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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23999, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585795

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus causing mainly respiratory track disease called COVID-19, which dissemination in the whole world in the 2020 has resulted in World Health Organisation (WHO) announcing the pandemic. As a consequence Polish Government made a decision to go into a lockdown in order to secure the population against SARS-CoV-2 outbreak what had its major influence on the Polish Health Care System. All of the social and medical factors caused by the pandemic might influence children's health care, including urgent cases. The aim of this survey was the analysis of medical charts with focus on the course and results of surgical treatment of children who underwent appendectomy before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: We performed analysis of charts of 365 subjects hospitalized in the Pediatric Surgery Department from 1st January 2019 to 31st December 2020 because of acute appendicitis. Patients were divided into two groups-those treated in 2019-before pandemic outbreak, and those treated in 2020 in the course of pandemic. Results: the most common type of appendicitis was phlegmonous (61% of cases in 2019 and 51% of cases in 2020). Followed by diffuse purulent peritonitis (18% of cases in 2019 vs 31% of cases in 2020), gangrenous (19% of cases in 2019 vs 15% of cases in 2020) and simple superficial appendicitis (1% of cases in 2019 vs 3% of cases in 2020). There was statistically significant difference in the length of hospitalization: in 2019 the mean length of hospi-talization was 4.761 vs 5.634 in 2020. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed more frequently before the COVID period (63% of cases treated in 2019 vs 61% of cases treated in 2020). In the pandemic year 2020, there was double increase in the number of conversion from the laparoscopic approach to the classic open surgery. In the year 2019 drainage of abdominal cavity was necessary in 22% of patients treated with appendectomy, in 2020 the amount of cases threated with appendectomy and drainage increased to 32%. Conclusions: fear of being infected, the limited availability of appointments at General Practitioners and the new organisation of the medical health care system during pandemic, delay proper diagnosis of appendicitis. Forementioned delay leads to higher number of complicated cases treated with open appendectomy and drainage of abdominal cavity, higher number of conversions from the laparoscopic to classic open technique, and longer hospitalization of children treated with appendectomy in the year of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/classification , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Appendectomy/methods , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7115-7126, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is to date a global pandemic that can affect all age groups; gastrointestinal symptoms are quite common in patients with COVID-19 and a new clinical entity defined as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) has been described in children and adolescents previously affected by COVID-19. Presenting symptoms of this new disease include high fever and severe abdominal pain that can mimic more common causes of abdominal pain; patients can rapidly deteriorate presenting severe cardiac dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Some fatalities due to this serious illness have been reported. We describe the case of a ten-year-old patient presenting with persistent high fever associated with continuous and worsening abdominal pain. Various hypotheses were performed during his diagnostic workup and an initial appendectomy was performed in the suspect of acute appendicitis. As his clinical picture deteriorated, the child was subsequently diagnosed and successfully treated as a case of MIS-C. The objective of this case report and brief review of abdominal pain in children throughout the age groups is to provide the emergency pediatrician with updated suggestions in diagnosing abdominal pain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/therapy , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucositis/etiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/trends , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Invest Surg ; 33(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455005

ABSTRACT

Background: Bipolar sealing devices are routinely used to seal blood vessels. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of colonic sealing with the use of the bipolar energy devices in rats as model for experimental appendectomy. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats underwent a cecal resection with four different bipolar sealing devices or a linear stapler. The harvesting procedure was performed immediately or at postoperative day (POD) 7. The sealing front bursting pressure (BP) was measured in both groups. At POD7, the resection line was clinically examined and the hydroxyproline (HDP) levels were determined. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was used for histopathological evaluation of the sealing front as well. Results: There was no mortality and no insufficiency. The BPs between the bipolar sealing devices showed no statistical differences. The early phase of the seal (POD 0) provides a low BP with an 30.8% increase until POD 7. The BPs in the stapler group showed significant better values. The hydroxyproline levels did not differ statistically between the groups. Histopathologically, there were more signs of ischemic necrosis in the stapler group than in the sealing devices groups. Conclusion: The resection and sealing of the cecum as an experimental appendectomy model with the use of bipolar energy devices proved feasible and safe in rats. The different energy devices in this study produce comparable results. To justify clinical practice in humans, several studies on the underlying mechanisms of early stage wound healing are needed.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/instrumentation , Cecum/surgery , Electrocoagulation/instrumentation , Hemostasis, Surgical/instrumentation , Wound Closure Techniques/instrumentation , Animals , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/methods , Electrocoagulation/methods , Feasibility Studies , Hemostasis, Surgical/adverse effects , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Male , Models, Animal , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Surgical Staplers/adverse effects , Wound Closure Techniques/adverse effects
4.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): 224-229, 2021 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325943

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Appendicitis is the leading cause of surgical acute abdomen in pediatrics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, management strategies were reassessed and the number of visits to the emergency department dropped down, which may be associated with delayed diagnoses and complications. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on children with acute appendicitis. METHODS: Analytical, retrospective, comparative study of pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in the 5 months of COVID-19 lockdown versus the same period in the previous year. Incidence, clinical data, stage, surgical approach, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: The total number of appendicitis cases went down by 25% (n = 67 versus n = 50 in 2020). The mean time to consultation was 24 hours in both periods (p = 0.989). The incidence of peritonitis was 44% (n = 22) versus 37% (n = 22) (p = 0.22) in 2019. No differences were observed in terms of appendicitis stage based on surgery reports. In 2019, all surgeries were laparoscopic; while in 2020, only 42% (n = 21). The incidence of complications was 6% versus 7.5% in the previous period (p = 0.75). One patient was COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSION: Although in our population the number of appendicitis cases dropped down, consultation was not delayed. The greater impact was associated with the reformulation of management strategies, in which the laparoscopic approach is avoided to reduce virus transmission.


Introducción. La apendicitis constituye la principal causa de abdomen agudo quirúrgico en pediatría. Durante la pandemia por COVID-19, se replantearon las estrategias de manejo y disminuyeron las consultas en las guardias, lo que podría asociarse a diagnósticos tardíos y complicaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el impacto de la pandemia en los niños con apendicitis aguda. Métodos. Estudio analítico retrospectivo comparativo de pacientes pediátricos con apendicitis aguda durante los cinco meses del confinamiento por COVID-19 versus los meses equivalentes del año previo. Se analizaron la incidencia, la clínica, el estadio, el abordaje quirúrgico y las complicaciones. Resultados. Los casos totales de apendicitis se redujeron un 25% (n = 67 versus n = 50 en 2020). El tiempo medio hasta la consulta fue de 24 horas en ambos períodos (p = 0,989). La incidencia de peritonitis fue del 44% (n = 22) versus el 37% (n = 22) (p = 0,22) en 2019. No se evidenció diferencia en los estadios de enfermedad de acuerdo con lo informado en los partes quirúrgicos. En 2019, todas las cirugías se realizaron por vía laparoscópica; en 2020, solo un 42% (n = 21). La incidencia de complicaciones fue del 6%, contra 7,5% en el período previo (p = 0,75). Un paciente fue COVID-19 positivo. Conclusión. A pesar de la reducción en el número de casos de apendicitis, no se evidenció una demora en la consulta en nuestra población. El mayor impacto se asoció a la readecuación del manejo, evitando el abordaje laparoscópico para reducir la diseminación del virus.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laparoscopy/trends , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): 481-486, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288678

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of COVID-19 was accompanied by global uncertainty. Delayed presentation of patients to hospitals ensued, with surgical pathologies no exception. This study aimed to assess whether delayed presentations resulted in more complex appendicectomies during the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: Operation notes for all presentations of appendicitis (n=216) within a single health board (three hospitals) during two three-month periods (control period (pre-COVID) vs COVID pandemic) were analysed, and the severity of appendicitis was recorded as per the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system. RESULTS: Presentations of appendicitis were delayed during the COVID period with a median duration of symptoms prior to hospital attendance of two days versus one day (p=0.003) with individuals presenting with higher median white cell count than during the control period (14.9 vs 13.3, p=0.031). Use of preoperative CT scanning (OR 3.013, 95% CI 1.694-5.358, p<0.001) increased significantly. More complex appendicectomies (AAST grade >1) were performed (OR 2.102, 95% CI 1.155-3.826, p=0.015) with a greater consultant presence during operations (OR 4.740, 95% CI 2.523-8.903, p<0.001). Despite the greater AAST scores recorded during the COVID period, no increase in postoperative complications was observed (OR 1.145, 95% CI 0.404-3.244, p=0.798). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with more complex cases of appendicitis. Important lessons can be learnt from the changes in practice employed as a result of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis/blood , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/trends , Young Adult
6.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 99(6): 450-456, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258347

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on Spanish hospitals, which have had to allocate all available resources to treat these patients, reducing the ability to attend other common pathologies. The aim of this study is to analyze how the treatment of acute appendicitis has been affected. METHOD: A national descriptive study was carried out by an online voluntary specific questionnaire with Google Drive™ distributed by email by the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) to all affiliated surgeons currently working in Spain (5203), opened from April 14th to April 24th. RESULTS: We received 337 responses from 170 centers. During the first month of the pandemic, the incidence of acute appendicitis decreased. Although conservative management increased, the surgical option has been the most used in both simple and complicated appendicitis. Despite the fact that the laparoscopic approach continues to be the most widely used in our services, the open approach has increased during this pandemic period. CONCLUSION: Highlight the contribution of this study in terms of knowledge of the status of the treatment of acute appendicitis during this first month of the pandemic, being able to serve for a better possible organization in future waves of the pandemic and a reorganization of current protocols and management of acute appendicitis in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Conservative Treatment/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Infection Control/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Laparoscopy/trends , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(4): 250-254, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic stimulated a national lockdown in the UK. The public were advised to avoid unnecessary hospital attendances and health professionals were advised to avoid aerosol-generating procedures wherever possible. The authors hypothesised that these measures would result in a reduction in the number of patients presenting to hospital with acute appendicitis and alter treatment choices. METHODS: A multicentred, prospective observational study was undertaken during April 2020 to identify adults treated for acute appendicitis. Searches of operative and radiological records were performed to identify patients treated during April 2018 and April 2019 for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 190 patients were treated for acute appendicitis pre-lockdown compared with 64 patients treated during lockdown. Patients treated during the pandemic were more likely to have a higher American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score (p = 0.049) and to have delayed their presentation to hospital (2 versus 3 days, p = 0.03). During the lockdown, the use of computed tomography (CT) increased from 36.3% to 85.9% (p < 0.001), the use of an antibiotic-only approach increased from 6.2% to 40.6% (p < 0.001) and the rate of laparoscopic appendicectomy reduced from 85.3% to 17.2% (p < 0.001). The negative appendicectomy rate decreased from 21.7% to 7.1% during lockdown (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with a decreased incidence of acute appendicitis and a significant shift in the management approach. The increased use of CT allows the identification of simple appendicitis for conservative treatment and decreases the negative appendicectomy rate.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Conservative Treatment/methods , Conservative Treatment/trends , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(3): 185-190, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112127

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of complicated appendicitis during the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic lockdown. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis in a single pediatric institution that assumed care responsibility for most of the pediatric emergencies during the lockdown period in Madrid (Spain). A control group was made up of the same number of patients diagnosed the previous year. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-one patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis were included (77 during self-quarantine and 74 during the previous year). The incidence of complicated appendicitis was 38.9% versus 28.3%, showing no significant differences. The 2 groups were homogeneous, with no differences in time elapsed between symptom onset and first emergency department visit, laboratory test results, median length of stay, intensive care admissions, or patients correctly diagnosed on their first visit. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) self-quarantine has not increased the incidence of complicated appendicitis, and children who developed complicated appendicitis did not have worse clinical outcomes. Parents did not delay presenting for medical attention, and emergency department pediatricians did not fail to diagnose this condition. Reorganization of hospital resources, fast-track treatment protocols for noncomplicated appendicitis, and extended use of home-stay hospitalization for complicated appendicitis could have contributed to these favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis , Emergencies , Acute Disease , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Am Surg ; 86(11): 1508-1512, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global crisis resulting from the coronavirus pandemic has imposed a large burden on health systems worldwide. Nonetheless, acute abdominal surgical emergencies are major causes for nontrauma-related hospital admissions and their incidences were expected to remain unchanged. Surprisingly, a significant decrease in volume and a higher proportion of complicated cases are being observed worldwide. METHODS: The present study assesses the local impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the emergency presentation of acute appendicitis in a Brazilian hospital. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients undergoing emergency surgery for the clinically suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis during the 2-month period of March and April 2020 and the same time interval in the previous year. Data on demographics, timing of symptom onset and hospital presentation, intraoperative details, postoperative complications, hospital length of stay, and histological examination of the specimen were retrieved from individual registries. RESULTS: The number of appendectomies during the pandemic was 36, which represents a 56% reduction compared to the 82 patients operated during the same period in 2019. The average time of symptom onset to hospital arrival was significantly higher in 2020 (40.6 vs. 28.2 hours, P = .02). The classification of appendicitis revealed a significant higher proportion of complicated cases than the previous year (33.3% vs. 15.2%, P = .04). The rate of postoperative complications and the average length of stay were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Further assessment of patients' concerns and systematic monitoring of emergency presentations are expected to help us understand and adequately address this issue.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Cir Pediatr ; 34(1): 28-33, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052622

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to describe the characteristics and demographics of the surgical procedures carried out at a tertiary hospital during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The secondary objective was to study the impact of the pandemic on the acute appendicitis cases treated at our healthcare facility and to compare them with a pre- SARS-CoV-2 period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of all patients undergoing surgery at the pediatric surgery department in the pandemic period, from the beginning of the state of emergency in Spain until the first restrictions were removed, was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 61 patients underwent surgery in 58 days vs. 406 patients in the same 2019 period (p < 0.00001). 59.01% of surgeries were urgent. 5.1% of patients had a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test. 30 different procedures were carried out, with appendectomy being the most frequent one (n = 13, 19.6% of patients). 61.5% of appendicitis cases were complicated vs. 42.4% in the non-COVID period (p = 0.17). Surgical approach was open in 46.1% of patients vs. 6.1% in the non-COVID period (p = 0.004). No statistically significant differences were found in terms of complication rate or hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a significant decrease in the number of daily procedures was noted, with more than half being urgent. Appendicular pathologies were in a more advanced stage than usual, with a clear trend towards open surgery vs. laparoscopy.


OBJETIVOS: Describir las características y demografía de los procedimientos quirúrgicos realizados en un hospital de tercer nivel durante la pandemia del SARS-CoV-2. Como objetivo secundario se estudia el impacto de la pandemia en las apendicitis agudas tratadas en nuestro centro y su comparación con un periodo previo al SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL Y METODOS: Estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a todos los pacientes intervenidos por parte del Servicio de Cirugía Pediátrica durante el periodo de pandemia. Abarca desde el primer día del estado de alarma hasta la desescalada de las restricciones. RESULTADOS: Se intervinieron un total de 61 pacientes en 58 días frente a 406 pacientes durante el mismo periodo de 2019 (p < 0,00001). El 59,01% de las intervenciones eran de carácter urgente. Un 5,1% de los pacientes tuvieron un test diagnóstico de SARS-CoV-2 positivo. Se realizaron 30 procedimientos distintos, siendo el más frecuente la apendicectomía (n = 13, 19,6% de los pacientes). El 61,5% de las apendicitis fueron complicadas frente a un 42,4% en periodo no COVID (p = 0,17). El abordaje quirúrgico fue abierto en un 46,1% de los pacientes frente al 6,1% no COVID (p = 0,004). No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la tasa de complicaciones o la estancia hospitalaria. CONCLUSIONES: Durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 se ha producido una importante disminución del número de procedimientos diarios, pasando a ser más de la mitad de carácter urgente. La patología apendicular se ha presentado más evolucionada de lo habitual, habiendo una clara tendencia a la cirugía abierta frente a la laparoscopia.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Tertiary Care Centers
11.
Mil Med ; 186(1-2): e94-e97, 2021 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had major clinical impact across the globe. Delayed presentation for medical emergencies has been noted by the medical community. There has been limited reporting on the impact for the care for emergent surgical conditions. We sought to describe the effect of the global pandemic on the presentation and outcomes for the most common urgent general surgery disease process, acute appendicitis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to the United States Naval Hospital Okinawa during the COVID-19 pandemic, from January 2020 to May 2020 (COVID cohort), and compared them to a historical cohort (pre-COVID cohort) over the prior 2 years. Demographics, clinical presentation data, and interventions were collected. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients with appendicitis, 20% presented perforated. Most patients were male (71%), presented with 1 day of symptoms and had a length of stay of 1 to 2 days. Comparing groups, 13% of the pre-COVID group vs. 31% of the COVID cohort presented perforated (P = .04), with a symptom duration of 1.6 vs. 2.7 days before presentation (P = .075), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and the global systematic response has impacted unrelated medical and surgical conditions. At our overseas military hospital with minimal disease burden, we observed a delay in presentation for acute appendicitis with a higher incidence of perforation. Patients should be empowered to continue to seek care for urgent and emergent medical and surgical conditions so that they are not harmed by fear of COVID-19 rather than by COVID-19 itself.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Fear , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(3): 243-246, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919310

ABSTRACT

Background: The corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) imposed new public health constraints that deterred people from coming to the hospital. The outcome of patients who developed appendicitis during mandated COVID-19 quarantine has yet to be examined. The main objective was to establish whether there was an increased rate of perforated appendicitis seen during COVID-19 quarantine. Secondary objectives included observing the type of procedure performed, length of stay, and associated complications. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was designed to look at the rates of appendicitis and perforated appendicitis observed during mandatory "safer at home order" from March to May 2020. The same time period a year earlier was used for comparative analysis. The study utilized data gathered from a single health care system, which consisted of a large regional referral center with three emergency rooms (ERs). Patients were included in the study if they presented to any ER in our health care system with a chief complaint of acute appendicitis. Perforated appendicitis was determined either radiographically or intraoperatively. Interventions included surgery, percutaneous drainage, or medical management. Results: There were 107 patients who were included. During quarantine, a total of 48 patients presented with acute appendicitis, with 16 perforations, compared with the previous year where 59 patients presented with acute appendicitis, with 10 perforations (33% versus 17% P = .04). Most patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (91%, n = 98), six patients (6%) were managed with intravenous antibiotics and 3 patients (3%) with percutaneous drainage. Patients who perforated had a longer duration of symptoms (2 versus 1, P = .03), white blood cell count (13,190 versus 15,960 cells/mm3, P = .09), and longer operative time (72 versus 89 minutes, P = .01). Patients who perforated had an increased length of stay and rate of complication. Conclusion: There was an overall increased rate of perforated appendicitis seen during quarantine compared with the previous year. Patients with perforated appendicitis had an increased length of stay, longer operative time, and increased rate of complications. Thus, although people were staying home due to public health safety orders, it negatively impacted those who developed appendicitis who may have presented to the hospital otherwise sooner.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Acute Disease , Adult , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , Comorbidity , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
13.
Br J Surg ; 108(6): 717-726, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical strategies are being adapted to face the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations on the management of acute appendicitis have been based on expert opinion, but very little evidence is available. This study addressed that dearth with a snapshot of worldwide approaches to appendicitis. METHODS: The Association of Italian Surgeons in Europe designed an online survey to assess the current attitude of surgeons globally regarding the management of patients with acute appendicitis during the pandemic. Questions were divided into baseline information, hospital organization and screening, personal protective equipment, management and surgical approach, and patient presentation before versus during the pandemic. RESULTS: Of 744 answers, 709 (from 66 countries) were complete and were included in the analysis. Most hospitals were treating both patients with and those without COVID. There was variation in screening indications and modality used, with chest X-ray plus molecular testing (PCR) being the commonest (19·8 per cent). Conservative management of complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis was used by 6·6 and 2·4 per cent respectively before, but 23·7 and 5·3 per cent, during the pandemic (both P < 0·001). One-third changed their approach from laparoscopic to open surgery owing to the popular (but evidence-lacking) advice from expert groups during the initial phase of the pandemic. No agreement on how to filter surgical smoke plume during laparoscopy was identified. There was an overall reduction in the number of patients admitted with appendicitis and one-third felt that patients who did present had more severe appendicitis than they usually observe. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of mild appendicitis has been possible during the pandemic. The fact that some surgeons switched to open appendicectomy may reflect the poor guidelines that emanated in the early phase of SARS-CoV-2.


ANTECEDENTES: Las estrategias quirúrgicas están siendo adaptadas en presencia de la pandemia de la COVID-19. Las recomendaciones del tratamiento de la apendicitis aguda se han basado en la opinión de expertos, pero hay muy poca evidencia disponible. Este estudio abordó este aspecto a través de una visión de los enfoques mundiales de la cirugía de la apendicitis. MÉTODOS: La Asociación de Cirujanos Italianos en Europa (ACIE) diseñó una encuesta electrónica en línea para evaluar la actitud actual de los cirujanos a nivel mundial con respecto al manejo de pacientes con apendicitis aguda durante la pandemia. Las preguntas se dividieron en información basal, organización del hospital y cribaje, equipo de protección personal, manejo y abordaje quirúrgico, así como las características de presentación del paciente antes y durante de la pandemia. Se utilizó una prueba de ji al cuadrado para las comparaciones. RESULTADOS: De 744 respuestas, se habían completado 709 (66 países) cuestionarios, los datos de los cuales se incluyeron en el estudio. La mayoría de los hospitales estaban tratando a pacientes con y sin COVID. Hubo variabilidad en las indicaciones de cribaje de la COVID-19 y en la modalidad utilizada, siendo la tomografía computarizada (CT) torácica y el análisis molecular (PCR) (18,1%) las pruebas utilizadas con más frecuencia. El tratamiento conservador de la apendicitis complicada y no complicada se utilizó en un 6,6% y un 2,4% antes de la pandemia frente a un 23,7% y un 5,3% durante la pandemia (P < 0.0001). Un tercio de los encuestados cambió la cirugía laparoscópica a cirugía abierta debido a las recomendaciones de los grupos de expertos (pero carente de evidencia científica) durante la fase inicial de la pandemia. No hubo acuerdo en cómo filtrar el humo generado por la laparoscopia. Hubo una reducción general del número de pacientes ingresados con apendicitis y un tercio consideró que los pacientes atendidos presentaban una apendicitis más grave que las comúnmente observadas. CONCLUSIÓN: La pandemia ha demostrado que ha sido posible el tratamiento conservador de la apendicitis leve. El hecho de que algunos cirujanos cambiaran a una apendicectomía abierta podría ser el reflejo de las pautas deficientes que se propusieron en la fase inicial del SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/therapy , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendectomy/methods , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Administration , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 93(2): 118-122, 2020 Aug.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. No specific studies have been found that evaluate the impact of the coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) pandemic on AA and its surgical management. An analysis was made on the influence of this new pathology on the clinical course of AA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study was conducted on patients operated on for AA from January to April 2020. They were classified according to the time of the appendectomy, before the declaration of the state of alarm (pre-COVID-19), and after its declaration (post-COVID-19) in Spain, one the most affected countries in the world. An evaluation was made of demographic variables, duration of symptoms, type of appendicitis, surgical time, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. RESULTS: The study included 66 patients (41 pre-COVID-19; 25 post-COVID-19) with mean age of 10.7 ± 3 and 9.3 ± 3.1; P = .073, respectively. Fever was found in a higher number of post-COVID-19 patients (52 vs. 19.5%; P = 0.013), as well as a higher CRP (72.7 ± 96.2 vs. 31.3 ± 36.2 mg/dL; P = 0.042). This group presented with a higher proportion of complicated appendicitis when compared to pre-COVID-19 (32 vs. 7.3%; P = 0.015). The mean hospital stay was longer in the post-COVID-19 group (5.6 ± 5.9 vs. 3.2 ± 4.3 days; P = 0.041). No differences were found in the time of onset of symptoms or surgical time. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic influenced the time of diagnosis of appendicitis, as well as its course, and mean hospital stay. Peritonitis was more frequently seen. As a result of the significant circumstances, delaying diagnosis and treatment of AA during SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, inappropriate management of this common surgical disorder has been noticed.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Peritonitis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
16.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 30(6): e43-e45, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-660517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety of laparoscopic surgery in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients remains unclear. The presence of the virus within peritoneal fluid and the peritoneal tissues is not known. We report an asymptomatic COVID-19 positive patient who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy with negative peritoneal sampling for SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a standard 3 port laparoscopic surgery samples peritoneal fluid, peritoneal brushings, and surgical smoke plum were collected. Specific real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction targeting SARS-CoV-2 were used to detect the presence of the virus in the samples. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected on multiple samples of the peritoneum in an asymptomatic patient. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 was not found in the peritoneum of a single patient with asymptomatic infection. Further studies comparing SARS-CoV-2 surgical candidates are needed to address safety concerns.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , Ascitic Fluid/virology , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laparoscopy/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Young Adult
18.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 405(3): 353-355, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209487

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 greatly affected millions and affected the way we practice with heightened posture in the way we treat surgical patients. Surgical consensus guidelines are recommending caution in the use of laparoscopy for the theoretical possibility of viral transmission from aerosolization of tissue and peritoneal fluid during surgery. However, there has yet to be proof of COVID-19 being present in peritoneal fluid, justifying the consensus statements. We aim to assess the presence of COVID-19 in peritoneal fluid. METHODS: We performed a laparoscopic appendicectomy for a COVID-19-infected patient with acute appendicitis. Peritoneal fluid and peritoneal washings were collected and sent for COVID-19 PCR. RESULTS: The peritoneal fluid sample collected on entry and at the end of the operation was negative for COVID-19 on PCR. The patient had an uneventful recovery from surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This case revealed that COVID-19 was not detected in peritoneal fluid and peritoneal washings in a patient infected with COVID-19. This study provides novel preliminary data in the investigation of COVID-19 transmission from laparoscopy-related aerosolization.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , Ascitic Fluid/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , False Negative Reactions , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Peritoneal Lavage/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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