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1.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598211

ABSTRACT

Drug repositioning is one of the leading strategies in modern therapeutic research. Instead of searching for completely novel substances and demanding studies of their biological effects, much attention has been paid to the evaluation of commonly used drugs, which could be utilized for more distinct indications than they have been approved for. Since treatment approaches for cancer, one of the most extensively studied diseases, have still been very limited, great effort has been made to find or repurpose novel anticancer therapeutics. One of these are cardiac glycosides, substances commonly used to treat congestive heart failure or various arrhythmias. Recently, the antitumor properties of cardiac glycosides have been discovered and, therefore, these compounds are being considered for anticancer therapy. Their mechanism of antitumor action seems to be rather complex and not fully uncovered yet, however, autophagy has been confirmed to play a key role in this process. In this review article, we report on the up-to-date knowledge of the anticancer activity of cardiac glycosides with special attention paid to autophagy induction, the molecular mechanisms of this process, and the potential employment of this phenomenon in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cardiac Glycosides/pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Autophagy/drug effects , Biomarkers/metabolism , Humans , Models, Biological , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism
2.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572567

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the name of the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that occurred in 2019. The virus-host-specific interactions, molecular targets on host cell deaths, and the involved signaling are crucial issues, which become potential targets for treatment. Spike protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), cathepsin L-cysteine peptidase, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), open reading frame 7a (ORF7a), viral main protease (3C-like protease (3CLpro) or Mpro), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (Nsp12), non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) helicase, and papain-like proteinase (PLpro) are molecules associated with SARS-CoV infection and propagation. SARS-CoV-2 can induce host cell death via five kinds of regulated cell death, i.e., apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy, and PANoptosis. The mechanisms of these cell deaths are well established and can be disrupted by synthetic small molecules or natural products. There are a variety of compounds proven to play roles in the cell death inhibition, such as pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) for apoptosis, necrostatin-1 for necroptosis, MCC950, a potent and specific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome in pyroptosis, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, which can mitigate the corresponding cell death pathways. However, NF-κB signaling is another critical anti-apoptotic or survival route mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Such signaling promotes viral survival, proliferation, and inflammation by inducing the expression of apoptosis inhibitors such as Bcl-2 and XIAP, as well as cytokines, e.g., TNF. As a result, tiny natural compounds functioning as proteasome inhibitors such as celastrol and curcumin can be used to modify NF-κB signaling, providing a responsible method for treating SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The natural constituents that aid in inhibiting viral infection, progression, and amplification of coronaviruses are also emphasized, which are in the groups of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, diarylheptanoids, and anthraquinones. Natural constituents derived from medicinal herbs have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, as well as inhibitory effects, on the viral life cycle, including viral entry, replication, assembly, and release of COVID-19 virions. The phytochemicals contain a high potential for COVID-19 treatment. As a result, SARS-CoV-2-infected cell death processes and signaling might be of high efficacy for therapeutic targeting effects and yielding encouraging outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Death/drug effects , Drug Discovery/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Necroptosis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572496

ABSTRACT

In humans, over-activation of innate immunity in response to viral or bacterial infections often causes severe illness and death. Furthermore, similar mechanisms related to innate immunity can cause pathogenesis and death in sepsis, massive trauma (including surgery and burns), ischemia/reperfusion, some toxic lesions, and viral infections including COVID-19. Based on the reviewed observations, we suggest that such severe outcomes may be manifestations of a controlled suicidal strategy protecting the entire population from the spread of pathogens and from dangerous pathologies rather than an aberrant hyperstimulation of defense responses. We argue that innate immunity may be involved in the implementation of an altruistic programmed death of an organism aimed at increasing the well-being of the whole community. We discuss possible ways to suppress this atavistic program by interfering with innate immunity and suggest that combating this program should be a major goal of future medicine.


Subject(s)
Altruism , Apoptosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Death/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528820

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Myocardial injury associates significantly and independently with mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, the pathogenesis of myocardial injury in COVID-19 remains unclear, and cardiac involvement by SARS-CoV-2 presents a major challenge worldwide. Objective: This histological and immunohistochemical study sought to clarify the pathogenesis and propose a mechanism with pathways involved in COVID-19 myocardial injury. Methods and Results: Postmortem minimally invasive autopsies were performed in six patients who died from COVID-19, and the myocardium samples were compared to a control group (n=11). Histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies against targets: caspase-1, caspase-9, gasdermin-d, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, CD163, TNF-α, TGF-ß, MMP-9, type 1 and type 3 collagen. The samples were also assessed for apoptotic cells by TUNEL. Histological analysis showed severe pericardiocyte interstitial edema and higher mast cells counts per high-power field in all COVID-19 myocardium samples. The IHC analysis showed increased expression of caspase-1, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-9, TNF-α, and other markers in the hearts of COVID-19 patients. Expression of caspase-9 did not differ from the controls, while gasdermin-d expression was less. The TUNEL assay was positive in all the COVID-19 samples supporting endothelial apoptosis. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 myocardial injury does not seem to relate to primary myocardiocyte involvement but to local inflammation with associated interstitial edema. We found heightened TGF-ß and interstitial collagen expression in COVID-affected hearts, a potential harbinger of chronic myocardial fibrosis. These results suggest a need for continued clinical surveillance of patients for myocardial dysfunction and arrythmias after recovery from the acute phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Heart Injuries/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Apoptosis , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Heart Injuries/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 41-51, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, which encode the transmembrane proteins polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystins are expressed in the primary cilium, and disrupting cilia structure significantly slows ADPKD progression following inactivation of polycystins. The cellular mechanisms of polycystin- and cilia-dependent cyst progression in ADPKD remain incompletely understood. METHODS: Unbiased transcriptional profiling in an adult-onset Pkd2 mouse model before cysts formed revealed significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Pkd2 single-knockout kidneys, which were used to identify candidate pathways dysregulated in kidneys destined to form cysts. In vivo studies validated the role of the candidate pathway in the progression of ADPKD. Wild-type and Pkd2/Ift88 double-knockout mice that are protected from cyst growth served as controls. RESULTS: The RNASeq data identified cell proliferation as the most dysregulated pathway, with 15 of 241 DEGs related to cell cycle functions. Cdk1 appeared as a central component in this analysis. Cdk1 expression was similarly dysregulated in Pkd1 models of ADPKD, and conditional inactivation of Cdk1 with Pkd1 markedly improved the cystic phenotype and kidney function compared with inactivation of Pkd1 alone. The Pkd1/Cdk1 double knockout blocked cyst cell proliferation that otherwise accompanied Pkd1 inactivation alone. CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulation of Cdk1 is an early driver of cyst cell proliferation in ADPKD due to Pkd1 inactivation. Selective targeting of cyst cell proliferation is an effective means of slowing ADPKD progression caused by inactivation of Pkd1.


Subject(s)
CDC2 Protein Kinase/metabolism , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/genetics , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/metabolism , TRPP Cation Channels/metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , CDC2 Protein Kinase/genetics , Catalytic Domain , Cell Proliferation , Crosses, Genetic , DNA Replication , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mutation , Phenotype , Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Acetyl-Transferring Kinase/genetics , RNA-Seq , TRPP Cation Channels/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Whole Exome Sequencing
6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1333-1344, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lymphopenia is a key feature for adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although it is rarely observed in children. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses were used to compare the apoptotic rate of T cells from COVID-19 adults and children and apoptotic responses of adult and child T cells to COVID-19 pooled plasma. Biological properties of caspases and reactive oxygen species were assessed in T cells treated by COVID-19 pooled plasma. RESULTS: Mitochondria apoptosis of peripheral T cells were identified in COVID-19 adult patient samples but not in the children. Furthermore, increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in COVID-19 plasma induced mitochondria apoptosis and caused deoxyribonucleic acid damage by elevating reactive oxygen species levels of the adult T cells. However, the child T cells showed tolerance to mitochondrial apoptosis due to mitochondria autophagy. Activation of autophagy could decrease apoptotic sensitivity of the adult T cells to plasma from COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was activated in T cells of COVID-19 adult patients specifically, which may shed light on the pathophysiological difference between adults and children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Apoptosis/immunology , Autophagy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/immunology , Mitochondria/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727861, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477822

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory response is a host-protective mechanism against tissue injury or infections, but also has the potential to cause extensive immunopathology and tissue damage, as seen in many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome and many other infectious diseases with public health concerns, such as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), if failure to resolve in a timely manner. Recent studies have uncovered a superfamily of endogenous chemical molecules that tend to resolve inflammatory responses and re-establish homeostasis without causing excessive damage to healthy cells and tissues. Among these, the monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein (MCPIP) family consisting of four members (MCPIP-1, -2, -3, and -4) has emerged as a group of evolutionarily conserved molecules participating in the resolution of inflammation. The focus of this review highlights the biological functions of MCPIP-1 (also known as Regnase-1), the best-studied member of this family, in the resolution of inflammatory response. As outlined in this review, MCPIP-1 acts on specific signaling pathways, in particular NFκB, to blunt production of inflammatory mediators, while also acts as an endonuclease controlling the stability of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), leading to the resolution of inflammation, clearance of virus and dead cells, and promotion of tissue regeneration via its pleiotropic effects. Evidence from transgenic and knock-out mouse models revealed an involvement of MCPIP-1 expression in immune functions and in the physiology of the cardiovascular system, indicating that MCPIP-1 is a key endogenous molecule that governs normal resolution of acute inflammation and infection. In this review, we also discuss the current evidence underlying the roles of other members of the MCPIP family in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Further understanding of the proteins from this family will provide new insights into the identification of novel targets for both host effectors and microbial factors and will lead to new therapeutic treatments for infections and other inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Ribonucleases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcription Factors/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/genetics , Transcriptional Activation/immunology , Ubiquitination
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472414

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are rising in global prevalence and cause significant morbidity for patients. Current treatments are limited to slowing instead of stabilising or reversing disease progression. In this review, we describe mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their constituents, extracellular vesicles (EVs) as being a novel therapeutic for CKD. MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles, including exosomes, which carry genetic information that mimics the phenotype of their cell of origin. MSC-EVs deliver their cargo of mRNA, miRNA, cytokines, and growth factors to target cells as a form of paracrine communication. This genetically reprograms pathophysiological pathways, which are upregulated in renal failure. Since the method of exosome preparation significantly affects the quality and function of MSC-exosomes, this review compares the methodologies for isolating exosomes from MSCs and their role in tissue regeneration. More specifically, it summarises the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-EVs in 60 preclinical animal models of AKI and CKD and the cargo of biomolecules they deliver. MSC-EVs promote tubular proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and fibrosis, to alleviate AKI and CKD. By reprogramming these pathophysiological pathways, MSC-EVs can slow or even reverse the progression of AKI to CKD, and therefore offer potential to transform clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Therapy/methods , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Self Renewal , Chemical Fractionation , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Protective Agents , Renal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463709

ABSTRACT

Cancer persists as a global challenge due to the extent to which conventional anticancer therapies pose high risks counterbalanced with their therapeutic benefit. Naturally occurring substances stand as an important safer alternative source for anticancer drug development. In the current study, a series of modified lupane and ursane derivatives was subjected to in vitro screening on the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel. Compounds 6 and 7 have been identified as highly active with GI50 values ranging from 0.03 µM to 5.9 µM (compound 6) and 0.18-1.53 µM (compound 7). Thus, these two compounds were further assessed in detail in order to identify a possible antiproliferative mechanism of action. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed that both compounds induced nuclei condensation and overall cell morphological changes consistent with apoptotic cell death. rtPCR analysis showed that both compounds induced upregulation of proapoptotic Bak and Bad genes while downregulating Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 antiapoptotic genes. Molecular docking analysis revealed that both compounds exhibited high scores for Bcl-XL inhibition, while compound 7 showed higher in silico Bcl-XL inhibition potential as compared to the native inhibitor ATB-737, suggesting that compounds may induce apoptotic cell death through targeted antiapoptotic protein inhibition, as well.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Biological Products/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes/chemistry
10.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458308

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as novel mediators of intercellular communication. They work via delivering the sequestered cargo to cells in the close vicinity, as well as distant sites in the body, regulating pathophysiological processes. Cell death and inflammation are biologically crucial processes in both normal physiology and pathology. These processes are indistinguishably linked with their effectors modulating the other process. For instance, during an unresolvable infection, the upregulation of specific immune mediators leads to inflammation causing cell death and tissue damage. EVs have gained considerable interest as mediators of both cell death and inflammation during conditions, such as sepsis. This review summarizes the types of extracellular vesicles known to date and their roles in mediating immune responses leading to cell death and inflammation with specific focus on sepsis and lung inflammation.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Death , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/immunology , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Communication , Chemokines , Exosomes , Humans , Lung/immunology , Mice , Sepsis/physiopathology
11.
Theriogenology ; 177: 1-10, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458733

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) could function as a lysosomotropic agent to inhibit the endolysosomal trafficking in the autophagy pathway, and is widely used on malarial, tumor and recently COVID-19. However, the effect of CQ treatment on porcine immature Sertoli cells (iSCs) remains unclear. Here we showed that CQ could reduce iSC viability in a dose-dependent manner. CQ treatment (20 µM) on iSCs for 36h could elevate oxidative stress, damage mitochondrial function and promote apoptosis, which could be partially rescued by melatonin (MT) (10 nM). Transcriptome profiling identified 1611 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (776 up- and 835 down-regulated) (20 µM CQ vs. DMSO), mainly involved in MAPK cascade, cell proliferation/apoptosis, HIF-1, PI3K-Akt and lysosome signaling pathways. In contrast, only 467 (224 up- and 243 down-regulated) DEGs (CQ + MT vs. DMSO) could be found after MT (10 nM) addition, enriched in cell cycle, regulation of apoptotic process, lysosome and reproduction pathways. Therefore, the partial rescue effects of MT on CQ treatment were confirmed by multiple assays (cell viability, ROS level, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and mRNA levels of selected genes). Collectively, CQ treatment could impair porcine iSC viability by deranging the signaling pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy, which could be partially rescued by MT supplementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Swine Diseases , Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/veterinary , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Male , Melatonin/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Sertoli Cells , Swine
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 728896, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456291

ABSTRACT

A purified spike (S) glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus was used to study its effects on THP-1 macrophages, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and HUVEC cells. The S protein mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells through binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. We measured the viability, intracellular cytokine release, oxidative stress, proinflammatory markers, and THP-1-like macrophage polarization. We observed an increase in apoptosis, ROS generation, MCP-1, and intracellular calcium expression in the THP-1 macrophages. Stimulation with the S protein polarizes the THP-1 macrophages towards proinflammatory futures with an increase in the TNFα and MHC-II M1-like phenotype markers. Treating the cells with an ACE inhibitor, perindopril, at 100 µM reduced apoptosis, ROS, and MHC-II expression induced by S protein. We analyzed the sensitivity of the HUVEC cells after the exposure to a conditioned media (CM) of THP-1 macrophages stimulated with the S protein. The CM induced endothelial cell apoptosis and MCP-1 expression. Treatment with perindopril reduced these effects. However, the direct stimulation of the HUVEC cells with the S protein, slightly increased HIF1α and MCP-1 expression, which was significantly increased by the ACE inhibitor treatment. The S protein stimulation induced ROS generation and changed the mitogenic responses of the PBMCs through the upregulation of TNFα and interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine expression. These effects were reduced by the perindopril (100 µM) treatment. Proteomic analysis of the S protein stimulated THP-1 macrophages with or without perindopril (100 µM) exposed more than 400 differentially regulated proteins. Our results provide a mechanistic analysis suggesting that the blood and vascular components could be activated directly through S protein systemically present in the circulation and that the activation of the local renin angiotensin system may be partially involved in this process. Graphical: Suggested pathways that might be involved at least in part in S protein inducing activation of inflammatory markers (red narrow) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) modulation of this process (green narrow).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Perindopril/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922281, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden and serious disease with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a novel target for inflammatory disease, and ibudilast (IBU), a PDE4 inhibitor, inhibits inflammatory response. Our study investigated the effect of IBU on the pathogenesis of neonatal ARDS and the underlying mechanism related to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of PDE4, CXCR4, SDF-1, CXCR5, CXCL1, inflammatory cytokines, and proteins related to cell apoptosis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological morphology of lung tissue. Pulmonary edema score was used to assess the degree of lung water accumulation after pulmonary injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1) in serum. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. RESULTS Increased expression of PDE4 was observed in an LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model, and IBU ameliorated LPS-induced pathological manifestations and pulmonary edema in lung tissue. In addition, IBU attenuated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by inactivating the chemokine axis in the LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model. Finally, IBU significantly reduced LPS-induced cell apoptosis in lung tissue. CONCLUSIONS IBU, a PDE4 inhibitor, protected against ARDS by interfering with pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis. Our findings provide a novel and promising strategy to regulate pulmonary inflammation in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
14.
mBio ; 12(4): e0157221, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349194

ABSTRACT

Tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns are highly variable within and across individuals, leading to altered host responses after acute virus infection. Unraveling key tissue-specific response patterns provides novel opportunities for defining fundamental mechanisms of virus-host interaction in disease and the identification of critical tissue-specific networks for disease intervention in the lung. Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients, and little is understood about how lung cell types contribute to disease outcomes. MERS-CoV replicates equivalently in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (MVE) and fibroblasts (FB) and to equivalent peak titers but with slower replication kinetics in human airway epithelial cell cultures (HAE). However, only infected MVE demonstrate observable virus-induced cytopathic effect. To explore mechanisms leading to reduced MVE viability, donor-matched human lung MVE, HAE, and FB were infected, and their transcriptomes, proteomes, and lipidomes were monitored over time. Validated functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that MERS-CoV-infected MVE were dying via an unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated apoptosis. Pharmacologic manipulation of the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected primary lung cells reduced viral titers and in male mice improved respiratory function with accompanying reductions in weight loss, pathological signatures of acute lung injury, and times to recovery. Systems biology analysis and validation studies of global kinetic transcript, protein, and lipid data sets confirmed that inhibition of host stress pathways that are differentially regulated following MERS-CoV infection of different tissue types can alleviate symptom progression to end-stage lung disease commonly seen following emerging coronavirus outbreaks. IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe atypical pneumonia in infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis remain unknown. While much has been learned from the few reported autopsy cases, an in-depth understanding of the cells targeted by MERS-CoV in the human lung and their relative contribution to disease outcomes is needed. The host response in MERS-CoV-infected primary human lung microvascular endothelial (MVE) cells and fibroblasts (FB) was evaluated over time by analyzing total RNA, proteins, and lipids to determine the cellular pathways modulated postinfection. Findings revealed that MERS-CoV-infected MVE cells die via apoptotic mechanisms downstream of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interruption of enzymatic processes within the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected male mice reduced disease symptoms, virus-induced lung injury, and time to recovery. These data suggest that the UPR plays an important role in MERS-CoV infection and may represent a host target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Unfolded Protein Response/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/virology , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430982

ABSTRACT

Evidence is emerging that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can infect various organs of the body, including cardiomyocytes and cardiac endothelial cells in the heart. This review focuses on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the heart after direct infection that can lead to myocarditis and an outline of potential treatment options. The main points are: (1) Viral entry: SARS-CoV-2 uses specific receptors and proteases for docking and priming in cardiac cells. Thus, different receptors or protease inhibitors might be effective in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac cells. (2) Viral replication: SARS-CoV-2 uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for replication. Drugs acting against ssRNA(+) viral replication for cardiac cells can be effective. (3) Autophagy and double-membrane vesicles: SARS-CoV-2 manipulates autophagy to inhibit viral clearance and promote SARS-CoV-2 replication by creating double-membrane vesicles as replication sites. (4) Immune response: Host immune response is manipulated to evade host cell attacks against SARS-CoV-2 and increased inflammation by dysregulating immune cells. Efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy must be elucidated. (5) Programmed cell death: SARS-CoV-2 inhibits programmed cell death in early stages and induces apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis in later stages. (6) Energy metabolism: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to disturbed energy metabolism that in turn leads to a decrease in ATP production and ROS production. (7) Viroporins: SARS-CoV-2 creates viroporins that lead to an imbalance of ion homeostasis. This causes apoptosis, altered action potential, and arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Viroporin Proteins , Virus Replication
17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21838-21854, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417382

ABSTRACT

Senescent cells, which arise due to damage-associated signals, are apoptosis-resistant and can express a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We recently reported that a component of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) surface protein, S1, can amplify the SASP of senescent cultured human cells and that a related mouse ß-coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), increases SASP factors and senescent cell burden in infected mice. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 induces senescence in human non-senescent cells and exacerbates the SASP in human senescent cells through Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). TLR-3, which senses viral RNA, was increased in human senescent compared to non-senescent cells. Notably, genetically or pharmacologically inhibiting TLR-3 prevented senescence induction and SASP amplification by SARS-CoV-2 or Spike pseudotyped virus. While an artificial TLR-3 agonist alone was not sufficient to induce senescence, it amplified the SASP in senescent human cells. Consistent with these findings, lung p16INK4a+ senescent cell burden was higher in patients who died from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection than other causes. Our results suggest that induction of cellular senescence and SASP amplification through TLR-3 contribute to SARS-CoV-2 morbidity, indicating that clinical trials of senolytics and/or SASP/TLR-3 inhibitors for alleviating acute and long-term SARS-CoV-2 sequelae are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Aging , Animals , Apoptosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Phenotype , Viral Proteins
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 706252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405403

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global disaster. However, we still don't know how specific SARS-CoV-2-encoded proteins contribute to viral pathogenicity. We found that SARS-CoV-2-encoded membrane glycoprotein M could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis via interacting with PDK1 and inhibiting the activation of PDK1-PKB/Akt signaling. Our investigation further revealed that SARS-CoV-2-encoded nucleocapsid protein N could specifically enhance the M-induced apoptosis via interacting with both M and PDK1, therefore strengthening M-mediated attenuation of PDK1-PKB/Akt interaction. Furthermore, when the M-N interaction was disrupted via certain rationally designed peptides, the PDK1-PKB/Akt signaling was restored, and the boosting activity of N on the M-triggered apoptosis was abolished. Overall, our findings uncovered a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2-encoded M triggers apoptosis with the assistance of N, which expands our understanding of the two key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and sheds light on the pathogenicity of this life-threatening virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoptosis , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(11): 875-889, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401891

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 encodes the structural proteins spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). The receptor-binding domain on the surface subunit S1 is responsible for attachment of the virus to angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is highly expressed in host cells. The cytokine storm observed in patients with COVID-19 contributes to the endothelial vascular dysfunction, which can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, alteration in iron homeostasis, and death. Growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), which belongs to the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) superfamily of proteins, has a pivotal role in the development and progression of diseases because of its role as a metabolic regulator. In COVID-19, GDF15 activity increases in response to tissue damage. GDF15 appears to be a strong predictor of poor outcomes in patients critically ill with COVID-19 and acts as an 'inflammation-induced central mediator of tissue tolerance' via its metabolic properties. In this review, we examine the potential properties of GDF15 as an emerging modulator of immunity in COVID-19 in association with iron metabolism. The virus life cycle in host cell provides potential targets for drug therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Growth Differentiation Factor 15/immunology , Iron/metabolism , Apoptosis/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors/immunology , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors/metabolism , Growth Differentiation Factor 15/metabolism , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Prognosis , Pyroptosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Pathol Res Pract ; 227: 153610, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401790

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is recognized as systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It was demonstrated that a rapid increase of cytokines in the serum of COVID-19 patients is associated with the severity of disease. However, the mechanisms of the cytokine release are not clear. By using immunofluorescence staining we found that the number of CD11b positive immune cells including macrophages in the spleens of died COVID-19 patients, was significantly higher than that of the control patients. The incidence of apoptosis as measured by two apoptotic markers, TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3, in COVID-19 patients' spleen cells is higher than that in control patients. By double immunostaining CD11b or CD68 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, it was found that up to 67% of these immune cells were positive for spike protein, suggesting that viral infection might be associated with apoptosis in these cells. Besides, we also stained the autophagy-related molecules (p-Akt、p62 and BCL-2) in spleen tissues, the results showed that the number of positive cells was significantly higher in COVID-19 group. And compared with non-COVID-19 patients, autophagy may be inhibited in COVID-19 patients. Our research suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may result in a higher rate of apoptosis and a lower rate of autophagy of immune cells in the spleen of COVID-19 patients. These discoveries may increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spleen/pathology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Autopsy , Biomarkers/analysis , CD11b Antigen/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Caspase 3/analysis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sequestosome-1 Protein/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/virology
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