress ranged between low (28%), moderate (68.2%), and high (3.7%). According to the cutoff values for severe symptoms, 29% were identified as having depression, 38.3% had anxiety, and 15% had insomnia.Depression was found to be more common among female ophthalmologists (P = 0.06), those living with an elderly (P = 0.003), and fellows (P = 0.006). Female ophthalmologists suffering from anxiety were significantly more than male ophthalmologists (P = 0.046). There was a trend toward suffering from anxiety in frontline health-care providers (P = 0.139) and in ophthalmologists who are living with an elderly (P = 0.149). Female participants exhibited significantly more moderate-to-high symptoms of stress (P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists' psychological needs, females in particular, should be addressed appropriately during the COVID-19 pandemic. Establishing psychological support units, especially for high-risk individuals, should be considered to minimize psychological adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Ophthalmologists/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Needs Assessment , Ophthalmologists/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713376

ABSTRACT

The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's lives deserve attention. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety among Brazilian children and its associated factors during social distancing during COVID-19. We used a cross-sectional design with an online survey from April to May 2020 in Brazil. We included children aged 6-12 years and their guardians. The Children's Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ; scores 4-12) and the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; scores 0-10) were used to measure anxiety. We enrolled 157 girls and 132 boys, with a mean age of 8.84 (±2.05) years; 88.9% of respondents were mothers. Based on CAQ ≥ 9, the prevalence of anxiety was 19.4% (n = 56), and higher among children with parents with essential jobs and those who were social distancing without parents. In logistic regression, the following variables were associated with higher CAQ scores: social distancing without parents; more persons living together in home; and education level of guardians. Based on NRS > 7, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.8% (n = 63); however, no associations with NRS scores were found with the investigated variables. These findings suggest the necessity of implementing public health actions targeting these parents and their children at the population level.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pandemics , Parents , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237056, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711074

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the coronavirus and the strategies to slow it have disrupted just about every aspect of our lives. Such disruption may be reflected in changes in psychological function. The present study used a pre-posttest design to test whether Five Factor Model personality traits changed with the coronavirus outbreak in the United States. Participants (N = 2,137) were tested in early February 2020 and again during the President's 15 Days to Slow the Spread guidelines. In contrast to the preregistered hypotheses, Neuroticism decreased across these six weeks, particularly the facets of Anxiety and Depression, and Conscientiousness did not change. Interestingly, there was some evidence that the rapid changes in the social context had changed the meaning of an item. Specifically, an item about going to work despite being sick was a good indicator of conscientiousness before COVID-19, but the interpretation of it changed with the pandemic. In sum, the unexpected small decline in Neuroticism suggests that, during the acute phase of the coronavirus outbreak, feelings of anxiety and distress may be attributed more to the pandemic than to one's personality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Neuroticism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/pathology , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Consciousness , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Depression/pathology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
J Anxiety Disord ; 75: 102290, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710061

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to increase risk for the development of health anxiety. Given that elevated health anxiety can contribute to maladaptive health behaviors, there is a need to identify individual difference factors that may increase health anxiety risk. This study examined the unique and interactive relations of COVID-19 affective risk assessments (worry about risk for contracting/dying from COVID-19) and intolerance of uncertainty to later health anxiety dimensions. A U.S. community sample of 364 participants completed online self-report measures at a baseline assessment (Time 1) and one month later (Time 2). Time 1 intolerance of uncertainty was uniquely associated with the Time 2 health anxiety dimension of body vigilance. Time 1 affective risk assessments and intolerance of uncertainty were uniquely associated with later perceived likelihood that an illness would be acquired and anticipated negative consequences of an illness. The latter finding was qualified by a significant interaction, such that affective risk assessments were positively associated with anticipated negative consequences of having an illness only among participants with mean and low levels of intolerance of uncertainty. Results speak to the relevance of different risk factors for health anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight targets for reducing health anxiety risk.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Uncertainty , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Self Report , Young Adult
19.
Humanidad. med ; 20(2)2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-709155

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La alta transmisibilidad y expansión del nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) en el mundo constituyen un alto riesgo laboral para los profesionales de la salud, especialmente las enfermeras. Objetivo: Identificar las dificultades y los temores de las enfermeras que enfrentan la pandemia de COVID-19 en Brasil. Métodos: Este es un estudio exploratorio y cualitativo, realizado en marzo de 2020, con enfermeras de varias instituciones de salud. La recopilación de datos se realizó a través de la aplicación WhatsApp, con un cuestionario. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el análisis de contenido. Resultados: Las dificultades y los temores presentados se relacionaron con el riesgo diario de exposición al virus, los problemas de acceso y uso de equipo de protección personal, las dudas en el diagnóstico diferencial así como la sobrecarga de trabajo y la mayor demanda de atención de pacientes y familiares. Discusión: La vulnerabilidad de las enfermeras en el estudio es preocupante, porque carecen de apoyo y atención y ello interfiere en la salud y la calidad de la atención. Esta suma de factores aumenta el miedo, la ansiedad, la inseguridad y la incertidumbre para enfrentar el futuro.(AU)


Introduction: The high transmissibility and expansion of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in the world constitute a high occupational risk for health professionals, especially nurses. Objective: To identify the difficulties and fears of nurses facing the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Methods: This is an exploratory and qualitative study, carried out in March 2020, with nurses from various health institutions. The data collection was done through the WhatsApp application, with a questionnaire. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Results: The difficulties and fears presented were related to the daily risk of exposure to the virus, problems of access and use of personal protective equipment, doubts in the differential diagnosis as well as work overload and the increased demand for care with patients and relatives. Discussion: The vulnerability of the nurses in the study is worrying, since they lack support and care, they interfere with health and the quality of care. This sum of factors increases the fear, anxiety, insecurity and uncertainty facing the future.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety/psychology , Occupational Health , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Fear/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Brazil
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236465, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705074

ABSTRACT

A lockdown of people has been used as an efficient public health measure to fight against the exponential spread of the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) and allows the health system to manage the number of patients. The aim of this study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00430818) was to evaluate the impact of both perceived stress aroused by Covid-19 and of emotions triggered by the lockdown situation on the individual experience of time. A large sample of the French population responded to a survey on their experience of the passage of time during the lockdown compared to before the lockdown. The perceived stress resulting from Covid-19 and stress at work and home were also assessed, as were the emotions felt. The results showed that people have experienced a slowing down of time during the lockdown. This time experience was not explained by the levels of perceived stress or anxiety, although these were considerable, but rather by the increase in boredom and sadness felt in the lockdown situation. The increased anger and fear of death only explained a small part of variance in the time judgment. The conscious experience of time therefore reflected the psychological difficulties experienced during lockdown and was not related to their perceived level of stress or anxiety.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Boredom , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fear/psychology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
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