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1.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(6): 751-755, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical variations of Systemic Inflammatory Response Index (SIRI), Systemic Inflammation Index (SII), and Alvarado Score during the COVID-19 pandemic period. METHODS: Between March 2019 and March 2021, 161 consecutive patients who had surgery due to acute appendicitis were ret-rospectively recruited from Trakya University in Edirne, Turkey. Group I included patients who had surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic and Group II included patients who had surgery before the COVID-19 pandemic period. A total of 80 patients volunteered for Group I and 81 patients for Group II. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio were calculated. SII was calculated by the formula: platelet (P) × neutrophil (N)/lymphocyte (L). NLR was calculated by dividing the neutrophil count by the number of lymphocytes. SIRI was defined as follows: SIRI = (neutrophil × monocyte/lymphocyte). The Alvarado score was also calculated by using patient history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of displacing pain, nausea/vomiting, right lower quad-rant tenderness, rebound, hyperthermia, leukocytosis, and total Alvarado score (p<0.001). There was a significant difference between two groups in comparison of C-reactive protein, SIRI, and SII values (p<0.001). Group I patients had higher values of these parameters than Group II. CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained from this study, we conclude that COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in patients with acute appendicitis admitted to the hospital. This late diagnosis of acute appendicitis caused more complications during COVID-19 pandemic. Alvarado score, SIRI, and SII can be used as a marker to indicate whether complications of acute appendicitis occurred pre- or post-operatively. Therefore, Alvarado score, SIRI, and SII are directly proportional to the complication of acute appendicitis.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(6): 756-761, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of the COVID-19 infection on the world's health system began to be reported in a short time, with the spread of the infection all over the world and it gained a global acceptance as a pandemic. It was predicted that patients who require urgent surgical procedures may not be able to access appropriate treatment during this period and may suffer from this process. In this process, we planned to report the effects of the pandemic process to this patient group by evaluating patients with acute appendicitis, which is the most common cause of acute abdomen among general surgery emergencies. METHODS: In our study, we compared the patients who applied to the Training and Research Hospital we collaborated, whose clinics were compatible with acute appendicitis, between March 11, 2020, and May 21, 2020, with those applied within the same time period with the year before. We evaluated clinical and pathological findings of the patients and the treatment applied. RESULTS: In this study, there were 103 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis before pandemic and 61 in pandemic period. We found that during the pandemic period, patients with acute appendicitis were admitted to the hospital less often, and in a later period, and more complicated clinical pictures were determined. Complicated appendicitis patients were higher in pandemic period compared with previous year (33.96% vs. 8.00% of patients, respectively; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: We emphasized that diseases that need to be treated urgently should not be left behind during the pandemic. Furthermore, we shared our clinical practice to ensure early discharge of patients with acute appendicitis during the pandemic process.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(5): 703-710, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to examine the cases underwent appendectomy during the COVID-19 pandemic and to discuss the pathology reports of patients. METHODS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the pathological reports of the appendectomy materials of 588 patients over the age of 15 who applied to the emergency department between January 1, 2020, and June 1, 2021, were examined. A total of 565 patients with a diagnosis of acute (AA), subacute (SA), or perforated appendicitis (PA) were included and divided into three groups according to diagnosis. Twenty-three patients were excluded from the study due to other pathologies. The age, gender, duration of pain, ASA score, operational technique, operation time, Clavien-Dindo score, hospitalization time, post-operative complications, pre- and post-operative PCR and thoracic tomography findings in suspected cases of COVID-19, and laboratory and radiological findings of patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 565 patients diagnosed with appendicitis, 464 (82.1%) had AA, 35 (6.2%) SA, and 66 (11.7%) PA. The median age of the PA group was higher than in the AA group (p=0.0139). The incidence of diabetes mellitus in the PA group and of asthma in the SA group were highest among other groups (p=0.004 and 0.0037, respectively). The duration of pain was longer in the SA and PA groups than the AA group (p<0.0001), therefore, the patients applied to hospital later than the acute group. The rate of thorax CT-positive scans was 1.6% in patients suspected for COVID-19 (p=0.066). While laparoscopic surgery was preferred over 70% in all groups, the rate of conventional surgery (21.1%) in the AA group was highest and of transition from laparoscopic to open surgery was highest in the PA group (10.6%) (p<0.0001). Hospitalization duration was longest in the PA group (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic not only changes all routines of social life but also complicates the treatment and manage-ment of cases with AA symptoms applied to hospital under emergency conditions. Follow-up of the appendectomy specimen is crucial in terms of excluding other pathologies.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pain , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(5): 685-690, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on appendicitis and the relevant outcomes in a tertiary hospital, designated as a "pandemic institution" by the Ministry of Health, between pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19, i.e., between 2019 and 2020, of the identical period in terms of the annual schedule. METHODS: The data of cases with acute appendicitis, who were followed up at the Department of General Surgery, a 400-bed, tertiary care, a university-affiliated education and research hospital, providing health care to a population of approximately 450,000 people, during the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, during the identical time intervals of pre-COVID-19 (March 12, 2020 to November 12, 2020) and post-COVID-19 (March 12, 2019 to November 12, 2019), were retrospectively analyzed in a detail. RESULTS: Of the 212 appendectomy operations in total, 99 (46.7%) were performed in the pre-COVID-19 and 113 (53.3%) were performed in post-COVID-19. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, patients who had undergone appendectomies in post-COVID-19 revealed significantly lower neutrophil counts and significantly greater appendix diameters (p<0.001 for both). A significantly lower (p=0.041) acute appendicitis with abundant gangrenous appendicitis and phlegmonous appendicitis (p=0.043 and p=0.032, respectively) was recognized in post-COVID-19 compared with pre-COVID-19 interval. CONCLUSION: The number of appendectomy operations decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients operated during the pandemic period had wider appendix diameter and lower neutrophil levels. The pathological diagnosis was less frequent acute appendicitis, more frequent gangrenous appendicitis, and phlegmonous appendicitis in the pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
Int J Surg Pathol ; 30(2): 214-216, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854677

ABSTRACT

We report an unusual case of appendicitis in a 9-year-old girl in whom the wall of the appendix contained necrotizing granulomas, as well as eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. Although luminal E vermicularis adult parasites are commonly identified in the appendix and luminal eggs are occasionally seen, intramural worms and eggs are rare. We are unaware of earlier reports of ectopic intramural eggs in the appendix. It is important to and make a correct diagnosis, as both, the patient, as well as the family should be treated for enterobiasis.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Appendix , Enterobiasis , Animals , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/surgery , Child , Enterobiasis/diagnosis , Enterobiasis/parasitology , Enterobius , Female , Granuloma , Humans
7.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(6): 1375-1383, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844358

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare the number of appendicitis cases and its complications, during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden and the UK and the corresponding time period in 2019. METHOD: Reports of emergency abdominopelvic CT performed at 56 Swedish hospitals and 38 British hospitals between April and July 2020 and a corresponding control cohort from 2019 were reviewed. Two radiologists and two surgeons blinded to the date of cohorts analyzed all reports for diagnosis of appendicitis, perforation, and abscess. A random selection of cases was chosen for the measurement of inter-rater agreement. RESULT: Both in Sweden (6111) and the UK (5591) fewer, abdominopelvic CT scans were done in 2020 compared to 2019 (6433 and 7223, respectively); p < 0.001. In the UK, the number of appendicitis was 36% lower in April-June 2020 compared to 2019 but not in Sweden. Among the appendicitis cases, there was a higher number of perforations and abscesses in 2020, in Sweden. In the UK, the number of perforations and abscesses were initially lower (April-June 2020) but increased in July 2020. There was a substantial inter-rater agreement for the diagnosis of perforations and abscess formations (K = 0.64 and 0.77). CONCLUSION: In Sweden, the number of appendicitis was not different between 2019 and 2020; however, there was an increase of complications. In the UK, there was a significant decrease of cases in 2020. The prevalence of complications was lower initially but increased in July. These findings suggest variability in delay in diagnosis of appendicitis depending on the country and time frame studied.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Abscess , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sweden/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Scand J Surg ; 111(2): 14574969221089387, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820091

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate how a nationwide lockdown influences the incidence of appendicitis. BACKGROUND: Communitive infectious diseases may play a role in the pathogenesis of appendicitis as indicated by a seasonal variation in the incidence rate. The spread of communitive infectious diseases has decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown; thus, we have an opportunity to study the incidence rate of appendicitis in an environment with less impact from common community infections. METHODS: The study is a nationwide register-based cohort study of the entire Danish population of 5.8 million. The difference in the incidence of appendicitis in a population subjugated to a controlled lockdown with social distancing (study group) was compared to a population not subjugated to a controlled lockdown and social distancing (reference group). RESULTS: The relative risk of appendicitis during the lockdown was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-1.03, p = 0.131). The relative risk of complicated appendicitis during the lockdown was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49-0.93, p = 0.02). The incidence of uncomplicated appendicitis was not significantly different during the national lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: During the national lockdown of Denmark due to the COVID-19 pandemic the incidence of complicated appendicitis was reduced significantly compared to previous years, indicating that infectious disease might be a factor in the pathogenesis of appendicitis with complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04407117).


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
10.
In Vivo ; 36(3): 1325-1332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 is rapidly spreading, and due to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the pandemic many Governments have introduced social restrictions. Those measures combined with infection-related patient anxiety, led to hiding other diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on numbers and severity of acute appendicitis cases referred during the pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 2019 and March 2021, all patients who underwent appendectomy in Tor Vergata Hospital, Rome were included. Patients were divided in two groups (COVID-19/pre-COVID-19). Clinical features, intraoperative findings, hospital stay, and histologic examination data were included in the retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Out of 334 admitted patients, 36 (10.7%) had a diagnosis of acute appendicitis (COVID-19 group) vs. 59(11.2%) in the pre-COVID-19 group. The COVID-19 group presented significantly longer hospitalization, incidence of appendicular abscess, perforation, and severity of inflammation at univariate analysis p=0.002, p=0.021, p=0.001, p=0.006, p=0.001, respectively. At multivariate analysis, appendicular abscess (p=0.015) and higher serum levels of C reactive protein (p<0.008) were associated with prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the correlation between COVID-19 pandemic and the severity of acute appendicitis presentations.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Abscess/complications , Abscess/surgery , Acute Disease , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD010168, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the second update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2015 and last updated in 2018. Appendectomy, the surgical removal of the appendix, is performed primarily for acute appendicitis. Patients who undergo appendectomy for complicated appendicitis, defined as gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, are more likely to suffer postoperative complications. The routine use of abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after appendectomy for complicated appendicitis is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of abdominal drainage to prevent intraperitoneal abscess after appendectomy (irrespective of open or laparoscopic) for complicated appendicitis; to compare the effects of different types of surgical drains; and to evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and three trials registers on 24 February 2020, together with reference checking, citation searching, and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared abdominal drainage versus no drainage in people undergoing emergency open or laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. We also included RCTs that compared different types of drains and different schedules for drain removal in people undergoing appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We used the GRADE approach to assess evidence certainty. We included intraperitoneal abscess as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were wound infection, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, hospital costs, pain, and quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: Use of drain versus no drain We included six RCTs (521 participants) comparing abdominal drainage and no drainage in participants undergoing emergency open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. The studies were conducted in North America, Asia, and Africa. The majority of participants had perforated appendicitis with local or general peritonitis. All participants received antibiotic regimens after open appendectomy. None of the trials was assessed as at low risk of bias. The evidence is very uncertain regarding the effects of abdominal drainage versus no drainage on intraperitoneal abscess at 30 days (risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 3.21; 5 RCTs; 453 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or wound infection at 30 days (RR 2.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 4.56; 5 RCTs; 478 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There were seven deaths in the drainage group (N = 183) compared to one in the no-drainage group (N = 180), equating to an increase in the risk of 30-day mortality from 0.6% to 2.7% (Peto odds ratio 4.88, 95% CI 1.18 to 20.09; 4 RCTs; 363 participants; low-certainty evidence). Abdominal drainage may increase 30-day overall complication rate (morbidity; RR 6.67, 95% CI 2.13 to 20.87; 1 RCT; 90 participants; low-certainty evidence) and hospital stay by 2.17 days (95% CI 1.76 to 2.58; 3 RCTs; 298 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to no drainage. The outcomes hospital costs, pain, and quality of life were not reported in any of the included studies. There were no RCTs comparing the use of drain versus no drain in participants undergoing emergency laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. Open drain versus closed drain There were no RCTs comparing open drain versus closed drain for complicated appendicitis. Early versus late drain removal There were no RCTs comparing early versus late drain removal for complicated appendicitis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The certainty of the currently available evidence is low to very low. The effect of abdominal drainage on the prevention of intraperitoneal abscess or wound infection after open appendectomy is uncertain for patients with complicated appendicitis. The increased rates for overall complication rate and hospital stay for the drainage group compared to the no-drainage group are based on low-certainty evidence. Consequently, there is no evidence for any clinical improvement with the use of abdominal drainage in patients undergoing open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. The increased risk of mortality with drainage comes from eight deaths observed in just under 400 recruited participants. Larger studies are needed to more reliably determine the effects of drainage on morbidity and mortality outcomes.


Subject(s)
Abscess/prevention & control , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/surgery , Drainage/methods , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Humans
13.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(5): 1066-1070, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: The COVID-19 pandemic presents ongoing challenges for healthcare. Stay at Home orders ('lockdowns') and community fears have been suggested to create reluctance to seek healthcare. We aimed to determine whether the rates of perforated appendicitis and negative appendicectomy have been affected by the pandemic, and to analyse the effect of lockdowns on the management of acute appendicitis in Victoria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective audit of emergency appendicectomies performed under adult General Surgery units at Monash Health in Victoria from January 2019 to September 2021, including 242 days of lockdown. RESULTS: 2459 patients were included. Fewer patients had perforated appendicitis during the second lockdown (6.3% versus 10.7% baseline; p = 0.027). The rate of negative appendicectomy was reduced during the first lockdown (4.1% versus 14.9% baseline; p = 0.002) and during intervals between lockdown in 2021 (9.8%; p = 0.010). There was no difference in the rate of perforated appendicitis or negative appendicectomy at other times. Time to surgery and number of appendicectomies performed were also not significantly different. Fewer appendicectomies were performed after hours during lockdowns and in 2021 more generally compared to baseline (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The lower negative appendicectomy rate during the first lockdown may reflect increased pre-operative imaging or clinical observation for undifferentiated presentations. There was a reduction in perforated appendicitis during the second lockdown, and no significant difference at other times. Contrary to other studies, lockdowns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may not create a reluctance to seek healthcare in all regions.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Adult , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
14.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S1): e2022123, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In middle-aged men, omental torsion (OT) can be a cause of acute abdomen.The right side of the omentum is longer, heavier and more mobile than the left one and, as a consequence, it can twist more easily on its vascular axis. Consequently, OT localization in the lower right quadrant is more frequent, and therefore it can mimic acute appendicitis clinical onset.In most cases, OT is defined as "primary" in the absence of any other underlying pathologies, or,  rarely, "secondary", when caused by other intra-abdominal diseases such as inguinal hernia, tumors, cysts or post-surgical scarring. To date, clinical diagnosis of OT still remains a challenging one in a preoperative setting and most cases are diagnosed intraoperatively. If diagnosis is correctly achieved preoperatively by adequate imaging examinations, most patients presenting with OT do not undergo surgery anymore. Such considerations gain importance at the time of COVID 19 pandemic, where a conservative management and an early discharge may be preferred owing to in-hospital morbidity after abdominal surgery whenever surgery may be avoided. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a case of an OT successfully treated in a non-operative manner during COVID-19 outbreak in Norhern Italy and offer a review of the literature that supports such a clinical attitude.  Conclusions:  OT preoperative diagnosis is challenging and is usually achieved by abdominal CT-scan. The suggested OT initial management is conservative, leaving a surgical approach, preferably by laparoscopy, for the 15% of cases not improving with a non-surgical approach.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Peritoneal Diseases , Conservative Treatment , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Omentum/blood supply , Omentum/pathology , Omentum/surgery , Peritoneal Diseases/diagnosis , Peritoneal Diseases/surgery , Torsion Abnormality/diagnosis , Torsion Abnormality/pathology , Torsion Abnormality/surgery
15.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(5): 1087-1095, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787809

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Current studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding surgical care for acute appendicitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess trends in diagnosis as well as treatment of acute appendicitis in the Netherlands during the first and second COVID-19 infection wave. METHODS: All consecutive patients that had an appendectomy for acute appendicitis in nine hospitals from January 2019 to December 2020 were included. The primary outcome was the number of appendectomies for acute appendicitis. Secondary outcomes included time between onset of symptoms and hospital admission, proportion of complex appendicitis, postoperative length of stay and postoperative infectious complications. Outcomes were compared between the pre-COVID group and COVID group. RESULTS: A total of 4401 patients were included. The mean weekly rate of appendectomies during the COVID period was 44.0, compared to 40.9 in the pre-COVID period. The proportion of patients with complex appendicitis and mean postoperative length of stay in days were similar in the pre-COVID and COVID group (respectively 35.5% vs 36.8%, p = 0.36 and 2.0 ± 2.2 vs 2.0 ± 2.6, p = 0.93). There were no differences in postoperative infectious complications. A computed tomography scan was used more frequently as a diagnostic tool after the onset of COVID-19 compared to pre-COVID (13.8% vs 9.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: No differences were observed in number of appendectomies, proportion of complex appendicitis, postoperative length of stay or postoperative infectious complications before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A CT scan was used more frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Clin Radiol ; 77(7): 514-521, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778070

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the change in diagnosis rates, disease severity at presentation, and treatment of acute appendicitis and diverticulitis during the COVID-19 shutdown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, 6,002 CT examinations performed at five hospitals for suspected acute appendicitis and/or diverticulitis over the 12 weeks preceding and following the shutdown were reviewed retrospectively. Semi-automated language analysis (SALA) of the report classified 3,676 CT examinations as negative. Images of the remaining 2,326 CT examinations were reviewed manually and classified as positive or negative. Positive cases were graded as non-perforated; perforated, contained; and perforated, free. RESULTS: CT examinations performed for suspected appendicitis and/or diverticulitis decreased from 3,558 to 2,200 following the shutdown. The rates of positive diagnoses before and after shutdown were 4% (144) and 4% (100) for appendicitis and 8% (284) and 7% (159) for diverticulitis (p>0.2 for both). For positive CT examinations, the rates of perforation, hospitalisation, surgery, and catheter drainage changed by -2%, -3%, -2%, and -3% for appendicitis (n=244, p>0.3 for all) and +6% (p=0.2) +9% (p=0.06), +4% (p=0.01) and +1% (p=0.6) for diverticulitis (n=443). CONCLUSION: CT examinations performed for suspected appendicitis or diverticulitis declined after the shutdown, likely reflecting patients leaving urban centres and altered triage of non-COVID-19 patients. The diagnosis rates, disease severity at presentation, and treatment approach otherwise remained mostly unchanged.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Diverticulitis , Acute Disease , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Diverticulitis/diagnostic imaging , Diverticulitis/surgery , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054304, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence is showing that complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis are two different entities that may be treated differently. A correct diagnosis of the type of appendicitis is therefore essential. The Scoring system of Appendicitis Severity (SAS) combines clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. The SAS rules out complicated appendicitis in 95% (negative predictive value, NPV) and detects 95% (sensitivity) of patients with complicated appendicitis in adults suspected of acute appendicitis. However, this scoring system has not yet been validated externally. In this study, we aim to provide a prospective external validation of the SAS in a new cohort of patients with clinical suspicion of appendicitis. We will optimise the score when necessary. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The SAS will be validated in 795 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis confirmed by imaging. Data will be collected prospectively in multiple centres. The predicted diagnosis based on the SAS score will be compared with the combined surgical and histological diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy for ruling out complicated appendicitis will be calculated. If the SAS does not reach a sensitivity and NPV of 95% in its present form, the score will be optimised. After optimisation, a second external validation will be performed in a new group of 328 patients. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical perspective of the treating physician for differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis and the patient's preferences for different treatment options will be assessed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by the Amsterdam UMC Medical Ethics Committee (reference W19_416 # 19.483). Because of the observational nature of this study, the study does not fall under the scope of the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. Results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals. This protocol is submitted for publication before analysis of the results.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Acute Disease , Adult , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , Cohort Studies , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies
19.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(4): 736-741, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In contrast to many countries, the prevalence of COVID-19 in Australia and New Zealand has been low. We hypothesised, however, that a potential secondary effect of the COVID-19 pandemic would be delayed presentation of paediatric appendicitis, with resultant higher rates of complicated appendicitis. This study was an initiative of the Australian and New Zealand Surgery in Children Registrars' Association for Trials collaborative, a trainee-led research group based in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: A binational multicentre, retrospective review was undertaken of paediatric patients with appendicitis early in the COVID-19 pandemic (20 March-30 April 2020), compared with previous years (2018, 2019). Primary outcomes were the duration of symptoms prior to presentation and the severity of disease. RESULTS: A total of 400 patients from six centres were included. Duration of symptoms prior to presentation, sepsis at presentation, complicated disease and presence of complications did not differ significantly between time periods. Duration of intravenous antibiotic treatment and overall antibiotic treatment were both significantly shorter during 2020 (2.4 days versus 3.5 in 2018 and 3.0 in 2019 [P = 0.0038] and 3.7 days versus 5.2 in 2018 and 4.6 in 2019 [P = 0.04], respectively). Management approach did not differ, with the majority of patients managed operatively. CONCLUSIONS: We did not demonstrate any difference in duration of symptoms prior to presentation or other markers of disease severity early in the pandemic. Duration of antibiotic treatment was shorter during this period compared with previous years. Management of children with appendicitis, both simple and complicated, did not appear to change as a result of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(3): 285-289, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease profiles have changed in the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to compare acute appendicitis cases before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 130 patients were diagnosed with AA and operated between the days of first COVID-19 case on March 11, 2020, and May 11, 2020, and the same period of the previous year. Data of the patients were extracted from electronic archive of the hospital. Those patients were stratified into two groups; pandemic group and pre-pandemic group. The pandemic group comprised 46 patients and the pre-pandemic group, 84 patients. The two groups were compared in terms of age, gender, duration of symptoms, length of hospital stay, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein levels, and post-operative complications. RESULTS: The median days passed from onset of abdominal pain to submission were 6.5 days in the pandemic period. However, it was 3 days in the pre-pandemic group (p<0.001). Other parameters were not statistically different between the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic period, delay in hospital submissions has attracted attention. However, delayed treatment did not reflect to the clinic as more severe disease.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Acute Disease , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Humans , Pandemics
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