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1.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785464

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We investigated the causes of low COVID-19 vaccination rates among a minority population and highlighted interventions for increasing the vaccination rate. Methods: We reviewed the experience during the mass vaccination campaign period among the Arab Bedouin (AB) in Israel, attempting to determine important causes of low vaccination rates and gathered information from real-life experience and through direct contact with the population during the campaign. Results: Causes for low vaccination rates in the AB are related to the health system infrastructure, crisis management strategies, and population characteristics. Long-standing socioeconomic inequalities, limited resources, and language and culture barriers present special challenges to the task of COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. Key interventions for increasing vaccination rates among minority populations include raising awareness, improving vaccination access, and directly targeting risk-groups. To maximize the effectiveness of these interventions they should be culturally adapted and executed according to the needs of each individual target community. Conclusion: Culturally adapted awareness campaigns, interventions, and improved access to vaccines can be accomplished by cooperation between relevant governing and community bodies to increase COVID-19 vaccination rates among minorities.


Subject(s)
Arabs , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Minority Groups , Vaccination
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 773141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775642

ABSTRACT

Background: Dubai (United Arab Emirates; UAE) has a multi-national population which makes it exceptionally interesting study sample because of its unique demographic factors. Objective: To stratify the risk factors for the multinational society of the UAE. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 560 patients sequentially admitted to inpatient care with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 was conducted. We studied patients' demographics, clinical features, laboratory results, disease severity, and outcomes. The parameters were compared across different ethnic groups using tree-based estimators to rank the ethnicity-specific disease features. We trained ML classification algorithms to build a model of ethnic specificity of COVID-19 based on clinical presentation and laboratory findings on admission. Results: Out of 560 patients, 43.6% were South Asians, 26.4% Middle Easterns, 16.8% East Asians, 10.7% Caucasians, and 2.5% are under others. UAE nationals represented half of the Middle Eastern patients, and 13% of the entire cohort. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity in COVID-19 patients. Subjective complaint of fever and cough were the chief presenting symptoms. Two-thirds of the patients had either a mild disease or were asymptomatic. Only 20% of the entire cohort needed oxygen therapy, and 12% needed ICU admission. Forty patients (~7%) needed invasive ventilation and fifteen patients died (2.7%). We observed differences in disease severity among different ethnic groups. Caucasian or East-Asian COVID-19 patients tended to have a more severe disease despite a lower risk profile. In contrast to this, Middle Eastern COVID-19 patients had a higher risk factor profile, but they did not differ markedly in disease severity from the other ethnic groups. There was no noticeable difference between the Middle Eastern subethnicities-Arabs and Africans-in disease severity (p = 0.81). However, there were disparities in the SOFA score, D-dimer (p = 0.015), fibrinogen (p = 0.007), and background diseases (hypertension, p = 0.003; diabetes and smoking, p = 0.045) between the subethnicities. Conclusion: We observed variations in disease severity among different ethnic groups. The high accuracy (average AUC = 0.9586) of the ethnicity classification model based on the laboratory and clinical findings suggests the presence of ethnic-specific disease features. Larger studies are needed to explore the role of ethnicity in COVID-19 disease features.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arabs , Humans , Retrospective Studies , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265695, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the current study, the views of Jordanian regarding sharing medical reports for research purposes were investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, motivators and barriers regarding sharing of medical records were examined. METHODS: This observational survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted using an electronic questionnaire during the COVID-19 pandemic (second half of 2020). The questionnaire link was disseminated through two social media platforms (WhatsApp and Facebook), targeting Jordanian adults (age >18 years). RESULTS: In this study, 1,194 participants agreed to complete the study survey. Results showed that 58.3% of them (n = 696) reported to be willing to share their medical data. while 17.6% of the participants (n = 210) showed hesitancy to share their medical information. The most important motivators as perceived by the study participants were helping other patients who have similar health conditions (n = 995, 83.3%). Moreover, fearing from stigma (n = 753, 63.1%), and the lack of confidence in data security and privacy (n = 728, 61.0%) were among the main barriers preventing participants from sharing their information. Finally, results showed that participants with higher educational level (bachelor or higher) (OR = 0.299, P<0.001), or those living in center of Jordan (OR = 0.270, P<0.001) showed a lower tendency to share their medical data. While participants those who have shared data before showed a higher tendency to share their medical data (OR = 2.524, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, many of the participants had a positive attitude towards sharing biomedical data for scientific research during the COVID-19 pandemic, many had doubts in the control over their data. Thus, policymakers and data users should address the concerns and values of patients and understand their preferences in favor of an ethically scrupulous use of data in research.


Subject(s)
Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Privacy/psychology , Adult , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/psychology , Computer Security , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Social Stigma , Young Adult
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 529, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in addition to the global economy are huge. Vaccination is a pivotal measure to decrease COVID-19 morbidity and mortality and to help bring the pandemic under control. Yet, success of the vaccination process depends on the population's willingness to be vaccinated which may be determined by their level of knowledge about and trust in currently available COVID-19 vaccines. Therefore, this study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and acceptance of Palestinians towards COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study was distributed in different Palestinian regions to assess the knowledge and attitude of Palestinians toward COVID-19 vaccines using an online questionnaire, it included three sections; sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge assessment questions, and attitude assessment questions. RESULTS: A total of 6226 participants completed the questionnaire; among them, 41.36% believed that vaccines are safe, 69.02% agreed that vaccines are vital to protect from COVID-19; in addition, 55.1% approve administering the vaccine once available, and 37.86% do not believe their benefits outweigh the risks. The Source of information for 22.07% of participants in social media, while 11.92% rely on health care providers. Participants' attitudes and knowledge were significantly affected by gender, governorate, age, education level, and marital status (P <0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that there is good knowledge and attitude toward the vaccination process against COVID-19 in Palestine, although low acceptance was detected. Awareness campaigns are required to spread reliable knowledge about COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Arabs , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics
5.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(2): 130-143, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743178

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is the first pandemic during which innovative technologies are being used to keep people connected, safe, and productive while being physically and socially apart. Aims: This study aimed to map health innovations in response to the pandemic in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Methods: Health innovations are defined as novel methods, models, processes, products, services, or a combination that produce notable public health impact in people, families, and communities at large. We used two approaches: an online survey using a specially designed data collection tool and a review of publicly available literature using PubMed, IMEMR, Google Scholar, Google, and INSERM search engines. Data collection was conducted between September 2020 and February 2021. Results: We describe 80 innovations in this region, of which 13 were identified through the online survey and 76 via literature review. For the purposes of this paper, we subclassified two-thirds of these innovations (n = 52; 65%) as "digital health innovations", including telehealth and telemedicine, surveillance, and contact tracing. The rest were classified as "non-digital health innovations", including prevention and clinical management. Conclusion: This mapping exercise provides baseline information on response to the pandemic by the public and private sectors, innovation hubs within and outside the region, as well as by entrepreneurs and innovators. In-depth studies measuring the impact of health innovations will likely only become available when the pandemic is under better control and experts are able to assess the replicability, sustainability and scalability of the health innovations introduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Arabs , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mediterranean Region/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 470, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exploring lived experiences of recovered COVID-19 patients might have scientific, social, and policy relevance that can apply to the healthcare infrastructure. This multi-center descriptive phenomenological study was conducted to explore lived experiences of Palestinian patients who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: This was a descriptive phenomenological study. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the study participants. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with patients who recovered from COVID-19 (n = 20). The interviews were transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological approach which consisted of the following steps: 1) familiarization, 2) identification of significant statements, 3) formulation of the meanings, 4) clustering the themes, 5) development of an exhaustive description of the phenomenon, 6) production of the fundamental structure, and 7) verification of the fundamental structure. RESULTS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 male and 6 female patients who recovered from COVID-19. The total duration of the interview time was 998 min (16.6 h). The qualitative data collected during the interviews were categorized into 5 major themes and 16 subthemes that exhaustively described the phenomenon. The major themes were relevant to: 1) emotions after learning about the infection, 2) experiencing social exclusion and stigma, 3) the experienced symptoms, 4) supportive treatments, herbs, rituals, and social support, 5) and life after recovery. CONCLUSION: The interviewees recounted experiencing negative emotions, social exclusion, and stigma because of their infection. It may be important for mental health promotion to be an integral part of the care plan for patients with COVID-19. More studies are still needed to investigate if introducing mental healthcare providers to the care team of patients with COVID-19 can improve the experiences of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arabs , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 766, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to overwhelm the capacity of a vulnerable healthcare system in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). We aimed to evaluate the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the level of preparedness among HCWs in the oPt. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated online questionnaire distributed through convenient sampling between March 30, 2020 and April 12, 2020. Outcomes were availability of PPE, healthcare workers (HCWs) preparedness in oPt for COVID-19 pandemic, and regional and hospital differences in oPt in terms of availability of PPE and HCWs preparedness. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were used in this study. RESULTS: Of 138 respondents, only 38 HCWs (27.5%) always had access to facemasks and 15 (10.9%) always had access to isolation gowns. Most HCWs did not find eye protection (n = 128, 92.8%), N95 respirators (n = 132, 95.7%), and face shields (n = 127, 92%) always available. Compared to HCWs in West Bank, those in the Gaza Strip were significantly less likely to have access to alcohol sanitizers (p = 0.03) and gloves (p < 0.001). On average, governmental hospitals were significantly less likely to have all appropriate PPE than non-governmental institutions (p = 0.001). Only 16 (11.6%) surveyed felt confident in dealing with a potential COVID-19 case, 57 (41.3%) having received any COVID-19-related training, and 57 (41.3%) not having a local hospital protocol. CONCLUSION: HCWs in oPt appear to be underprepared and severely lacking adequate PPE provision. The lack of PPE provision will exacerbate spread of COVID-19 and deepen the crisis, whilst putting HCWs at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Arabs , Asia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Middle East/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(1): 81-89, 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703066

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite discovery of effective vaccines, healthy behaviors and good practices remain the cornerstone of the prevention and control of COVID-19 and the mitigation of adverse impacts. This study aimed to assess the Palestinian population's COVID-19 prevention measures and correlate them with their knowledge, attitude, and background characteristics. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was performed between Dec 2020 and Jan 2021 on 1,451 respondents ≥18 years via an interviewer-administered questionnaire, comprising 35 questions assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 1,451 respondents, 768 were females (52.9%), the mean age was 32.8 ± 13.7 years, and 161 (11.1%) reported having been infected with the coronavirus. Overall, 38.7% (95%CI: 36.2-41.2%), 23.4% (95%CI: 21.3-25.7%), and 50.2% (95%CI: 47.6-52.9%) reported good knowledge, attitude, and practice, respectively. Respondents over 50 [aOR 1.9, 95%CI: 1.3-2.8], females [aOR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.4-2.2], and people who had COVID-19 infection [aOR1.7, 95%CI: 1.2-2.5] were more likely to report good practice. Participants with good attitude were 5. times more likely to report good practice than those with poor attitude [p-value < 0.001, aOR 5.7, 95%CI: 3.9-8.4]. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants are no ideal. A positive attitude is a crucial predictor of good practices for COVID-19 prevention and control. Public health interventions are essential for developing and sustaining positive attitudes and good practices and preventing misconceptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Arabs , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e045348, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685579

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks have increased in past years, and there is great public health interest in monitoring attitudes towards vaccination as well as identifying factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy and refusal. Although the WHO declared vaccine hesitancy as one of the top threats to global health in 2019, studies focused on the determinants and extent of vaccine hesitancy in Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are lacking. This scoping review explores the various factors surrounding vaccine hesitancy, including but not limited to geographic, cultural and religious factors, and examines the extent and nature of the existing evidence on this topic. In light of current development of various COVID-19 vaccines, our work seeks to elucidate the barriers to vaccine uptake in specific populations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will be conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Scoping Reviews. It will comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Studies published in English, Arabic and French between January 1998 and December 2020 will be drawn from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus. The search strategy will include terms related to vaccination and vaccine hesitancy in Arab countries in the MENA region. We will also include grey literature on the topic by searching Google and Google Scholar. Studies will be selected according to the Participants-Intervention-Comparators-Outcome model, and all study titles and abstracts will be screened by two reviewers. Disagreements will be resolved with a third reviewer's input. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review is exempted from ethical approval and will be published in a peer-reviewed open-access journal to ensure wide dissemination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , Arabs , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 29(1): 1-3, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642743
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262530, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of fasting on immunity is unclear. Prolonged fasting is thought to increase the risk of infection due to dehydration. This study describes antibiotic prescribing patterns before, during, and after Ramadan in a primary care setting within the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations in the UK, most of whom are Muslims, compared to those who do not observe Ramadan. METHOD: Retrospective controlled interrupted time series analysis of electronic health record data from primary care practices. The study consists of two groups: Pakistanis/Bangladeshis and white populations. For each group, we constructed a series of aggregated, daily prescription data from 2007 to 2017 for the 30 days preceding, during, and after Ramadan, respectively. FINDINGS: Controlling for the rate in the white population, there was no evidence of increased antibiotic prescription in the Pakistani/Bangladeshi population during Ramadan, as compared to before Ramadan (IRR: 0.994; 95% CI: 0.988-1.001, p = 0.082) or after Ramadan (IRR: 1.006; 95% CI: 0.999-1.013, p = 0.082). INTERPRETATION: In this large, population-based study, we did not find any evidence to suggest that fasting was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Fasting/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Arabs , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Islam , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Primary Health Care/trends , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 466, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2, severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is an RNA virus that emerged from China sweeping the globe in the form of a pandemic that became an international public health concern. This pilot study aimed to describe the genetic variation and molecular epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Palestine in fall 2020. RESULTS: To achieve these aims, whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2, phylogenetic analysis, haplotype networking and genetic diversity analysis were performed. These analyses revealed a unique spike mutation H245N that has never been reported before. The phylogenetic analysis depicted that three clusters existed in Palestinian SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, in which cluster-I comprised the majority of clusters by 90%. Congruently, the haplotype network analysis depicted the same three clusters with a total of 39 haplotypes. The genetic diversity analysis showed that Cluster-I is highly diverse as confirmed by statistically significant mutation rate indices, Tajima's D and Fu-Li's-F tests (- 2.11 and 2.74, respectively), highest number of mutations (Eta = 120), highest number of haplotypes (h = 17), and highest average number of nucleotide differences between any two sequences (S = 118). The study confirmed the high genetic diversity among the Palestinian of SARS-CoV-2 which possessed high number of mutations including one which was reported for the first time.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Arabs , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Middle East , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0009957, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to continue to inflect immense burdens of morbidity and mortality, not to mention the sever disruption of societies and economies worldwide. One of the major challenges to managing COVID-19 pandemic is the negative attitudes towards vaccines and the uncertainty or unwillingness to receive vaccinations. We evaluated the predictors and factors behind the negative attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines in 3 countries in the Middle East. METHODS: A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was conducted between the 1st and the 25th of December, 2020. Representative sample of 8619 adults residing in Jordan, West Bank, and Syria, completed the survey via the Web or via telephone interview. The survey intended to assess intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and to identify predictors of and reasons among participants unwilling/hesitant to get vaccinated. RESULTS: The total of the 8619 participants included in this study were the ones who answered the question on the intent to be vaccinated. Overall, 32.2% of participants (n = 2772) intended to be vaccinated, 41.6% (n = 3589) didn't intend to get vaccinated, and 26.2% (n = 2258) were not sure. The main factors associated with the willingness to take the vaccine (yes responses) included females, 18-35 years old, Syrians and Jordanians, a large family size, and having received a flu vaccine last year. Reasons for vaccine hesitancy included the lack of rigorous evaluation of the vaccine by the FDA and the possible long-term health risks associated with the vaccines (the wait-and-see approach). CONCLUSION: This survey, conducted in December when the number of cases and deaths per day due to COVID-19 were at or near peak levels of the initial surge in the three regions under investigation. The survey revealed that most of survey's participants (67.8%) were unwilling/hesitant to get vaccinated against COVID-19 with the lack of trust in the approval process of the vaccine being the main concern; the two main characteristics of those participants were more than 35 years old and participants holding a Bachelor's degree or higher. Targeted and multi-pronged efforts will be needed to increase acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine in Jordan, West Bank and Syria.


Subject(s)
Arabs/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intention , Jordan , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syria , Uncertainty , Young Adult
16.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 187, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic considers a threat to students' well-being and mental health. The current descriptive cross-sectional study aims to identify psychological distress among school students during the lockdown period. METHODS: This study was carried out in a sample of 420 primary and secondary school students from June 10 to July 13, 2020, in the Gaza Strip in Palestine. Data was collected using an online questionnaire that included informed consent, socio-demographic questions, and a psychometric scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: The results revealed that most students experienced moderate to severe levels of anxiety (89.1%) and depression (72.1%), whereas less than half of them (35.7%) experienced moderate to severe stress. Stress, anxiety and depression scores were significantly different across gender, age groups, family size, and family's economic status. The results showed that gender (ß = -0.174, p < 0.001), age (ß = -0.155, p = 0.001) and economic level of family (ß = -0.147, p = 0.002) were negative predictors correlated with stress. Family size (ß = 0.156, p = 0.001) played a positive role in stress. It was found that gender (ß = -0.105, p = 0.031), age (ß = -0.135, p = 0.006) and economic level of family (ß = -0.136, p = 0.005) were negative predictors correlated with anxiety, whereas family size (ß = 0.139, p = 0.004) played a positive role in anxiety. For depression, gender (ß = -0.162, p = 0.001), age (ß = -0.160, p = 0.001) and economic level of family (ß = -0.131, p = 0.007) were negative predictors correlated with depression, whereas family size (ß = -0.133, p = 0.006) was found to be a positive predictor. Concerns about the influence of COVID-19 on economic, education, and daily life were positively correlated to the levels of depression, anxiety and stress, whereas the availability of social support was negatively correlated. CONCLUSION: The development of a health protocol for influenced students is urgently needed to maintain them remain resilient during dangerous times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Arabs , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22379, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521772

ABSTRACT

Musculoskeletal pain is a major concern in our life due to its negative effects on our ability to perform daily functions. During COVID-19 pandemic, several countries switched their teaching programs into e-learning, where students spend long hour using electronic devices. The use of these devices was associated with several musculoskeletal complains among the students. The aim of this study is to evaluate the different body aches associated with e-learning on university students. The subjects of this study were students from An-Najah University in Palestine. 385 questionnaires were filled using Google forms questionnaire and all the subjects were using e-learning due to COVID-19 pandemic. Our study showed that a large percentage of participants used electronic devices for e-learning during the pandemic. The Duration of these devices use was correlated with duration and degree of pain, and associated with the difficulty in ability to perform several daily activities. Furthermore, most of the students used the sitting position with supine bent forward during the device usage. Thus, the university students that participated in this study had an increase in body aches during the e-learning process, and the aches duration and severity increases if the duration of electronic devices usage increase.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/trends , Musculoskeletal Pain/etiology , Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Female , Humans , Learning/physiology , Male , Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology , Pain/etiology , Pain/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Schools/trends , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(5): 927-928, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493801
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488558

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic revealed a faceless, non-adversarial threat that endangered Israelis and Palestinians with the same ferocity. However, the capacities of the health systems to address it were not equal, with Israel more equipped for the outbreak with infrastructure, resources, manpower and later, vaccines. The pandemic demonstrated the life-saving benefits of cooperation and the self-defeating harms brought by non-cooperation. These trends are explored here by an international team of public health and environmental scholars, including those from different sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This article explores the importance of recognizing the Israeli and Palestinian jurisdictions as a single epidemiological unit, and illustrates how doing so is a pragmatic positioning that can serve self-interest. We demonstrate how despite political shocks precipitating non-cooperation, there has been a recurrent tendency towards limited cooperation. The paper concludes with lessons over the need for reframing public health as a potential bridge, the need for structural changes creating sustainable platforms for accelerated transboundary cooperation to enable the steady management of current and future public and environmental health crises regardless of dynamic political crises, and the importance of civil society and international organizations in forging collaboration in advance of governmental engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Arabs , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Israel , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1590, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has hit the world in an unprecedented way causing serious repercussions on several aspects of our life. Multiple determinants have affected various nations' level of success in their responses towards the pandemic. The Arab Levant region in the Middle East, notoriously known for repeated wars and conflicts, has been affected, similarly to other regions, by this pandemic. The combination of war, conflict, and a pandemic brings too much of a burden for any nation to handle. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of data obtained from the health departments of various Arab Levant Countries (ALC) was performed. ALC include Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine. The data collected involves incidence, recovery rate, case fatality rate and number of tests performed per million population, Global Health Security index, government stringency index, and political stability index. The information obtained was compared and analyzed among the ALC and compared to global figures. An extensive electronic literature search to review all relevant articles and reports published from the region was conducted. The 2019 Global Health Security (GHS) index was obtained from the "GHS index" website which was made by John Hopkins University's center for health security, the Nuclear threat Initiative (NTI) and the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Government stringency index and political stability index were obtained from the University of Oxford and the website of "The Global Economy", respectively. Other world governance indicators such as government effectiveness were obtained from the World Bank website. RESULTS: In terms of incidence of COVID-19, Iraq has the highest with 9665 per one million population, Syria the lowest at 256 per million. Deaths per million population was highest in Iraq at 237, and the lowest in Syria at 12. As for number of tests per million population, Lebanon ranked first at 136,033 with Iraq fourth at 59,795. There is no data available for the tests administered in Syria and subsequently no value for tests per million population. In terms of recoveries from COVID-19 per million population, Iraq had the highest number at 7903 per million, and Syria the lowest at 68 per million. When compared as percent recovery per million, Palestine ranked first (84%) and Syria last (27%). The government response stringency index shows that Jordan had the highest index (100) early in the pandemic among the other countries. Palestine's index remained stable between 80 and 96. The other countries' indices ranged from 50 to 85, with Lebanon seeing a drop to 24 in mid-August. Even with improved stringency index, Iraq reported an increased number of deaths. CONCLUSION: In countries devastated by war and conflict, a pandemic such as COVID-19 can easily spread. The Arab Levant countries represent a breeding ground for pandemics given their unstable political and economic climate that has undoubtedly affected their healthcare systems. In the era of COVID-19, looking at healthcare systems as well as political determinants is needed to assess a country's readiness towards the pandemic. The unrest in Lebanon, the uprising in Iraq, the restrictions placed on Syria, and the economic difficulties in Palestine are all examples of determinants affecting pandemic management. Jordan, on the contrary, is a good example of a stable state, able to implement proper measures. Political stability index should be used as a predictor for pandemic management capacity, and individual measures should be tailored towards countries depending on their index.


Subject(s)
Arabs , COVID-19 , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syria/epidemiology
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