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3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 77: 79-82, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356137

ABSTRACT

A rare case of aortic thrombosis in a young COVID-19 positive patient is presented in this case report. Arterial thrombosis developed despite the administration of anticoagulants for treating DVT and PE. The patient underwent axillobifemoral bypass surgery. Limited surgical surveillance, administered steroids and critical health status resulted in wound site infection and consequent graft removal. Aortic endarterectomy and autovenous-patch plasty were performed after the patient's condition improved. Etiopathogenesis of arterial events in the setting of COVID-19 is not entirely understood. It has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection strongly affects vascular endothelial glycocalyx (VEGLX), causes systemic inflammation - reactive microvascular endotheliosis (SIRME), and consequently results in arterial thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Rare Diseases , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Computed Tomography Angiography , Endarterectomy/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
5.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 136-139, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210816

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. The impact of thrombotic complications has been increasingly recognized as an important component of this disease. CASE REPORTS: We describe four cases of spontaneous acute aortic thrombosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection observed from March to December 2020 at Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Gemelli IRCCS in Rome, Italy.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
6.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(3): 233-236, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181749

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, its novel complications are being increasingly recognized, and new mechanisms of the disease are being unraveled. Aortic free-floating thrombus is exceptionally rare, and prompt diagnosis is vital to alleviate its detrimental end organ effects. We present a patient who was previously discharged owing to COVID-19 pneumonia, admitted with acute onset of lower limb pain, and was diagnosed with aortic free-floating thrombus ended up with embolic events. Clinicians should be aware of COVID-19-related thromboembolic complications, and close monitoring of patients with risk factors is vital for a timely and accurate diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infarction/etiology , Ischemia/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Humans , Infarction/diagnosis , Ischemia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 119-121, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute aortic thrombosis and floating aortailiac thrombus are infrequent clinical conditions with high morbidity and mortality rates. It was observed that; SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease (Covid-19) caused a hyperinflammation and hyperimmune state and these conditions can result in a hypercoagulation and eventually thrombotic events might occur. METHODS: Here we presented two covid-19 positive patients with rare aortic thrombotic events. RESULTS: Two patients underwent emergent diagnostic tests including computerized tomographic angiography. Total aortic thrombosis just below the renal arising point was evaluated in one patient, and aortic floating thrombus was evaluated in other patient. But despite initial medical therapies, the clinical conditions of the cases worsened and both patients died while on medical therapy before planned surgical intervention applied. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 is not only the disease of lungs and inflammatory system also the disease of coagulation and vascular system. Aortic thrombosis is rare and must be kept in mind in Covid-19 patients with peripheral circulation impairment.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 112, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can lead to a constellation of viral and immune symptoms called coronavirus disease 2019. Emerging literature increasingly supports the premise that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 promotes a prothrombotic milieu. However, to date there have been no reports of acute aortic occlusion, itself a rare phenomenon. We report a case of fatal acute aortic occlusion in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old Caucasian male with past medical history of peripheral vascular disease presented to the emergency department for evaluation of shortness of breath, fevers, and dry cough. His symptoms started 5-7 days prior to the emergency department visit, and he received antibiotics in the outpatient setting without any effect. He was found to be febrile, tachypneic, and hypoxemic. He was placed on supplemental oxygen via a non-rebreather mask. Chest X-ray showed multifocal opacifications. Intravenous antibiotics for possible pneumonia were initiated. Hydroxychloroquine was initiated to cover possible coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. During the hospitalization, the patient became progressively hypoxemic, for which he was placed on bilevel positive airway pressure. D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein were all elevated. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was positive. On day 3, the patient was upgraded to the intensive care unit. Soon after he was intubated, he developed a mottled appearance of skin, which extended from his bilateral feet up to the level of the subumbilical plane. Bedside ultrasound revealed an absence of flow from the mid-aorta to both common iliac arteries. The patient was evaluated emergently by vascular surgery. After a discussion with the family, it was decided to proceed with comfort-directed care, and the patient died later that day. DISCUSSION: Viral infections have been identified as a source of prothrombotic states due to direct injury of vascular tissue and inflammatory cascades. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 appears to follow a similar pattern, with numerous institutions identifying elevated levels of thrombotic complications. We believe that healthcare providers should be aware of both venous and arterial thrombotic complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019, including possible fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , Arterial Occlusive Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography/methods , Aorta, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Clinical Deterioration , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Comfort , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 114-118, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064854

ABSTRACT

A total occlusion of the aorta is a rare condition; however, while rare, it has a very high mortality rate. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses serious health problems, including vascular problems. Inflammatory changes produced by viral infections can cause serious disturbances in the coagulation system. Although cases showing a marked increase in thrombotic activity in the venous system have been presented, thrombosis in the arterial system, especially in the aorta, has rarely been reported. Here, we present 2 patients admitted to our hospital with an acute aortic thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Fatal Outcome , Femoral Artery/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(1): 344-353, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide, but the collective efforts to prevent this pathological condition are directed exclusively to individuals at higher risk due to hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes. Recently, vitamin D deficiency was identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy people, as it predisposes to different vascular dysfunctions that can result in plaque development and fragility. In this scenario, the fundamental aim of the study was to reproduce a disease model inducing vitamin D deficiency and atheromatosis in ApoE-/- mice and then to evaluate the impact of this vitamin D status on the onset/progression of atheromatosis, focusing on plaque formation and instability. METHODS AND RESULTS: In our murine disease model, vitamin D deficiency was achieved by 3 weeks of vitamin D deficient diet along with intraperitoneal paricalcitol injections, while atheromatosis by western-type diet administration. Under these experimental conditions, vitamin D deficient mice developed more unstable atheromatous plaques with reduced or absent fibrotic cap. Since calcium and phosphorus metabolism and also cholesterol and triglycerides systemic concentration were not affected by vitamin D level, our results highlighted the role of vitamin D deficiency in the formation/instability of atheromatous plaque and, although further studies are needed, suggested a possible intervention with vitamin D to prevent or delay the atheromatous disease. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained open the question about the potential role of the vitamins in the pharmacological treatments of cardiovascular disorders as coadjutant of the primary drugs used for these pathologies.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Aorta/metabolism , Aorta/pathology , Aortic Diseases/blood , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Atherosclerosis/blood , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis , Lipids/blood , Mice, Knockout, ApoE , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Rupture, Spontaneous , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
11.
J Vasc Surg ; 73(1): 18-21, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963557

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 pandemic is affecting almost every country in the world. Even if the major symptoms of coronavirus disease-2019 are respiratory, different symptoms at presentation are now recognized. Venous thromboembolism has been reported in infected patients and few but increasing cases of arterial thrombosis have been described. We report a case of acute aortoiliac and lower limb artery occlusions in a patient presenting with severe coronavirus disease-2019 infection. The mechanism of the occlusion seemed to be distal embolization from a floating thrombus in the aortic arch caused by a major inflammatory state and virus infection. The patient underwent aortoiliac and lower limb artery mechanical thrombectomy, but required unilateral major amputation.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Iliac Artery , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Amputation , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Iliac Artery/diagnostic imaging , Iliac Artery/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Card Surg ; 36(1): 199-202, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917750

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has restructured the healthcare systems, prioritizing resources to treat COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to establish if patients affected by acute aortic syndrome (AAS) had unrestricted access to emergency treatment and evaluate outcome of these patients during the peak of the pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data between March and June 2020 from 19 participating cardiac surgery centers in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Among 95 patients who presented with an AAS in the participating centers; 85 (89%) underwent surgery, 7 (7%) were turned down for surgery because of their profile of comorbidities, and 3 (3%) died on transfer. Among the patients treated conservatively, three of them (43%) were alive at 30 days. We observed no significant restriction in access to treatment for AAS during the early months of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Services for life-threatening aortic surgery patients were maintained during the COVID-19 period through patient selection and timing of surgery. The rate of surgical turn-down was comparable to published figures despite the challenges faced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Syndrome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(1): 237-242, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636047

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism, in an exaggerated immune response to the virus, especially in severe patients. Even though aortic clots are a rare entity, the pro-coagulant nature of COVID-19 is associated with thrombosis in atypical locations and should be considered in patients with severe abnormalities in coagulation parameters. We describe a series of three cases of aortic thrombi diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT) angiography in patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aged , Anticoagulants/classification , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 67: 10-13, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437505

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 may predispose patients to an increased risk of thrombotic complications through various pathophysiological mechanisms. Most of the reports on a high incidence of thrombotic complications are in relation to deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, while the evidence about arterial thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 is limited. We describe 4 cases of aortic thrombosis and associated ischemic complications in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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