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2.
Int J Surg ; 95: 106148, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 a decrease of emergency consultations and modification in treatment of numerous medical conditions were observed. Aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence, treatment strategies, severity, length of hospital stay and time of presentation in adults and children with acute appendicitis. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases was performed, and eligible studies used to perform a meta-analysis. RESULTS: 46 suitable studies were identified with an overall reduction of appendicitis cases by 20.9% in adults and an increase of 13.4% in children. The rate of open appendectomies increased without statistical significance in both groups (adults: 8.5% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.32; children: 7.1% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.13), whereas the rate of antibiotic treatment increased significantly (P = 0.007; P = 0.03). Higher rates of complicated appendicitis were observed in adults (adults: OR 2.00, P < 0.0001; children: OR 1.64, P = 0.12). Time to first consultation did not change significantly (adults: 52.3 vs. 38.5 h - P = 0.057; children: 51.5 vs. 32.0 h - P = 0.062) and length of stay was also not lengthened during the pandemic (adults: 2.9 vs. 2.7 days, P = 0.057; children: 4.2 vs. 3.7 days, P = 0.062). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 had major impact on incidence and treatment strategies of acute appendicitis. Results of this meta-analysis might be another hint to support the theory that appendicitis is not a progressive disease and surgeons can safely consider antibiotic therapy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Adult , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(4): 250-254, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic stimulated a national lockdown in the UK. The public were advised to avoid unnecessary hospital attendances and health professionals were advised to avoid aerosol-generating procedures wherever possible. The authors hypothesised that these measures would result in a reduction in the number of patients presenting to hospital with acute appendicitis and alter treatment choices. METHODS: A multicentred, prospective observational study was undertaken during April 2020 to identify adults treated for acute appendicitis. Searches of operative and radiological records were performed to identify patients treated during April 2018 and April 2019 for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 190 patients were treated for acute appendicitis pre-lockdown compared with 64 patients treated during lockdown. Patients treated during the pandemic were more likely to have a higher American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score (p = 0.049) and to have delayed their presentation to hospital (2 versus 3 days, p = 0.03). During the lockdown, the use of computed tomography (CT) increased from 36.3% to 85.9% (p < 0.001), the use of an antibiotic-only approach increased from 6.2% to 40.6% (p < 0.001) and the rate of laparoscopic appendicectomy reduced from 85.3% to 17.2% (p < 0.001). The negative appendicectomy rate decreased from 21.7% to 7.1% during lockdown (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with a decreased incidence of acute appendicitis and a significant shift in the management approach. The increased use of CT allows the identification of simple appendicitis for conservative treatment and decreases the negative appendicectomy rate.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Conservative Treatment/methods , Conservative Treatment/trends , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Int J Surg ; 86: 32-37, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the Covid-19 pandemic, non-operative management for acute appendicitis (AA) was implemented in the UK. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and outcomes of conservative versus surgical management of AA during the pandemic. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted an observational study in a tertiary referral centre. Data was collected from all patients (≥16 years) with a diagnosis of AA between November 1, 2019 to March 10, 2020 (pre-COVID period) and March 10, 2020 to July 5, 2020 (COVID period). RESULTS: A total of 116 patients in the pre-COVID period were included versus 91 in the COVID period. 43.1% (n = 50) of patients pre-COVID were classified as ASA 2 compared to 26.4% (n = 24) during the COVID period (p-value = 0.042). 72.5% (n = 66) of the patients during the COVID period scored as high risk using the Alvarado score compared to 24.1% (n = 28) in the pre-COVID period (p-value<0.001). We observed a significant increase in radiological evaluation, 69.8% versus 87.5% of patients had a CT in the pre-COVID and COVID periods respectively (p-value = 0.008). 94.9% of patients were managed operatively in the pre-COVID period compared to 60.4% in the COVID period (p-value<0.001). We observed more open appendicectomies (37.3% versus 0.9%; p-value<0.001) during the COVID period compared to the pre-COVID period. More abscess formation and free fluid were found intraoperatively in the COVID period (p-value = 0.021 and 0.023 respectively). Re-attendance rate due to appendicitis-related issues was significantly higher in the COVID period (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Radiological diagnosis of AA was more frequent during the COVID period. More conservative management for AA was employed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and for those managed operatively an open approach was preferred. Intra-operative findings were suggestive of delayed presentation during the COVID period without this affecting the length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservative Treatment , Delayed Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(6): 657-664, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Appendectomy remains the gold standard for treating uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. However, the vermiform appendix may play a significant role in the immune system (secondary immune function) and maintain a reservoir of the normal microbiome for the human body. The aim of this study was to summarize the long-term effects after appendectomy and discuss whether appendectomy is suitable for all appendicitis patients. AREAS COVERED: A comprehensive and unbiased literature search was performed in PubMed. The terms 'appendix,' 'appendicitis,' 'appendectomy,' and 'endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy' were searched in the title and/or abstract. This review summarizes the long-term effects of appendectomy on some diseases in humans and describes three methods including appendectomy, medical treatment, and an 'organ-sparing' technique, named endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) to treat appendicitis. EXPERT OPINION: Appendectomy remains the first-line therapy for appendicitis. The patient's problem is appendix, not appendicitis. If we treat appendicitis, the problem should be resolved. During COVID-19, an initial antibiotic treatment of mild appendicitis represents a promising strategy. For patients who are worried about the long-term adverse effect after appendectomy and have a strong desire to preserve the appendix and are aware of the risk of appendicitis recurrence, medical treatment, or ERAT could be proposed.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Endoscopy , Humans , Patient Selection
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(20): 1907-1919, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy has been proposed as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of appendicitis. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, nonblinded, noninferiority, randomized trial comparing antibiotic therapy (10-day course) with appendectomy in patients with appendicitis at 25 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was 30-day health status, as assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire (scores range from 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating better health status; noninferiority margin, 0.05 points). Secondary outcomes included appendectomy in the antibiotics group and complications through 90 days; analyses were prespecified in subgroups defined according to the presence or absence of an appendicolith. RESULTS: In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776 to undergo appendectomy (96% of whom underwent a laparoscopic procedure). Antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of 30-day EQ-5D scores (mean difference, 0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.001 to 0.03). In the antibiotics group, 29% had undergone appendectomy by 90 days, including 41% of those with an appendicolith and 25% of those without an appendicolith. Complications were more common in the antibiotics group than in the appendectomy group (8.1 vs. 3.5 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.98); the higher rate in the antibiotics group could be attributed to those with an appendicolith (20.2 vs. 3.6 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 5.69; 95% CI, 2.11 to 15.38) and not to those without an appendicolith (3.7 vs. 3.5 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.45 to 2.43). The rate of serious adverse events was 4.0 per 100 participants in the antibiotics group and 3.0 per 100 participants in the appendectomy group (rate ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.50). CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of appendicitis, antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of results of a standard health-status measure. In the antibiotics group, nearly 3 in 10 participants had undergone appendectomy by 90 days. Participants with an appendicolith were at a higher risk for appendectomy and for complications than those without an appendicolith. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute; CODA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800785.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/surgery , Absenteeism , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendicitis/complications , Appendix/pathology , Fecal Impaction , Female , Health Status , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laparoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(20): 1985-1986, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920640
11.
J Pediatr Surg ; 56(5): 900-904, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643251

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the suspension of nonemergent surgeries throughout New York. Our tertiary care children's hospital pivoted towards a brief trial of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy in all patients in order to limit operating room (OR) utilization and avoid prolonged hospital stays. We describe our pandemic-based strategy for non-operative management (NOM) of appendicitis but with a limited duration of IV antibiotics. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of children treated for acute appendicitis at our center from 3/31/2020 to 5/3/2020 during the peak of the New York pandemic. We compared appendicitis volume to similar months in prior years. We evaluated failure of NOM, length of stay, and compared characteristics of children we successfully treated with our expanded NOM protocol to previously published inclusion criteria for NOM. RESULTS: 45.5% of children (25/55) with acute appendicitis underwent NOM. Of the 30 who underwent surgery, 13 had complicated appendicitis while 17 had simple appendicitis. Three patients were COVID-positive, although none had respiratory symptoms. The majority of patients presenting with acute appendicitis (78.2%) did not meet previously published criteria for NOM. CONCLUSIONS: We treated a similar volume of children with acute appendicitis during the pandemic compared to prior years. We applied non-operative management to nearly half our patients, even as we expanded inclusion criteria for NOM to reduce OR utilization, but limited the duration of the antibiotic trial to avoid prolonged hospital stays. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Hospitals , Humans , New York , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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