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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359190

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already become a global threat to the human population. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 leads to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Ocular abnormalities have been reported in association with COVID-19, but the nature of the impairments was not specified. Here, we report a case of a female patient diagnosed with glaucoma on re-hospitalization for ocular complications two months after being discharged from the hospital upon recovery from COVID-19. Meanwhile, the patient was found re-positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract. The infection was also diagnosed in the aqueous humor through immunostaining with antibodies against the N protein and S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the eye is an immune-privileged site, we speculate that SARS-CoV-2 survived in the eye and resulted in the patient testing re-positive for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aqueous Humor/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Glaucoma/pathology , Reinfection/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Eye/pathology , Eye/virology , Female , Glaucoma/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Cornea ; 40(3): 342-347, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066449

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine corneal tissue for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity regarding implications for tissue procurement, processing, corneal transplantation, and ocular surgery on healthy patients. We performed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction qRT-PCR-testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA on corneal stroma and endothelium, bulbar conjunctiva, conjunctival fluid swabs, anterior chamber fluid, and corneal epithelium of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) postmortem donors. METHODS: Included in this study were 10 bulbi of 5 COVID-19 patients who died because of respiratory insufficiency. Informed consent and institutional review board approval was obtained before this study (241/2020BO2). SARS-CoV-2 was detected by using a pharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage. Tissue procurement and tissue preparation were performed with personal protective equipment (PPE) and the necessary protective measures. qRT-PCR-testing was performed for each of the abovementioned tissues and intraocular fluids. RESULTS: The qRT-PCRs yielded no viral RNA in the following ocular tissues and intraocular fluid: corneal stroma and endothelium, bulbar-limbal conjunctiva, conjunctival fluid swabs, anterior chamber fluid, and corneal epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no SARS-CoV-2-RNA was detected in conjunctiva, anterior chamber fluid, and corneal tissues (endothelium, stroma, and epithelium) of COVID-19 donors. This implicates that the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection using corneal or conjunctival tissue is very low. However, further studies on a higher number of COVID-19 patients are necessary to confirm these results. This might be of high importance for donor tissue procurement, processing, and corneal transplantation.


Subject(s)
Aqueous Humor/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Cornea/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Corneal Diseases/genetics , Corneal Diseases/virology , Eye Banks , Eye Infections, Viral/genetics , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Tissue Donors , Tissue and Organ Procurement
3.
Exp Eye Res ; 201: 108273, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023565

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to study the intraocular occurrence of SARS-CoV-2. In postmortem examinations, aqueous humor and the vitreous samples were collected. All individuals were previously positive in nasopharyngeal swabbing and cause of death was respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Testing was done using quantitative RT-PCR. We included 16 aqueous humor and 16 vitreous samples for PCR testing. None of the results was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Human GAPDH genes to verify the presence of RNA was present in all aqueous humor samples (16/16, 100%) and 15/16 (93.8%) vitreous samples. In conclusion, this case series found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in the intraocular milieu.


Subject(s)
Aqueous Humor/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vitreous Body/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans
5.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 46(12): e61-e63, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910345

ABSTRACT

This case report describes a negative result for antigen testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus in an aqueous sample taken during the management of suspected herpes simplex keratitis from a patient with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 based on antigen testing of high nasal swab. The implications of no viral load detectable in the aqueous sample are discussed in context of routine phacoemulsification surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aqueous Humor/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Corneal Stroma/virology , Keratitis, Herpetic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Keratitis, Herpetic/drug therapy , Keratitis, Herpetic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Visual Acuity/physiology
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