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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5063-5069, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346861

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome occurring primarily in healthy young adults, with a female predominance, after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We describe VITT syndrome characterized by severe thrombosis and thrombocytopenia found in our patient, with fatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old man, after 13 days from the first administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca), presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomitus. Laboratory tests revealed a severe thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen serum levels and marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The patient quickly developed a multiple organ failure, till death, three days after the hospital admission. RESULTS: At histology, in the lungs, interalveolar septa appeared thickened with microthrombi in the capillaries and veins. Interalveolar septa appeared thickened and showed vascular proliferation. Thrombi were detected in the capillaries of glomerular tufts. In the hearth, thrombi were observed in veins and capillaries. In the liver, voluminous fibrin thrombi were diffusely observed in the branches of the portal vein. Microthrombi were also found in the vasa vasorum of the wall of abdominal aorta. In the brain, microthrombi were observed in the capillaries of the choroid plexuses. Diffuse hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in the intestinal wall with marked congestion of the venous vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, the majority of data necessary for a VITT final diagnosis were present: thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in pulmonary, portal, hepatic, renal and mesenteric veins, associated with a marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The finding of cerebral thrombosis in choroid plexuses, is a new finding in VITT. These features are suggestive for a very aggressive form of VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Aorta/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Choroid Plexus/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ileum/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Thrombosis/blood
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194192

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that novel COVID-19 is associated with increased prothrombotic state and risk of thromboembolic complications, particularly in severe disease. COVID-19 is known to predispose to both venous and arterial thrombotic disease. We describe a case of a 61-year-old woman with history of type II diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia who presented with dry cough and acute abdominal pain. She was found to have a significantly elevated D-dimer, prompting imaging that showed thrombi in her right ventricle and aorta. She had rapid clinical deterioration and eventually required tissue plasminogen activator with subsequent durable clinical improvement. This case highlights a rare co-occurrence of venous and arterial thrombi in a patient with severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanism of COVID-19 coagulopathy, the utility of D-dimer to predict and stratify risk of thrombosis in COVID-19, and the use of fibrinolytic therapy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Aorta/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 109-119, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as one of viral major clinical features during actual pandemic; limb arterial ischemic events, venous thrombosis, acute myocardial infection and stroke have occurred in patients. Acute aortic conditions have also been described, followed by interesting observations on cases, hypothesis, raised since the emergence of the pandemics. METHODS: a review of cases in literature of aortic pathology in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection has been carried out to analyze anagraphic data, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcome. RESULTS: Seventeen cases have been included. Mean age of patients was 58.6 ± 15.2 years, with a male to female ratio of 12:15 (70.5% vs. 29.5%). Comorbidities were reported in 11 cases (64.7%), but in 5 cases (29.4%) no previous pathology was signaled in history. Hypertension was the most frequently reported comorbidity, in 8 cases, (47%), followed by renal pathology (17.6%), coronary artery disease (17.6%), previous aortic surgery (11.7%) and arrhythmia (11.7%); but also cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, previous neoplasia and arrhythmia were reported once each. Fever and thoracic pain were the most frequently reported findings at presentation (8 cases, 47% each), followed by respiratory symptoms (6, 35.2%), low lymphocyte count (17.6%), features related to aneurysm rupture, ischemic stroke, abdominal pain and acute renal insufficiency. Reported aortic pathology included: type A aortic dissection (11 cases; 64.7%); new pathology of previous aortic graft (2 cases, 11.7%); 2 aortitis, 1 associated with type A aortic dissection; 1 thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm, 1 ruptured aortic aneurysm and 1 aortic embolizing thrombosis. Open surgery was carried out in 10 cases (58.8%), endovascular treatment in 3 (17.6%). Three patients (17.6%) died before surgery. Exitus was reported in 4 cases, with a total mortality of 23.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Acute aortic events have occurred during pandemic in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection. Confounding clinical features at presentation, the importance of anamnestic details (as previous vascular graft implant), the observed surgical and postoperatory challenges may suggest the need to consider the implications of the possible link between acute aortic events and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to promptly correctly diagnose the patient and respond to specific needs.


Subject(s)
Aorta/pathology , Aortic Diseases/pathology , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta/surgery , Aortic Diseases/mortality , Aortic Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
4.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(1): 344-353, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide, but the collective efforts to prevent this pathological condition are directed exclusively to individuals at higher risk due to hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes. Recently, vitamin D deficiency was identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy people, as it predisposes to different vascular dysfunctions that can result in plaque development and fragility. In this scenario, the fundamental aim of the study was to reproduce a disease model inducing vitamin D deficiency and atheromatosis in ApoE-/- mice and then to evaluate the impact of this vitamin D status on the onset/progression of atheromatosis, focusing on plaque formation and instability. METHODS AND RESULTS: In our murine disease model, vitamin D deficiency was achieved by 3 weeks of vitamin D deficient diet along with intraperitoneal paricalcitol injections, while atheromatosis by western-type diet administration. Under these experimental conditions, vitamin D deficient mice developed more unstable atheromatous plaques with reduced or absent fibrotic cap. Since calcium and phosphorus metabolism and also cholesterol and triglycerides systemic concentration were not affected by vitamin D level, our results highlighted the role of vitamin D deficiency in the formation/instability of atheromatous plaque and, although further studies are needed, suggested a possible intervention with vitamin D to prevent or delay the atheromatous disease. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained open the question about the potential role of the vitamins in the pharmacological treatments of cardiovascular disorders as coadjutant of the primary drugs used for these pathologies.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Aorta/metabolism , Aorta/pathology , Aortic Diseases/blood , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Atherosclerosis/blood , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis , Lipids/blood , Mice, Knockout, ApoE , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Rupture, Spontaneous , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1989-1992, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961768

ABSTRACT

Following its discovery in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, COVID-19 has attained pandemic status in mere months. It is caused by SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped beta coronavirus. This infection causes a prothrombogenic state by interplay of inflammatory mediators, and endothelial, microvascular, and possible hepatic damage and tissue tropism of the virus. This leads to frequent pulmonary and cerebral thromboembolism as well as occasional involvement of other organs. We present a 71-year-old man who initially presented with 2 weeks of fever, cough, and shortness of breath and was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. He required readmission due to worsened hypoxia and was later found to have left renal artery thrombosis with left kidney infarction, associated with an ascending aortic thrombus. He was anticoagulated and recovered uneventfully. We suggest that physicians have a high degree of suspicion to diagnose and manage the novel manifestations of this disease.


Subject(s)
Aorta/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Infarction/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Renal Artery/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 590-592, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327368

ABSTRACT

Acute thromboembolic events appear to be frequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We report a case of an intubated patient, who developed a threatening lower limb ischemia. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis and intravenous heparin infusion did not lead to complete recanalization of the tibial arteries, which were successfully treated by surgical embolectomy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Ischemia/virology , Lower Extremity/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aorta/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Lower Extremity/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Tibia/blood supply
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