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1.
Int J Surg ; 97: 106200, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is a global pandemic that affected routine health services and made patients fear to consult for medical health problems, even acute abdominal pain. Subsequently, the incidence of complicated appendicitis increased during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate recurrent appendicitis after successful drainage of appendicular abscess during COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted in the surgical emergency units of our Universities' Hospitals between March 15, 2020 to August 15, 2020 including patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of an appendicular abscess and who underwent open or radiological drainage. Main outcomes included incidence, severity, and risk factors of recurrent appendicitis in patients without interval appendectomy. RESULTS: A total of 316 patients were included for analysis. The mean age of the patients was 37 years (SD ± 13). About two-thirds of patients were males (60.1%). More than one-third (39.6%) had co-morbidities; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (22.5%) and hypertension (17.1%) were the most frequent. Approximately one quarter (25.6%) had confirmed COVID 19 infection. About one-third of the patients (30.4%) had recurrent appendicitis. More than half of them (56.3%) showed recurrence after three months, and 43.8% of patients showed recurrence in the first three months. The most frequent grade was grade I (63.5%). Most patients (77.1%) underwent open surgery. Age, T2DM, hypertension, COVID-19 infection and abscess size >3 cm were significantly risking predictors for recurrent appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS: Interval appendectomy is suggested to prevent 56.3% of recurrent appendicitis that occurs after 3 months. We recommend performing interval appendectomy in older age, people with diabetes, COVID-19 infected, and abscesses more than 3 cm in diameter. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is interval appendectomy preventing a high incidence of recurrent appendicitis after successful drainage of appendicular abscess during COVID-19 pandemic?


Subject(s)
Abdominal Abscess , Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Abdominal Abscess/epidemiology , Abdominal Abscess/etiology , Abdominal Abscess/surgery , Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Abscess/epidemiology , Abscess/etiology , Adult , Aged , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/surgery , Child, Preschool , Drainage , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(8): 1011-1013, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quarantine and stay-at-home orders are strategies that many countries used during the acute pandemic period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to prevent disease dissemination, health system overload, and mortality. However, there are concerns that patients did not seek necessary health care because of these mandates. PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences in the clinical presentation of acute appendicitis and CT findings related to these cases between the COVID-19 acute pandemic period and nonpandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed to compare the acute pandemic period (March 23, 2020, to May 4, 2020) versus the same period the year before (March 23, 2019, to May 4, 2019). The proportion of appendicitis diagnosed by CT and level of severity of the disease were reviewed in each case. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to identify significant differences between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 196 abdominal CT scans performed due to suspected acute appendicitis were evaluated: 55 from the acute pandemic period and 141 from the nonpandemic period. The proportion of acute appendicitis diagnosed by abdominal CT was higher in the acute pandemic period versus the nonpandemic period: 45.5% versus 29.8% (P = .038). The severity of the diagnosed appendicitis was higher during the acute pandemic period: 92% versus 57.1% (P = .003). CONCLUSION: During the acute COVID-19 pandemic period, fewer patients presented with acute appendicitis to the emergency room, and those who did presented at a more severe stage of the disease.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , United States
3.
Pediatr Radiol ; 52(3): 460-467, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may be associated with appendicitis or clinical symptoms that mimic appendicitis, but it is not clear if the findings or utility of imaging in pediatric patients with suspected appendicitis have changed since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate for potential differences in SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative pediatric patients imaged for suspected appendicitis to determine the reliability of the existing medical imaging approach for appendicitis in a population that contains both SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients imaged for suspected appendicitis Apr. 1, 2020, to Dec. 31, 2020, were identified via an electronic medical records search. Differences in ultrasound (US) diagnostic performance, use of computed tomography (CT) following US, rates of appendicitis, imaging findings of appendicitis and perforation were compared between SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative tested patients, using pathology and surgery as reference standards for appendicitis and perforation, respectively. Fisher exact test and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: One thousand, six hundred and ninety-three patients < 18 years old met inclusion criteria, with 46% (772/1,693) female, 11 imaged with only CT and 1,682 with US. Comparing SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative patients, no statistically significant differences in sensitivity or specificity of US (P = 1 and P = 1, respectively), or in the US (P-values ranging from 0.1 to 1.0) or CT imaging findings (P-values ranging from 0.2 to 1.0) in appendicitis were found. Perforation rates were similar between SARS-CoV-2 positive (20/57, 35.1% perforated) and SARS-CoV-2 negative (359/785, 45.7% perforated) patients with appendicitis (P = 0.13). Use of CT following first-line US was similar, with 7/125 (5.6%) of SARS-CoV-2 positive imaged with CT after US and 127/1,557 (8.2%) of SARS-CoV-2 negative imaged with CT after US (P = 0.39). CONCLUSION: In pediatric patients with suspected appendicitis, no significant difference was found in the diagnostic performance of US, CT usage or perforation rates between SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative patients.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Ultrasonography
5.
Acad Radiol ; 28(11): 1500-1506, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372843

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To determine if, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 1) the proportion of complicated appendicitis changed, and 2) if imaging strategies for appendicitis in children changed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System, inclusive of pediatric patients diagnosed with appendicitis from March to May in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. We compared trends during COVID-19 pandemic (March-May 2020) with corresponding pre-COVID-19 periods in 2017-201.9 Study outcomes were the proportion of complicated appendicitis and trends in imaging for appendicitis explained by patient-level variables. RESULTS: The proportion of complicated appendicitis cases increased by 4.4 percentage points, from 46.5% pre-COVID-19 (2017-2019) to 50.9% during COVID-19 (2020), p < 0.001. Mean count of uncomplicated acute appendicitis cases decreased from pre-COVID-19 to the 2020 COVID-19 period (2017: n = 2555; 2018: n = 2679; 2019: n = 2722; 2020: n = 2231). Mean count of complicated appendicitis was unchanged between study periods (2017: n = 2189; 2018: n = 2302, 2019: n = 2442; 2020: n = 2311). Imaging approaches were largely unchanged between study periods; ultrasound was the most utilized modality in both study periods (68.3%, 70.2%; p = 0.033). CONCLUSION: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of complicated appendicitis cases increased without an absolute increase in the number of complicated appendicitis cases, but instead a decrease in the number of uncomplicated acute appendicitis diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Pediatr Radiol ; 51(11): 1991-1999, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a worldwide pandemic in March 2020, many authors have noted the collateral damage on non-COVID-19-related illnesses. These indirect effects of the pandemic have resulted in people presenting later and with more severe stages of disease, even if their diagnoses are not directly related to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We studied these indirect effects of COVID-19 on the imaging workup and outcomes for pediatric patients at our center who had acute appendicitis during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of cases in children ≤18 years who were evaluated for acute appendicitis during the same period, March 1 to May 31, in both 2019 and 2020. We compared demographic and clinical data as well as surgical and pathological findings, and we graded imaging findings according to severity. Differences in patient outcomes were assessed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the Pearson chi-square test. RESULTS: The total number of pediatric patients evaluated with imaging for acute appendicitis dropped by 43% between 2019 and 2020 (298 vs. 169), but the total number of children treated remained similar (59 vs. 51). There was proportionate use of US and CT in each timeframe but a higher percentage of positive imaging findings in 2020 (50/169, 29.6% vs. 56/298, 18.7% in 2019, P=0.04). There were more imaging examinations with features of complicated appendicitis among positive cases (9/51, 18% vs. 5/59, 8% in 2019, P=0.08) and more pathologically proven perforated cases during the pandemic (14/51, 27% vs. 6/59, 10% in 2019, P=0.11), although these results did not reach statistical significance. There were no changes in surgical management, vital signs, laboratory values, length of stay or complication rates. CONCLUSION: There was a large drop in the number of pediatric patients imaged for acute appendicitis during the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic despite similar numbers of patients treated. The utilization trends of US vs. CT remained stable between time periods. The differences in imaging findings and perforation rates were less pronounced compared to other published studies.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 258, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal symptoms are common presenting features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and can overlap with infectious or inflammatory abdominal conditions, making accurate diagnosis challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 16-year-old female who presented with clinical symptoms suggestive of appendicitis and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) that revealed features concerning for appendicitis. After laparoscopic appendectomy, histopathology of the appendix demonstrated only mild serosal inflammation and was not consistent with acute appendicitis. Her overall clinical presentation was felt to be consistent with MIS-C and she subsequently improved with immunomodulatory and steroid treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We note that MIS-C can mimic acute appendicitis. This case highlights MIS-C as a cause of abdominal imaging with features concerning for appendicitis, and MIS-C should be considered in the differential for a patient with appendicitis-like symptoms and a positive COVID-19 IgG. Lab criteria, specifically low-normal white blood cell count and thrombocytopenia, appears to be of high relevance in differing MIS-C from acute appendicitis, even when appendix radiologically is dilated.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Child , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 52-57, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244700

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, emergency department (ED) volumes have fluctuated. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) models could quantify changes in detection of acute abdominal pathology (acute appendicitis (AA), acute diverticulitis (AD), or bowel obstruction (BO)) on CT reports. METHODS: This retrospective study included 22,182 radiology reports from CT abdomen/pelvis studies performed at an urban ED between January 1, 2018 to August 14, 2020. Using a subset of 2448 manually annotated reports, we trained random forest NLP models to classify the presence of AA, AD, and BO in report impressions. Performance was assessed using 5-fold cross validation. The NLP classifiers were then applied to all reports. RESULTS: The NLP classifiers for AA, AD, and BO demonstrated cross-validation classification accuracies between 0.97 and 0.99 and F1-scores between 0.86 and 0.91. When applied to all CT reports, the estimated numbers of AA, AD, and BO cases decreased 43-57% in April 2020 (first regional peak of COVID-19 cases) compared to 2018-2019. However, the number of abdominal pathologies detected rebounded in May-July 2020, with increases above historical averages for AD. The proportions of CT studies with these pathologies did not significantly increase during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: Dramatic decreases in numbers of acute abdominal pathologies detected by ED CT studies were observed early on during the COVID-19 pandemic, though these numbers rapidly rebounded. The proportions of CT cases with these pathologies did not increase, which suggests patients deferred care during the first pandemic peak. NLP can help automatically track findings in ED radiology reporting.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Diverticulitis/diagnostic imaging , Emergency Service, Hospital , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Natural Language Processing , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Utilization Review
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