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2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People at high risk of severe illness from COVID-19 have experienced greater restrictions during the pandemic, yet there is a paucity of research exploring their lived experience. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on people identified as at high risk of severe illness by UK Government, and in particular, the impact of the first lockdown on access to healthcare, medications and use of technological platforms. METHODS: 1038 UK adults who identified as at high risk of severe illness from COVID-19 in line with UK Government guidance or self-identified with acute or other chronic health conditions, completed the Awareness, Attitudes and Actions survey which explored the impact of COVID-19 on access to healthcare, management of long-term health condition, mental health, and health behaviours. RESULTS: Most participants reported feelings of vulnerability, anxiety and isolation, noticed that other people changed their behaviour towards them including a feeling of being stigmatised by people not categorised as high risk. Participants described the largely negative impact that the COVID-19 lockdown had on to health-related behaviours and access to healthcare, which had resulted in large declines in mental health and wellbeing. Participants also indicated disappointment at the UK Governments response and handling of the COVID-19 lockdown. IMPLICATIONS: This study provides novel evidence of the lived experience of the first COVID-19 lockdown for people identified as at high risk of severe illness. In the context of behavioural health interventions, the ubiquity of digital technologies and their adoption into day-to-day life translates into greater potential reach than traditional interventions, and consequently, greater potential for positive public health impact. Findings should be considered by policymakers and healthcare professionals to support people now and as we transition through the recovery phase with a particular emphasis on supporting mental health and changes to the management of long-term health conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Attitude , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1140-1147, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522400

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The long-term sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infections in children is unknown. Guidance is needed on helpful models of care for an emerging subset of pediatric patients with postacute/long COVID who continue to experience persistent symptoms after initial COVID-19 diagnosis. Here, we describe a pediatric multidisciplinary post-COVID-19 rehabilitation clinic model as well as a case series of the initial cohort of patients who presented to this clinic. A consecutive sample of nine patients (pediatric patients <21 yrs of age) who presented to our clinic are included. The most common presenting symptoms were fatigue (8 of 9 patients), headaches (6 of 9), difficulty with schoolwork (6 of 8), "brain fog" (4 of 9), and dizziness/lightheadedness (4 of 9). Most patients had decreased scores on self-reported quality-of-life measures compared with healthy controls. In the patients who participated in neuropsychological testing, a subset demonstrated difficulties with sustained auditory attention and divided attention; however, most of these patients had preexisting attention and/or mood concerns. There were also some who self-reported elevated depression and anxiety symptoms. Pediatric patients with postacute/long COVID may present with a variety of physical, cognitive, and mood symptoms. We present a model of care to address these symptoms through a multidisciplinary rehabilitation approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Patient Care Team , Pediatrics/methods , Subacute Care/methods , Adolescent , Anxiety/rehabilitation , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Fatigue/rehabilitation , Fatigue/virology , Female , Headache/rehabilitation , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People at high risk of severe illness from COVID-19 have experienced greater restrictions during the pandemic, yet there is a paucity of research exploring their lived experience. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on people identified as at high risk of severe illness by UK Government, and in particular, the impact of the first lockdown on access to healthcare, medications and use of technological platforms. METHODS: 1038 UK adults who identified as at high risk of severe illness from COVID-19 in line with UK Government guidance or self-identified with acute or other chronic health conditions, completed the Awareness, Attitudes and Actions survey which explored the impact of COVID-19 on access to healthcare, management of long-term health condition, mental health, and health behaviours. RESULTS: Most participants reported feelings of vulnerability, anxiety and isolation, noticed that other people changed their behaviour towards them including a feeling of being stigmatised by people not categorised as high risk. Participants described the largely negative impact that the COVID-19 lockdown had on to health-related behaviours and access to healthcare, which had resulted in large declines in mental health and wellbeing. Participants also indicated disappointment at the UK Governments response and handling of the COVID-19 lockdown. IMPLICATIONS: This study provides novel evidence of the lived experience of the first COVID-19 lockdown for people identified as at high risk of severe illness. In the context of behavioural health interventions, the ubiquity of digital technologies and their adoption into day-to-day life translates into greater potential reach than traditional interventions, and consequently, greater potential for positive public health impact. Findings should be considered by policymakers and healthcare professionals to support people now and as we transition through the recovery phase with a particular emphasis on supporting mental health and changes to the management of long-term health conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Attitude , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Future Oncol ; 17(35): 4871-4882, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394695

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study goal was to evaluate the behavioral response and practices of cancer patients to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Middle East and north Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated anonymous 45-question survey administered via SurveyMonkey® to cancer patients in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. Results: During the study period (from 21 April to 30 May 2020), 3642 patients participated in the study. The majority of patients (84.81%) were worried about contracting the infection. The reported strict adherence to precautions included avoiding the following actions: hand-shaking (77.40%), hugging and kissing (82.89%), social gathering (90.09%), meeting friends (84.68%) and visiting markets (75.65%). In a multivariate analysis, patients with poor precautionary practices were about twice as likely to cancel their medical appointment or a treatment session. Conclusion: Improving cancer patients' knowledge of and adherence to precautionary measures is needed not just to reduce the risk of acquiring infection but also to minimize the interruption of their medical care.


Lay abstract COVID-19 poses a higher risk for patients with cancer than other patients; therefore, it is prudent that they adhere to precautionary measures to protect themselves from the infection. We conducted a study to evaluate the behaviors and practices of these patients in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Middle, East and North Africa. We developed a survey of 45 questions that was distributed in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia between 21 April and 30 May 2020. About 85% of the 3642 patients who participated in the study were worried about contracting the infection. A substantial percentage of them (10­30%) were not adhering to various precautions and social distancing rules. On the other hand, 16% of them canceled medical appointments and 12% canceled treatment sessions. Our study showed the need for better adherence of patients with cancer to the infection precautions and most importantly, the need to have a better compliance with their treatment plans, such as keeping their scheduled appointments, to avoid harms from treatment delays.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309965

ABSTRACT

In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, personal hygiene behaviours such as proper handwashing have gained significantly more attention and interpersonal contact is performed with great care. Disgust, as a disease-avoidance mechanism, can play an important role in the promotion of hygiene behaviour. We know from previous research that pathogen disgust can be a predictor of an individual's behaviour in the pandemic. Given that the pandemic greatly affects our food and eating behaviour, the current study aims to add to the existing evidence and to complement it by investigating the role of food-specific disgust in the pandemic. For that, we conducted an online survey in Germany in April 2020, while the pandemic was spreading in Europe. A total of 519 participants completed the survey and provided information about their COVID-19-related attitudes and behaviours and about their food disgust sensitivity. The results show that food disgust sensitivity is an important predictor for an individual's feelings, shopping behaviour, and disease-preventive behaviour related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that the success of political measures to fight the pandemic critically depends on the population to support and follow the proposed measures, a better understanding of the factors driving individual behaviour is key. Implications for pandemic management are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disgust , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Hygiene , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 102, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the time of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, little was known about how effective our regular end-of-life care strategies would be for patients dying from COVID-19 in hospitals. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate end-of-life care for patients dying from COVID-19 in hospitals in Sweden up until up until 12 November 2020. METHODS: Data were collected from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care. Hospital deaths during 2020 for patients with COVID-19 were included and compared to a reference cohort of hospital patients who died during 2019. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups and to control for impact of sex, age and a diagnosis of dementia. RESULTS: The COVID-19 group (1476 individuals) had a lower proportion of women and was older compared to the reference cohort (13,158 individuals), 81.8 versus 80.6 years (p < .001). Breathlessness was more commonly reported in the COVID-19 group compared to the reference cohort (72% vs 43%, p < .001). Furthermore, anxiety and delirium were more commonly and respiratory secretions, nausea and pain were less commonly reported during the last week in life in the COVID-19 group (p < .001 for all five symptoms). When present, complete relief of anxiety (p = .021), pain (p = .025) and respiratory secretions (p = .037) was more often achieved in the COVID-19 group. In the COVID-19 group, 57% had someone present at the time of death compared to 77% in the reference cohort (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The standard medical strategies for symptom relief and end-of-life care in hospitals seemed to be acceptable. Symptoms in COVID-19 deaths in hospitals were relieved as much as or even to a higher degree than in hospitals in 2019. Importantly, though, as a result of closing the hospitals to relatives and visitors, patients dying from COVID-19 more frequently died alone, and healthcare providers were not able to substitute for absent relatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Palliative Care , Terminal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/virology , Registries , Sweden/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
10.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3671-3679, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had wide-ranging health effects and increased isolation. Older with cancer patients might be especially vulnerable to loneliness and poor mental health during the pandemic. METHODS: The authors included active participants enrolled in the longitudinal Thinking and Living With Cancer study of nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors aged 60 to 89 years (n = 262) and matched controls (n = 165) from 5 US regions. Participants completed questionnaires at parent study enrollment and then annually, including a web-based or telephone COVID-19 survey, between May 27 and September 11, 2020. Mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in loneliness (a single item on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D] scale) from before to during the pandemic in survivors versus controls and to test survivor-control differences in the associations between changes in loneliness and changes in mental health, including depression (CES-D, excluding the loneliness item), anxiety (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and perceived stress (the Perceived Stress Scale). Models were adjusted for age, race, county COVID-19 death rates, and time between assessments. RESULTS: Loneliness increased from before to during the pandemic (0.211; P = .001), with no survivor-control differences. Increased loneliness was associated with worsening depression (3.958; P < .001) and anxiety (3.242; P < .001) symptoms and higher stress (1.172; P < .001) during the pandemic, also with no survivor-control differences. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors reported changes in loneliness and mental health similar to those reported by women without cancer. However, both groups reported increased loneliness from before to during the pandemic that was related to worsening mental health, suggesting that screening for loneliness during medical care interactions will be important for identifying all older women at risk for adverse mental health effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is expected to have a significant impact on the socio-behavioural aspect of citizens' lives, although the effects are expected to manifest differently in different population groups. The current study was conducted to assess the socio-behavioural impact of COVID-19 among the general population across India between the first and the second wave of pandemic. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15th March -25th March 2021 using a pre-validated validated questionnaire upon the general population using e-survey, telephonic and face-to-face interview. The participants were recruited from the different regions of India by the purposive and snowball sampling technique following the principle of maximum diversity. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to study the association between the various sociodemographic variables and different behaviours. RESULTS: A total of 1079 responses were analysed for the study. Almost half of the participants feared contracting the COVID-19 infection. Overall, female participants, elderly people (more than 60 years of age) and urban dwellers reported a greater fear in the survey. More than half of the participants (53.39%) reported significant difficulties due to home confinement. People have become more inclined to adopt healthy lifestyles. There are mixed responses in the area of following preventive practices. CONCLUSION: People have a significant amount of fear and anxiety related to the pandemic, leading to several social and behavioural changes that might have a considerable impact on their everyday lives.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Fear/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Worldwide the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated sufferings of mental health and behaviour attitudes of people. Many countries, including Bangladesh, reported suicide as extreme consequences of the psychological burden influenced by COVID-19. The present study explores human stress and its factor influenced by COVID-19 in Bangladesh, which significantly affect the quality of life. METHODS: An online-based questionnaire survey was conducted among 651 adult Bangladeshi populations by capturing socio-demographic information, possible human stress, and consequences of the pandemic. A set of statistical tools such as Pearson's Correlation Matrix (PCM), T-test, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were applied to identify the relationship between different factors and influential factors increasing human stress. RESULTS: More than 83% of the participants are facing COVID-19 related mental stress, which results in short temper, sleep disorder, and family chaos. PCA and HCA outcomes indicated a significant relationship between the respondents' opinions and human stress factors, which harmonized with the country's existing scenario. PCM results enlighten the relationship between human stress factors and found financial hardship, cutting back daily spending, and food crisis are interconnected together causes stress. Also, hampering students' formal education and future career plans significantly contribute to mental stress. CONCLUSION: Based on the above findings, it's crucial to introduce a time-oriented strategy and implement precaution monitoring plans for Bangladesh. The rescue plan will help people to manage the pandemic and improve mental health to fight against psychological challenges related to COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Online Systems , Perception , Prognosis , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Stress, Psychological/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194502

ABSTRACT

In attempts to control the spread of the Covid-19 virus, many governments have resorted to imposing national lockdowns on their citizens. Previous research has demonstrated the passage of time becomes distorted for many people during these lockdowns. To date, research has only examined how time was experienced early in initial lockdowns. The current study examined whether distortions to the passage of time were also present later into the global pandemic. An online questionnaire was used to collect passage of time judgments for the day, week and 8 month period since the first UK lockdown. In addition, measures of affect, social satisfaction, task-load, compliance and health status were also recorded. The results show that over 80% of people reported experiencing distortion to the passage of time during the second English lockdown in comparison with normal. Depression, satisfaction with social interaction and shielding status were found to be significant predictors of temporal distortion. A slower passage of time was associated with greater depression, shielding and greater dissatisfaction with social interactions. Feeling like it was longer than 8 months since the UK's first lockdown was associated with greater depression, increased dissatisfaction with social interaction and greater change of life as a result of lockdown. The results suggest that distortions to the passage of time are an enduring feature of lockdown life and that different factors predict temporal experience during different points in lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Affect , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression/virology , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Behavior , Social Interaction , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(6): 2808-2821, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173131

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In response to the COVID-19 disaster, people have developed several psychological problems mainly stress, anxiety, and depression. These psychological problems have been seen in either normal people during the lockdown (who are waiting to get infected with COVID-19) and patients with COVID-19 (who are waiting for death). These psychological problems adversely affect immune functions causing more increase in the severity of COVID-19 associated disorders and death rates. Increasing the aerobic capacity is one of the effective methods that could be used to decrease stress, anxiety, and depression. Besides, increasing the aerobic capacity increases immune functions through autonomic regulation. Thus, this review was developed to summarize the effect of increasing the aerobic capacity on psycho-immune hormones commonly disturbed in people during the lockdown or patients with COVID-19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was carried out by searching through Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline databases. The search was conducted over clinical trials, literature reviews, and systematic reviews. The search included the possible effects of increasing the aerobic capacity on the functions of psycho-immune hormones. RESULTS: This review found that increasing the aerobic capacity can decrease psychological problems commonly seen in people with COVID-19 and increase immune functions by modulating the levels of glucocorticoid, oxytocin, insulin, thyroid hormones. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrated that increasing the aerobic capacity is a recommended treatment for decreasing the psychological problems commonly seen in people with COVID-19 because it has the potential for decreasing psychological problems and improving immune functions which would help counter COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/virology , Humans , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/virology
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e24964, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020, and as of this writing, Texas, United States, has reported >675,000 cases with over 14,000 deaths. Many of the preventive measures implemented during the pandemic can increase sedentary lifestyles, which can lead to the development of chronic diseases, including obesity, among the general population and cause serious threats to people's physical health and overall quality of life. Individuals with pre-existing comorbidities are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and may hence have higher levels of stress. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity levels and mental health status on an individual level and to compare them between those with and those without comorbidities in a cohort of Texas residents, before and after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated throughout various regions of Texas. In total, 160 individuals were asked questions about their demographic characteristics, time spent on daily physical activities, and daily mental health status before and after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. Frequency distributions and descriptive statistics were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 94 (58%) participants reported having ≥1 medical condition, and 31 (13.1%) had >3 medical conditions. Physical activity levels among participants with ≥1 pre-existing comorbidity drastically-but not significantly-decreased, as evident from a 10% increase in sedentary lifestyles after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. On the contrary, we observed a 9% increase in the number of individuals without a pre-existing comorbidity who reported 30-60 min of physical activity per week. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of participants reporting more frequent feelings of nervousness, too much worry, trouble relaxing, and the fear of something awful happening after the pandemic. More specifically, individuals with pre-existing medical conditions reported, on average, a 10% higher incidence of feelings of stress, anxiety, and sadness compared to their healthy counterparts after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Stressful life conditions and chronic comorbidities are risk factors that can affect mental health and reduce the ability to perform activities of daily life. Therefore, when implementing pandemic protocols, municipalities should consider providing mental health support to their citizens to protect them from this rather inconspicuous adverse effect.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(5): 2163-2165, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146975
17.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 168-170, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009224

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV (PLWH) may be at higher risk for adverse outcomes indirectly associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). When comparing responses to questionnaires administered when social distancing and quarantine guidelines were first implemented, we found that PLWH were more likely to have restricted access to medical care, increased financial stress, increased symptoms of anxiety and depression, and increased substance use compared to demographically-similar people without HIV.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/economics , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Depression/economics , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Female , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/ethics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Missouri/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/economics , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/virology , Substance-Related Disorders/economics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243890, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the anxiety levels of healthcare workers and to provide guidance on potential accurate social and psychological interventions for healthcare workers during the epidemic of COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China. METHODS: Healthcare workers from five hospitals in Zhejiang Province were randomly selected into this study. Zung Self-Assessment Scale for Anxiety (SAS) was used to evaluate the anxiety status of the included 1637 healthcare workers. RESULTS: The total anxiety score of healthcare workers in Zhejiang Province was 30.85 ± 6.89. The univariate analysis showed that the anxiety level of healthcare workers was related to gender, education, occupation, physical condition, job risk coefficient, and with family members on the first-line combating COVID-19 (P <0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that physical condition and job risk coefficient were predictors of anxiety levels of healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: During the epidemic of COVID-19, 1637 healthcare workers generally had an increased tendency to have anxiety. Individualized assessment of the anxiety level of healthcare workers should be provided, and different interventions should be given based on the evaluation results.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
19.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 255: 190-196, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the changing level of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in pregnant women, with and without high-risk indicators separately, in a tertiary care center serving also for COVID-19 patients, in the capital of Turkey. STUDY DESIGN: We designed a case-control and cross-sectional study using surveys. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale questionnaire (STAI-T) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) which were validated in Turkish were given to outpatient women with high-risk pregnancies as study group and normal pregnancies as control group. A total of 446 women were recruited. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between those with and without high-risk pregnancy in terms of Trait-State Anxiety scores with COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.05). We found an increased prevalence of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in high-risk pregnant women comparing to pregnancies with no risk factors (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the education level in high-risk pregnant women in terms of anxiety scores (p < 0.05), Beck Anxiety score was highest in high school graduates (42.75). While the level of Trait Anxiety was the highest with pandemic in those with high-risk pregnancy with threatened preterm labor and preterm ruptures of membranes (58.0), those with thrombophilia were the lowest (50.88). The State Anxiety level and Beck Anxiety Score of those with maternal systemic disease were the highest (53.32 and 45.53), while those with thrombophilia were the lowest (46.96 and 40.08). The scores of Trait Anxiety (56.38), State Anxiety (52.14), Beck Anxiety (43.94) were statistically higher during the pandemic in those hospitalized at least once (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High-risk pregnant women require routine anxiety and depression screening and psychosocial support during the COVID-19 pandemic. High-risk pregnancy patients have comorbid conditions most of the time, hence they not only at more risk for getting infected, but also have higher anxiety scores because of the stress caused by COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/virology , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241658, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910301

ABSTRACT

New Zealand's early response to the novel coronavirus pandemic included a strict lockdown which eliminated community transmission of COVID-19. However, this success was not without cost, both economic and social. In our study, we examined the psychological wellbeing of New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown when restrictions reduced social contact, limited recreation opportunities, and resulted in job losses and financial insecurity. We conducted an online panel survey of a demographically representative sample of 2010 adult New Zealanders in April 2020. The survey contained three standardised measures-the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the GAD-7, and the Well-Being Index (WHO-5)-as well as questions designed specifically to measure family violence, suicidal ideation, and alcohol consumption. It also included items assessing positive aspects of the lockdown. Thirty percent of respondents reported moderate to severe psychological distress (K10), 16% moderate to high levels of anxiety, and 39% low wellbeing; well above baseline measures. Poorer outcomes were seen among young people and those who had lost jobs or had less work, those with poor health status, and who had past diagnoses of mental illness. Suicidal ideation was reported by 6%, with 2% reporting making plans for suicide and 2% reporting suicide attempts. Suicidality was highest in those aged 18-34. Just under 10% of participants had directly experienced some form of family harm over the lockdown period. However, not all consequences of the lockdown were negative, with 62% reporting 'silver linings', which included enjoying working from home, spending more time with family, and a quieter, less polluted environment. New Zealand's lockdown successfully eliminated COVID-19 from the community, but our results show this achievement brought a significant psychological toll. Although much of the debate about lockdown measures has focused on their economic effects, our findings emphasise the need to pay equal attention to their effects on psychological wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/virology , Young Adult
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