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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD010168, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the second update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2015 and last updated in 2018. Appendectomy, the surgical removal of the appendix, is performed primarily for acute appendicitis. Patients who undergo appendectomy for complicated appendicitis, defined as gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, are more likely to suffer postoperative complications. The routine use of abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after appendectomy for complicated appendicitis is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of abdominal drainage to prevent intraperitoneal abscess after appendectomy (irrespective of open or laparoscopic) for complicated appendicitis; to compare the effects of different types of surgical drains; and to evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and three trials registers on 24 February 2020, together with reference checking, citation searching, and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared abdominal drainage versus no drainage in people undergoing emergency open or laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. We also included RCTs that compared different types of drains and different schedules for drain removal in people undergoing appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We used the GRADE approach to assess evidence certainty. We included intraperitoneal abscess as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were wound infection, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, hospital costs, pain, and quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: Use of drain versus no drain We included six RCTs (521 participants) comparing abdominal drainage and no drainage in participants undergoing emergency open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. The studies were conducted in North America, Asia, and Africa. The majority of participants had perforated appendicitis with local or general peritonitis. All participants received antibiotic regimens after open appendectomy. None of the trials was assessed as at low risk of bias. The evidence is very uncertain regarding the effects of abdominal drainage versus no drainage on intraperitoneal abscess at 30 days (risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 3.21; 5 RCTs; 453 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or wound infection at 30 days (RR 2.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 4.56; 5 RCTs; 478 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There were seven deaths in the drainage group (N = 183) compared to one in the no-drainage group (N = 180), equating to an increase in the risk of 30-day mortality from 0.6% to 2.7% (Peto odds ratio 4.88, 95% CI 1.18 to 20.09; 4 RCTs; 363 participants; low-certainty evidence). Abdominal drainage may increase 30-day overall complication rate (morbidity; RR 6.67, 95% CI 2.13 to 20.87; 1 RCT; 90 participants; low-certainty evidence) and hospital stay by 2.17 days (95% CI 1.76 to 2.58; 3 RCTs; 298 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to no drainage. The outcomes hospital costs, pain, and quality of life were not reported in any of the included studies. There were no RCTs comparing the use of drain versus no drain in participants undergoing emergency laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. Open drain versus closed drain There were no RCTs comparing open drain versus closed drain for complicated appendicitis. Early versus late drain removal There were no RCTs comparing early versus late drain removal for complicated appendicitis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The certainty of the currently available evidence is low to very low. The effect of abdominal drainage on the prevention of intraperitoneal abscess or wound infection after open appendectomy is uncertain for patients with complicated appendicitis. The increased rates for overall complication rate and hospital stay for the drainage group compared to the no-drainage group are based on low-certainty evidence. Consequently, there is no evidence for any clinical improvement with the use of abdominal drainage in patients undergoing open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. The increased risk of mortality with drainage comes from eight deaths observed in just under 400 recruited participants. Larger studies are needed to more reliably determine the effects of drainage on morbidity and mortality outcomes.


Subject(s)
Abscess/prevention & control , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/surgery , Drainage/methods , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Humans
2.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(5): 1087-1095, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787809

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Current studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding surgical care for acute appendicitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess trends in diagnosis as well as treatment of acute appendicitis in the Netherlands during the first and second COVID-19 infection wave. METHODS: All consecutive patients that had an appendectomy for acute appendicitis in nine hospitals from January 2019 to December 2020 were included. The primary outcome was the number of appendectomies for acute appendicitis. Secondary outcomes included time between onset of symptoms and hospital admission, proportion of complex appendicitis, postoperative length of stay and postoperative infectious complications. Outcomes were compared between the pre-COVID group and COVID group. RESULTS: A total of 4401 patients were included. The mean weekly rate of appendectomies during the COVID period was 44.0, compared to 40.9 in the pre-COVID period. The proportion of patients with complex appendicitis and mean postoperative length of stay in days were similar in the pre-COVID and COVID group (respectively 35.5% vs 36.8%, p = 0.36 and 2.0 ± 2.2 vs 2.0 ± 2.6, p = 0.93). There were no differences in postoperative infectious complications. A computed tomography scan was used more frequently as a diagnostic tool after the onset of COVID-19 compared to pre-COVID (13.8% vs 9.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: No differences were observed in number of appendectomies, proportion of complex appendicitis, postoperative length of stay or postoperative infectious complications before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A CT scan was used more frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 59-65, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The outcomes of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection remain unknown. With a multicenter study in 361 hospitals from 52 countries, we sought to study the mortality and pulmonary complications of COVID-19 patients undergoing EGS. METHODS: All patients 17 years or older and diagnosed preoperatively with COVID-19 between February and July 2020 were included. Emergency general surgery was defined as the urgent/emergent performance of appendectomy, cholecystectomy, or laparotomy. The main outcomes were 30-day mortality and 30-day pulmonary complications (a composite of acute respiratory distress syndrome, unexpected mechanical ventilation, or pneumonia). Planned subgroup analyses were performed based on presence of preoperative COVID-related respiratory findings (e.g., cough, dyspnea, need for oxygen therapy, chest radiology abnormality). RESULTS: A total of 1,045 patients were included, of which 40.1% were female and 50.0% were older than 50 years; 461 (44.1%), 145 (13.9%), and 439 (42.0%) underwent appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and laparotomy, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (158 of 1,045 patients), and the overall pulmonary complication rate was 32.9% (344 of 1,045 patients); in the subgroup of laparotomy patients, the rates were 30.6% (134 of 438 patients) and 59.2% (260 of 439 patients), respectively. Subgroup analyses found mortality and pulmonary complication risk to be especially increased in patients with preoperative respiratory findings. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients undergoing EGS have significantly high rates of mortality and pulmonary complications, but the risk is most pronounced in those with preoperative respiratory findings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Surgery , Appendectomy/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Cholecystectomy/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Int J Surg ; 97: 106200, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is a global pandemic that affected routine health services and made patients fear to consult for medical health problems, even acute abdominal pain. Subsequently, the incidence of complicated appendicitis increased during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate recurrent appendicitis after successful drainage of appendicular abscess during COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted in the surgical emergency units of our Universities' Hospitals between March 15, 2020 to August 15, 2020 including patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of an appendicular abscess and who underwent open or radiological drainage. Main outcomes included incidence, severity, and risk factors of recurrent appendicitis in patients without interval appendectomy. RESULTS: A total of 316 patients were included for analysis. The mean age of the patients was 37 years (SD ± 13). About two-thirds of patients were males (60.1%). More than one-third (39.6%) had co-morbidities; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (22.5%) and hypertension (17.1%) were the most frequent. Approximately one quarter (25.6%) had confirmed COVID 19 infection. About one-third of the patients (30.4%) had recurrent appendicitis. More than half of them (56.3%) showed recurrence after three months, and 43.8% of patients showed recurrence in the first three months. The most frequent grade was grade I (63.5%). Most patients (77.1%) underwent open surgery. Age, T2DM, hypertension, COVID-19 infection and abscess size >3 cm were significantly risking predictors for recurrent appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS: Interval appendectomy is suggested to prevent 56.3% of recurrent appendicitis that occurs after 3 months. We recommend performing interval appendectomy in older age, people with diabetes, COVID-19 infected, and abscesses more than 3 cm in diameter. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is interval appendectomy preventing a high incidence of recurrent appendicitis after successful drainage of appendicular abscess during COVID-19 pandemic?


Subject(s)
Abdominal Abscess , Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Abdominal Abscess/epidemiology , Abdominal Abscess/etiology , Abdominal Abscess/surgery , Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Abscess/epidemiology , Abscess/etiology , Adult , Aged , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/surgery , Child, Preschool , Drainage , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(2): 323-328, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the past months, the Italian Government has reduced the restrictions and access to hospitals as well as outpatient. Since then, up to 40% of non-traumatic abdominal emergencies have had unusual delayed treatment. Given the rapidly evolving situation and the absence of evidence to support recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is useful to assess how the current situation is influencing the management of elderly patients with acute appendicitis. METHODS: Between February 2020 and December 2020, all patients 18 years or older undergone appendectomy were included. Patients were divided in two age-based groups (young groups, YG; elderly group, EG). Surgical approach, hospital stay, post-operative complications, radiology reports, and histologic examination were included in the retrospective analysis. RESULTS: One hundred eight patients underwent appendectomy, 81 patients into the YG, and 27 in the EG. Laparoscopy was performed in 87.7% of the YG and in 51.8% of the elderly (p < 0.000), while conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 3.7% in the YG vs 22.3% of the other group (p < 0.009). Open procedures were more frequent in the EG, 25.9% vs 8.6% (p value < 0.05). No mortality rate was reported in both groups; moreover, the mean hospital stay was greater in the EG than the YG (p < 0.000). CONCLUSION: Our data highlighted a partial delay in diagnosis in the elderly group, and an increase in complicated appendicitis also demonstrated by the need for conversion to laparotomy despite no significant relationship between these findings and the histologic examination was reported.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Adult , Aged , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rozhl Chir ; 100(9): 429-434, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471346

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common abdominal emergency. This article aims to document the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on timely diagnosis of AA, duration of symptoms before examination in a medical institution, levels of laboratory inflammatory markers, and the length of hospital stay. Collected data were compared with current world literature. METHOD: Two datasets were created, comprising patients with the histological diagnosis of AA determined from March 1 to June 30, 2019 (before of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic) and in the same period of the spring pandemic of COVID-19 in 2020. The following information was obtained from patient medical records: Demographic data, information on symptom duration before AA diagnosis, information on laboratory inflammatory marker levels, the used surgical method, antibiotic treatment, histopathological findings, and the length of hospital stay. These data were processed using descriptive statistics methods and the two created datasets were compared with the use of statistical methods (an unpaired t-test and Welchs t-test). RESULTS: Thirty seven patients (26 men and 11 women) with the median age of 41 years were operated on for acute appendicitis at the Department of Surgery, Military University Hospital in Prague from March 1 to June 30, 2019. Thirty four patients (19 men and 15 women) with the median age of 42 years were operated on in the same period of 2020. No significant differences were found between these two compared datasets in terms of symptom duration, laboratory inflammatory marker levels or the length of hospital stay. The distributions of histopathological findings and used antibiotic treatments were also similar. CONCLUSION: In our study, we were unable to demonstrate any statistically significant differences between the datasets of patients operated on before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Adult , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Invest Surg ; 33(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455005

ABSTRACT

Background: Bipolar sealing devices are routinely used to seal blood vessels. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of colonic sealing with the use of the bipolar energy devices in rats as model for experimental appendectomy. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats underwent a cecal resection with four different bipolar sealing devices or a linear stapler. The harvesting procedure was performed immediately or at postoperative day (POD) 7. The sealing front bursting pressure (BP) was measured in both groups. At POD7, the resection line was clinically examined and the hydroxyproline (HDP) levels were determined. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was used for histopathological evaluation of the sealing front as well. Results: There was no mortality and no insufficiency. The BPs between the bipolar sealing devices showed no statistical differences. The early phase of the seal (POD 0) provides a low BP with an 30.8% increase until POD 7. The BPs in the stapler group showed significant better values. The hydroxyproline levels did not differ statistically between the groups. Histopathologically, there were more signs of ischemic necrosis in the stapler group than in the sealing devices groups. Conclusion: The resection and sealing of the cecum as an experimental appendectomy model with the use of bipolar energy devices proved feasible and safe in rats. The different energy devices in this study produce comparable results. To justify clinical practice in humans, several studies on the underlying mechanisms of early stage wound healing are needed.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/instrumentation , Cecum/surgery , Electrocoagulation/instrumentation , Hemostasis, Surgical/instrumentation , Wound Closure Techniques/instrumentation , Animals , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/methods , Electrocoagulation/methods , Feasibility Studies , Hemostasis, Surgical/adverse effects , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Male , Models, Animal , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Surgical Staplers/adverse effects , Wound Closure Techniques/adverse effects
9.
Surg Endosc ; 36(5): 3460-3466, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient attendance at emergency departments (EDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has decreased dramatically under the "stay at home" and "lockdown" restrictions. By contrast, a notable rise in severity of various surgical conditions was observed, suggesting that the restrictions coupled with fear from medical facilities might negatively impact non-COVID-19 diseases. This study aims to assess the incidence and outcome of complicated appendicitis (CA) cases during that period. METHODS: A retrospective study comparing the rate and severity of acute appendicitis (AA) cases during the COVID-19 initial outbreak in Israel during March and April of 2020 (P20) to the corresponding period in 2019 (P19) was conducted. Patient data included demographics, pre-ED status, surgical data, and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 123 patients were diagnosed with acute appendicitis, 60 patients during P20 were compared to 63 patients in P19. The rate of complicated appendicitis cases was significantly higher during the COVID-19 Lockdown with 43.3% (26 patients) vs. 20.6% (13 patients), respectively (p < 0.01). The average delay in ED presentation between P20 and P19 was 3.4 vs. 2 days (p = 0.03). The length of stay was 2.6 days in P20 vs. 2.3 days in P19 (p = 0.4), and the readmission rate was 12% (7 patients) vs. 4.8% (3 patients), p = 0.17, respectively. Logistic regression demonstrated that a delay in ED presentation was a significant risk factor for complicated appendicitis (OR 1.139, CI 1.011-1.284). CONCLUSION: The effect of the COVID-19 initial outbreak and Lockdown coupled with hesitation to come to medical facilities appears to have discouraged patients with acute appendicitis from presenting to the ED as complaints began, causing a delay in diagnosis and treatment, which might have led to a higher rate of complicated appendicitis cases and a heavier burden on health care systems.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
10.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): 481-486, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288678

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of COVID-19 was accompanied by global uncertainty. Delayed presentation of patients to hospitals ensued, with surgical pathologies no exception. This study aimed to assess whether delayed presentations resulted in more complex appendicectomies during the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: Operation notes for all presentations of appendicitis (n=216) within a single health board (three hospitals) during two three-month periods (control period (pre-COVID) vs COVID pandemic) were analysed, and the severity of appendicitis was recorded as per the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system. RESULTS: Presentations of appendicitis were delayed during the COVID period with a median duration of symptoms prior to hospital attendance of two days versus one day (p=0.003) with individuals presenting with higher median white cell count than during the control period (14.9 vs 13.3, p=0.031). Use of preoperative CT scanning (OR 3.013, 95% CI 1.694-5.358, p<0.001) increased significantly. More complex appendicectomies (AAST grade >1) were performed (OR 2.102, 95% CI 1.155-3.826, p=0.015) with a greater consultant presence during operations (OR 4.740, 95% CI 2.523-8.903, p<0.001). Despite the greater AAST scores recorded during the COVID period, no increase in postoperative complications was observed (OR 1.145, 95% CI 0.404-3.244, p=0.798). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with more complex cases of appendicitis. Important lessons can be learnt from the changes in practice employed as a result of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis/blood , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/trends , Young Adult
11.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 25(7): 1905-1915, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-operative management (NOM) of acute appendicitis has been assessed in several studies before COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic review aimed to assess the extent of adoption, efficacy, and safety of NOM of acute appendicitis in the setting of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a PRISMA-compliant systematic review of the literature. Electronic databases and Google Scholar were queried for studies that applied NOM of acute appendicitis during COVID-19. The main outcome measures were the rates of NOM application during the pandemic as compared to the pre-pandemic period, failure and complication rates of NOM. Failure was defined as the need for appendectomy during NOM and complications included development of appendicular mass or abscess. RESULTS: Fourteen studies (2140 patients) were included. The male to female ratio was 1.44:1 and median age was 34. Nine hundred fifty-nine (44.8%) patients had a trial of NOM. The weighted mean rate of NOM application was 50.1% (95%CI: 29.8-70.5%). The application of NOM during the pandemic was significantly more likely than its application before COVID-19 (OR = 6.7, p < 0.001). The weight mean failure rate of NOM was 16.4% (95%CI: 9.4-23.4). NOM failure was more likely in children and patients with complicated appendicitis. The weighted mean complication rate after NOM was 4.5% (95%CI: 1.4-7.7). NOM had significantly lower odds for complications than appendectomy (OR = 0.36, p = 0.03). There was no mortality after application of NOM. CONCLUSION: NOM of acute appendicitis in the setting of COVID-19 may be a safe, short-term alternative to surgery with acceptably low failure and complication rates.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Adult , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 406(2): 367-375, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed medical care worldwide. General surgery has been affected in elective procedures, yet the implications for emergency surgery are unclear. The current study analyzes the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown in spring 2020 on appendicitis treatment in Germany. METHODS: Hospitals that provided emergency surgical care during the COVID-19 lockdown were invited to participate. All patients diagnosed with appendicitis during the lockdown period (10 weeks) and, as a comparison group, patients from the same period in 2019 were analyzed. Clinical and laboratory parameters, intraoperative and pathological findings, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1915 appendectomies from 41 surgical departments in Germany were included. Compared to 2019 the number of appendectomies decreased by 13.5% (1.027 to 888, p=0.003) during the first 2020 COVID-19 lockdown. The delay between the onset of symptoms and medical consultation was substantially longer in the COVID-19 risk group and for the elderly. The rate of complicated appendicitis increased (58.2 to 64.4%), while the absolute number of complicated appendicitis decreased from 597 to 569, (p=0.012). The rate of negative appendectomies decreased significantly (6.7 to 4.6%; p=0.012). Overall postoperative morbidity and mortality, however, did not change. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown had significant effects on abdominal emergency surgery in Germany. These seem to result from a stricter selection and a longer waiting time between the onset of symptoms and medical consultation for risk patients. However, the standard of emergency surgical care in Germany was maintained.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Germany , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 406(2): 377-383, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common reasons for emergency medical consultation. While simple appendicitis can be treated with antibiotics or surgery, complex appendicitis including gangrene, abscess, and perforation requires appendectomy. During the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, an overall drop in emergency room consultations was observed. We therefore aimed to investigate the incidence and treatment strategies of acute appendicitis during that period. METHODS: Data of insurance holders with the ICD code for "acute appendicitis" or OPS procedure of appendectomy of a major health insurance company in Germany were analyzed retrospectively. Groups were built, containing of the means of March-June of 2017, 2018, and 2019, defined as "pre-COVID group" with the "COVID group," defined as data from March to June of 2020. Data was analyzed by age, sex, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, diagnoses, and treatment. Data of the COVID group was analyzed for simultaneous COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic of early 2020, an overall reduction by 12.9% of patients presenting with acute appendicitis was noticeable. These results were mainly due to decreased rates of uncomplicated appendicitis, while complicated appendicitis was scarcely affected. Especially in the group of females < 40 years, a drastic reduction was visible. Rates of extended surgery did not change. Likewise, the complication rate like appendix stump leakage or need for re-operation did not differ. In March 2020, 4.8% of acute appendicitis patients had concomitant COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: In line with the overall drop of emergency room visits during the COVID-19 pandemic of spring 2020 in Germany, a significantly lowered number of patients with uncomplicated appendicitis were noticeable, whereas complicated appendicitis did not differ. Also, treatment and complication rate of acute appendicitis did not change. These findings might be a hint that acute appendicitis is not a progressing disease but caused by different entities for uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis and therefore another clue that uncomplicated appendicitis can be treated with antibiotics or observation. Nevertheless provided data does not cover outpatient treatment; therefore, no statement observation or antibiotics in outpatients can be made.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Retrospective Studies
14.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(6): 657-664, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Appendectomy remains the gold standard for treating uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. However, the vermiform appendix may play a significant role in the immune system (secondary immune function) and maintain a reservoir of the normal microbiome for the human body. The aim of this study was to summarize the long-term effects after appendectomy and discuss whether appendectomy is suitable for all appendicitis patients. AREAS COVERED: A comprehensive and unbiased literature search was performed in PubMed. The terms 'appendix,' 'appendicitis,' 'appendectomy,' and 'endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy' were searched in the title and/or abstract. This review summarizes the long-term effects of appendectomy on some diseases in humans and describes three methods including appendectomy, medical treatment, and an 'organ-sparing' technique, named endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) to treat appendicitis. EXPERT OPINION: Appendectomy remains the first-line therapy for appendicitis. The patient's problem is appendix, not appendicitis. If we treat appendicitis, the problem should be resolved. During COVID-19, an initial antibiotic treatment of mild appendicitis represents a promising strategy. For patients who are worried about the long-term adverse effect after appendectomy and have a strong desire to preserve the appendix and are aware of the risk of appendicitis recurrence, medical treatment, or ERAT could be proposed.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Endoscopy , Humans , Patient Selection
15.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 406(2): 385-391, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959292

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic had multiple influences on the social, industrial, and medical situation in all affected countries. Measures of obligatory medical confinement were suspensions of scheduled non-emergent surgical procedures and outpatients' clinics as well as overall access restrictions to hospitals and medical practices. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess if the obligatory confinement (lockdown) had an effect on the number of appendectomies (during and after the period of lockdown). METHODS: This retrospective study was based on anonymized nationwide administrative claims data of the German Local General Sickness Fund (AOK). Patients admitted for diseases of the appendix (ICD-10: K35-K38) or abdominal and pelvic pain (ICD-10: R10) who underwent an appendectomy (OPS: 5-470) were included. The study period included 6 weeks of German lockdown (16 March-26 April 2020) as well as 6 weeks before (03 February-15 March 2020) and after (27 April-07 June 2020). These periods were compared to the respective one in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: The overall number of appendectomies was significantly reduced during the lockdown time in 2020 compared to that in 2018 and 2019. This decrease affects only appendectomies due to acute simple (ICD-10: K35.30, K35.8) and non-acute appendicitis (ICD-10: K36-K38, R10). Numbers for appendectomies in acute complex appendicitis remained unchanged. Female patients and in the age group 1-18 years showed the strongest decrease in number of cases. CONCLUSION: The lockdown in Germany resulted in a decreased number of appendectomies. This affected mainly appendectomies in simple acute and non-acute appendicitis, but not complicated acute appendicitis. The study gives no evidence that the confinement measures resulted in a deterioration of medical care for appendicitis.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Germany , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Insurance Claim Review , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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