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1.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogota) ; 19(Especial de pandemias): 1-19, 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1780284

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el artículo reflexiona sobre las tensiones que atraviesan las profesiones vinculadas a los cuidados sanitarios en situaciones de crisis acontecidas en la historia de Argentina. Se consideran tres momentos en los cuales, ante situaciones de crisis políticas, epidemias y catástrofes naturales, las mujeres, en su rol naturalizado de cuidadoras, tuvieron un desempeño más visible. Desarrollo: se analiza la participación de una de las primeras médicas argentinas, Elvira Rawson, durante la Revolución del Parque (26 de julio de 1890, Buenos Aires) cuando, aun siendo estudiante, desafió los criterios establecidos y atendió heridos de bala sin distinguir filiación política. Luego, se reflexiona sobre el papel de un grupo de enfermeras (argentinas y estadounidenses) durante la epidemia de poliomielitis en 1943 y la creación de un controvertido método de rehabilitación ideado por una enfermera, Elizabeth Kenny. Por último, se examina al terremoto sucedido en la provincia de San Juan, en 1944, como un escenario que convocó vocaciones solidarias y estimuló el desarrollo de la enfermería en Argentina. Conclusiones: la retórica de la "vocación", el "amor al prójimo" o las "dotes naturalizadas otorgadas por el sexo" suelen ser rasgos que se acentúan durante crisis políticas, sociales y sanitarias. La pandemia de covid-19 renueva estrategias discursivas heroicas y sacrificiales que son insuficientes para reconocer los saberes profesionales asociados con las tareas de cuidados, al tiempo que ocultan las malas condiciones de trabajo y las desigualdades sexo-genéricas que se reproducen en el campo sociosanitario


Introduction: This article reflects on the tensions that occurred in healthcare professionals during crisis situations in the history of Argentina. Women, in their naturalized role as caregivers, played a more visible role in the face of political crises, epidemics, and natural disasters. Development: We analyzed the participation of one of the first Argentinean women doctors, Elvira Rawson, during the Revolution of the Park (July 26, 1890, Buenos Aires), when, although she was a student, she defied the establishment by treating gunshot victims, regardless of their political affiliation. We have then highlighted the role of a group of nurses (Argentinean and American) during the polio epidemic in 1943 and a controversial method of rehabilitation developed by Elizabeth Kenny. Finally, we examined the 1944 earthquake that occurred in the province of San Juan as a scenario that called for solidary vocations and stimulated the development of nursing in Argentina. Conclusions: The rhetoric of "vocation," "love of neighbor," or "naturalized gifts given by sex" are features that are often accentuated during political, social, and health crises. The covid-19 pandemic renews heroic and sacrificial discursive strategies that are insufficient to recognize the professional knowledge associated with caregiving tasks, while hiding substandard working conditions and gender inequalities that are reproduced within the social and healthcare fields


Introdução: o artigo reflete sobre as tensões que afetam as profissões relacionadas à saúde em situações de crise ocorridas na história da Argentina. São considerados três momentos em que, em situações de crises políticas, epidemias e catástrofes naturais, a mulher, em seu papel naturalizado de cuidadora, teve um papel mais visível. Desenvolvimento: é analisada a participação de uma das primeiras médicas argentinas, Elvira Rawson, durante a Revolução do Parque (26 de julho de 1890, Buenos Aires) quando, ainda como estudante, desafiou os critérios estabelecidos para tratar feridos à bala sem distinguir afi-liação política. Em seguida, se reflete sobre o papel de um grupo de enfermeiras (argentinas e norte--americanas) durante a epidemia de pólio em 1943 e o desenvolvimento de um polêmico método de reabilitação idealizado por uma enfermeira, Elizabeth Kenny. Por fim, examina-se o terremoto ocorrido na província de San Juan em 1944, como um cenário que convocou vocações solidárias e estimulou o desenvolvimento da enfermagem na Argentina. Conclusões: a retórica da "vocação", do "amor ao pró-ximo" ou dos "dons naturalizados concedidos pelo sexo" costumam ser traços que se acentuam nas crises políticas, sociais e de saúde. A pandemia covid-19 renova estratégias discursivas heroicas e sacrificiais insuficientes para reconhecer os saberes profissionais associados às tarefas de cuidado, ao mesmo tempo em que oculta as precárias condições de trabalho e as desigualdades de gênero que se reproduzem no campo sociossanitário


Subject(s)
Humans , Nurses , Argentina , Women, Working , Health Strategies , Caregivers , Delivery of Health Care , Disasters , Epidemics , Medical Assistance
2.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(4): 601-607, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780365

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of COVID-19 mortality and vaccination against COVID-19 in older adults. We used data from deaths due to COVID-19 and persons aged 70 years and older immunized with the first dose of vaccines against this disease, from districts of the province of Buenos Aires, between December 29, 2020, and June 30, 2021. Spatiotemporal scanning techniques were used to detect clusters. The parties of Greater Buenos Aires that had the highest vaccination rate with the first dose of the Sputnik V vaccine in population aged 70 years and older, between mid-March and early April 2021, also registered a decrease in mortality in this population, between the end of April and the end of June 2021. This study showed some signs of the positive impact associated with the application of the first dose of Sputnik V vaccine in Greater Buenos Aires.


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las variaciones espaciotemporales de la mortalidad por COVID-19 en adultos mayores y de la vacunación contra la COVID-19 en esta población. Se utilizaron datos de defunciones por COVID-19 y de personas de 70 a más años inmunizadas con la primera dosis de vacunas contra esta enfermedad, en partidos de la provincia de Buenos Aires, desde el 29 de diciembre del 2020 al 30 de junio de 2021. Se emplearon técnicas de escaneo espaciotemporal para detectar conglomerados. Los partidos del Gran Buenos Aires que tuvieron mayor vacunación con la primera dosis de la vacuna Sputnik V en población de 70 a más años, entre mediados de marzo y principios de abril de 2021, coincidieron mayormente en registrar una disminución de la mortalidad en esta población, entre finales de abril y finales de junio de 2021. Este estudio mostró algunos indicios del impacto positivo de la aplicación de la primera dosis de la vacuna Sputnik V en el Gran Buenos Aires.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5632, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773996

ABSTRACT

Psychological-distress increased at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina. Longitudinal studies in developing countries are scarce. Particularly, Argentina had one of the longest lockdowns. Differences in preventive measures against the virus spread between countries may differentially affect the mental health of the populations. Here we aimed to characterize distinct psychological-distress and related-symptoms trajectories associated with the pandemic and explore risk/protective factors. In this longitudinal study, data from 832 Argentineans were collected every 3-5 months, between April 2020-August 2021. Mean psychological-distress levels and related-symptoms tended to increase over time. However, latent-class analysis identified four distinct psychological-distress trajectories. Most individuals had consistently good mental health (Resilient). Two classes showed psychological-distress worsening during the initial phase of the pandemic and recovered at different time points (Fast Recovery; Slow Recovery). The remaining class maintained a mild -level of psychological-distress and began to deteriorate in March 2021 (Deteriorating) continuously. Individuals who are younger, female, have pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses, or have high neuroticism or lower resilience were more likely to experiencing fluctuations in psychological-distress. The mental health trajectory during the pandemic had a complex dynamic. Although most participants remained resilient, a vulnerable group was detected, which deteriorated over time and should be considered by health-services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 876-878, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770998

ABSTRACT

We describe a patient in Argentina with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Although both coronavirus disease and HPS can be fatal when not diagnosed and treated promptly, HPS is much more lethal. This case report may contribute to improved detection of co-infections in HPS-endemic regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Hantavirus , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans
5.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(2): 80-88, 2022 04.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766097

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current evidence indicates that the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lower in the pediatric population but local data are still limited. Objective: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 infection in patients younger than 18 years in Argentina. POPULATION AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational, and analytical study of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 0-18 years seen between March 2020 and March 2021 at 19 referral children's hospitals of Argentina. A multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of severe cases. RESULTS: A total of 2690 COVID-19 cases were included: 77.7% lived in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires; 50.1% were males; patients' median age was 5.6 years. Of them, 90% were seen during epidemiological weeks 20-47 of 2020; 60.4% had a history of contact with COVID-19 patients; and 96.6% in their family setting. Also, 51.4% had respiratory symptoms; 61.6%, general symptoms; 18.8%, gastrointestinal symptoms; 17.1%, neurological symptoms; 7.2%, other symptoms; and 21.5% were asymptomatic. In addition, 59.4% of patients were hospitalized and 7.4% had a severe or critical course. A total of 57 patients developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome. A history of asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, moderate to severe malnutrition, obesity, chronic neurological disease and/or age younger than 6 months were independent predictors of severity. Living in a vulnerable neighborhood was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of cases referred a history of contact with COVID-19 patients in the family setting. Hospitalization was not based on clinical criteria of severity. Severity was associated with the presence of certain comorbidities.


Introducción. La evidencia actual indica que la gravedad de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es menor en la población pediátrica, los datos locales aún son limitados. OBJETIVO: caracterizar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección por COVID-19 en menores de 18 años en Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional y analítico de casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 0 y 18 años asistidos entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021 en 19 centros pediátricos de referencia de Argentina. Se realizó un análisis multivariado para identificar las variables predictoras de cuadros graves. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 2690 casos de COVID-19: 77,7 % residentes del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, 50,1 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad de 5,6 años. El 90 % ocurrió entre las semanas epidemiológicas 2047 del 2020; 60,4 % con antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19; y 96,6 % en el entorno familiar. El 51,4 % presentó síntomas respiratorios; 61,6 % síntomas generales; 18,8 % síntomas gastrointestinales; 17,1 % síntomas neurológicos; 7,2 % otros y 21,5 % fueron asintomáticos. El 59,4 % fue hospitalizado; 7,4 % fueron graves o críticos. Se registraron 57 casos de síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico. El antecedente de asma, displasia broncopulmonar, cardiopatía congénita, desnutrición moderada a grave, obesidad, enfermedad neurológica crónica y/o edad menor de 6 meses resultaron predictores independientes de gravedad. Residir en barrios vulnerables resultó protector. CONCLUSIONES: Más de la mitad de los casos refirieron antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19 en el entorno familiar. La hospitalización no respondió a criterios clínicos de gravedad. La gravedad se encuentra asociada a la existencia de ciertas comorbilidades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Preliminary Data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263679, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reported cases of COVID-19 may be underestimated due to mild or asymptomatic cases and a low testing rate in the general population. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population and how it compares with the data on SARS-CoV-2 cases reported by a national health surveillance system (SNVS 2.0). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a population-based, seroepidemiological, cross-sectional study in the city of Puerto Madryn, a middle size city in the Province of Chubut, Argentina. The study period was between March 3 and April 17, 2021. The sample size was calculated using the technique of calculation of confidence intervals for a proportion. Participants were selected using stratified and cluster probability sampling. A total of 1405 subjects were invited to participate in the study. Participants were divided into the following four age groups: 1) 0 to 14, 2) 15 to 39, 3) 40 to 64, and 4) 65 or older. After informed consent was obtained, a blood sample was taken by puncture of the fingertip, and a structured questionnaire was administered to evaluate demographics, socioeconomic status, level of education, comorbidities and symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 seroprevalence was documented using an immunoenzymatic test for the in vitro detection of IgG antibodies specific to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 987 participants completed the survey. Seropositivity in the full study population was 39,2% and in those under 15 years of age, 47.1%. Cases reported by the SNSV 2.0 amounted to 9.35% of the total population and 1.4% of those under 15 years of age. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of COVID-19 infection in the general population is four times higher than the number of cases reported by the SNVS 2.0 in the city of Puerto Madryn. For each child under the age of 15 identified by the SNVS 2.0 with COVID-19, there are more than 30 unrecognized infections. Seroepidemiological studies are important to define the real extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a particular community. Children may play a significant role in the progression of the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Sample Size , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
Lancet ; 399(10331): 1254-1264, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In January, 2021, a vaccination campaign against COVID-19 was initiated with the rAd26-rAd5, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and BBIBP-CorV vaccines in Argentina. The objective of this study was to estimate vaccine effectiveness at reducing risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 deaths in people older than 60 years. METHODS: In this test-negative, case-control, and retrospective longitudinal study done in Argentina, we evaluated the effectiveness of three vaccines (rAd26-rAd5, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and BBIBP-CorV) on SARS-CoV-2 infection and risk of death in people with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19, using data from the National Surveillance System (SNVS 2.0). All individuals aged 60 years or older reported to SNVS 2.0 as being suspected to have COVID-19 who had disease status confirmed with RT-PCR were included in the study. Unvaccinated individuals could participate in any of the analyses. People with suspected COVID-19 who developed symptoms before the start of the implementation of the vaccination programme for their age group or district were excluded from the study. The odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection was evaluated by logistic regression and the risk of death in individuals with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 was evaluated by proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for possible confounders: age at the time of the symptom onset date, sex, district of residence, epidemiological week corresponding to the symptom onset date, and history of COVID-19. The estimation of vaccine effectiveness to prevent death due to COVID-19 was done indirectly by combining infection and death estimates. In addition, we evaluated the effect of the first dose of viral vector vaccines across time. FINDINGS: From Jan 31, to Sept 14, 2021, 1 282 928 individuals were included, of whom 687 167 (53·6%) were in the rAd26-rAd5 analysis, 358 431 (27·6%) in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 analysis, and 237 330 (18·5%) in the BBIBP-CorV analysis. Vaccine effectiveness after two doses was high for all three vaccines, adjusted odds ratio 0·36 (95% CI 0·35-0·37) for rAd26-rAd5, 0·32 (0·31-0·33) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and 0·56 (0·55-0·58) for BBIBP-CorV. After two doses, the effect on deaths was higher than that on risk of infection: adjusted hazard ratio 0·19 (95% CI 0·18-0·21) for rAd26-rAd5, 0·20 (0·18-0·22) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and 0·27 (0·25-0·29) for BBIBP-CorV. The indirectly estimated effectiveness on deaths was 93·1% (95% CI 92·6-93·5) for rAd26-rAd5, 93·7% (93·2-94·3) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and 85·0% (84·0-86·0) for BBIBP-CorV following two doses. First dose effect of viral vector vaccines remained stable over time. INTERPRETATION: The vaccines used in Argentina showed effectiveness in reducing infection and death by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Soins Gerontol ; 27(154): 30-38, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740178

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic with its associated quarantine and isolation has had a dramatic impact on the elderly. In order to mitigate this, the National University of La Plata and the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie set up a health surveillance and early warning project for the elderly in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This interventional study, has included 1,964 people. A general health and quality of life questionnaire was completed by all participants at the beginning of the isolation, and another time a year later.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Quarantine
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2447-2456, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1725047

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar los sentimientos y expectativas que genera el COVID-19 en Argentina durante la primera etapa de la pandemia. Se aplicó una encuesta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud adaptada al contexto local. Se incluyeron preguntas abiertas para indagar sentimientos de las personas frente al COVID-19, y se realizó un análisis de contenido. Como resultados se advierte que la población encuestada siente incertidumbre, miedo y angustia, pero también emerge un sentimiento de responsabilidad y cuidado frente al COVID-19. Así mismo se destacan sentimientos positivos para la sociedad como una valoración de la interdependencia social. Los resultados arribados señalan que el impacto en la salud mental es desigual según el género, el nivel educativo alcanzado y el confort percibido en el hogar. El estudio permite concluir que las dimensiones emocionales y vinculares de las personas resultan aspectos centrales ante la pandemia del COVID-19 en Argentina. Es recomendable que estas dimensiones, así como y su impacto subjetivo y social diferencial entre los diversos grupos poblacionales, sean consideradas en la planificación de políticas para afrontar el COVID-19.


Abstract The scope of this work is to explore the feelings and expectations that COVID-19 has generated in Argentina during the first stage of the pandemic. A survey of the World Health Organization adapted to the local context was applied. Open-ended questions were included to study people's feelings about COVID-19, and content analysis was subsequently conducted. In terms of results, it is revealed that the population surveyed feels uncertainty, fear and anguish, albeit a feeling of responsibility and care in the face of COVID-19 also emerges. Moreover, positive feelings regarding society stand out as an achievement of social interdependence. The results obtained show that the impact on mental health differs in accordance with gender, educational level, and perceived comfort in the home. The study concludes that the emotional and bonding dimensions of people are central to confronting the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina. It is recommended that these dimensions, as well as their subjective and differential social impact among the different population groups, should be considered in the planning of policies to address the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emotions , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Anxiety/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Uncertainty , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Educational Status , Fear , Health Impact Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263047, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677582

ABSTRACT

Fitting Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) models to incidence data is problematic when not all infected individuals are reported. Assuming an underlying SIR model with general but known distribution for the time to recovery, this paper derives the implied differential-integral equations for observed incidence data when a fixed fraction of newly infected individuals are not observed. The parameters of the resulting system of differential equations are identifiable. Using these differential equations, we develop a stochastic model for the conditional distribution of current disease incidence given the entire past history of reported cases. We estimate the model parameters using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling of the posterior distribution. We use our model to estimate the transmission rate and fraction of asymptomatic individuals for the current Coronavirus 2019 outbreak in eight American Countries: the United States of America, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Panama, from January 2020 to May 2021. Our analysis reveals that the fraction of reported cases varies across all countries. For example, the reported incidence fraction for the United States of America varies from 0.3 to 0.6, while for Brazil it varies from 0.2 to 0.4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Brazil/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Markov Chains , Mexico/epidemiology , Panama/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Stochastic Processes , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 392-395, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672207

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of reports on the characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in infants, because most studies have grouped infants with older children. We analyzed the viral loads of 45318 SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples obtained in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infants younger than 6 months presented higher viral loads than any other age group. Children older than 6 months showed significantly lower viral loads, similar to those founds in adults. This observation raises new questions regarding the role of infants in the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667138

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe patients' demographic characteristics and treatment delivered in private and public dental emergency clinics and to compare them with a pre-pandemic period. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out on patients attending the University Dental Hospital of the University of Buenos Aires and on one private dental clinic, situated in Buenos Aires, between March and June of 2019 and 2020. The sample considered all the patients' medical records of those requiring emergency dental treatment at these centers during that period. We systematize the treatments required and delivered by the emergency providers into categories. In 2019, 36,071 patients were treated at the university dental hospital and the private clinic. In 2020, 7485 patients received emergency treatment, showing a fivefold reduction. During a pre-pandemic period, in 2019, both oral care centers provided 44,894 treatments, around three times the treatments provided in 2020 during the same period. We have found significant differences in the age groups of people who required emergency treatment in the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. During the pandemic period, the most represented types of treatment were radiographic exams (3061) and tooth extractions (2583). Conversely, during the pre-pandemic period, the most frequent treatments were radiographic examinations (16,649) and general consultations (10,591). The percentages of all types of treatments differ significantly between the two years except for pediatric consultations and prosthetics emergencies. As the pandemic is still an ongoing sanitary problem, urgent dental care patterns should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Argentina/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Treatment , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0009954, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is endemic in Latin America; however, its spread to nontropical areas has raised global interest in this condition. Barriers in access to early diagnosis and treatment of both acute and chronic infection and their complications have led to an increasing disease burden outside of Latin America. Our goal was to identify those barriers and to perform an additional analysis of them based on the Inter American Society of Cardiology (SIAC) and the World Heart Federation (WHF) Chagas Roadmap, at a country level in Argentina, Colombia, Spain, and the United States, which serve as representatives of endemic and nonendemic countries. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a nonsystematic review of articles published in indexed journals from 1955 to 2021 and of gray literature (local health organizations guidelines, local policies, blogs, and media). We classified barriers to access care as (i) existing difficulties limiting healthcare access; (ii) lack of awareness about CD and its complications; (iii) poor transmission control (vectorial and nonvectorial); (iv) scarce availability of antitrypanosomal drugs; and (v) cultural beliefs and stigma. Region-specific barriers may limit the implementation of roadmaps and require the application of tailored strategies to improve access to appropriate care. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple barriers negatively impact the prognosis of CD. Identification of these roadblocks both nationally and globally is important to guide development of appropriate policies and public health programs to reduce the global burden of this disease.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/psychology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina/epidemiology , Awareness , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/transmission , Colombia/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Social Stigma , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1603, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661978

ABSTRACT

In a world being hit by waves of COVID-19, vaccination is a light on the horizon. However, the roll-out of vaccination strategies and their influence on the pandemic are still open questions. In order to compare the effect of various strategies proposed by the World Health Organization and other authorities, a previously developed SEIRS stochastic model of geographical spreading of the virus is extended by adding a compartment for vaccinated people. The parameters of the model were fitted to describe the pandemic evolution in Argentina, Mexico and Spain to analyze the effect of the proposed vaccination strategies. The mobility parameters allow to simulate different social behaviors (e.g. lock-down interventions). Schemes in which vaccines are applied homogeneously in all the country, or limited to the most densely-populated areas, are simulated and compared. The second strategy is found to be more effective. Moreover, under the current global shortage of vaccines, it should be remarked that immunization is enhanced when mobility is reduced. Additionally, repetition of vaccination campaigns should be timed considering the immunity lapse of the vaccinated (and recovered) people. Finally, the model is extended to include the effect of isolation of detected positive cases, shown to be important to reduce infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Immunization Programs/methods , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mexico , Social Behavior , Spain , Stochastic Processes , Travel
15.
J Anxiety Disord ; 86: 102531, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616558

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a novel, unprecedented situation that has created considerable uncertainty due in part to the unpredictability of the future situation. Intolerance of Uncertainty is the inability to withstand negative uncertain situations, and predisposes people to overestimate threats and to develop psychopathological symptoms. The aim of this study was to longitudinally analyze the relationship between intolerance of COVID-19-related uncertainty and anxiety and depression symptoms. A non-probabilistic online snowball sampling method was used. For the study, 1230 Argentine adults (216 men; 1005 women; 9 other genders; mean age = 41.62; SD = 13.81) were recruited to complete three open-access surveys at three different time points: (1) between May 6 and June 1, 2020, (2) between August 8 and 13, 2020, and (3) between April 17 and 23, 2021. The results suggest that anxiety and depressive symptoms increase over time, and that intolerance of uncertainty is a predictor of this variability even up to eleven months after the initial assessment. Gender- and age- related effects were also observed (women and young people reported more psychopathological symptoms). The findings suggest the importance of intolerance of uncertainty for mental health and the importance of this type of study for understanding the psychological impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Argentina/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28333, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595522

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In addition to the implications that this pandemic has had on physical health, there are other circumstances that threaten the mental health of the population, such as lockdown measures to prevent the spread of the virus, uncertainty, and the increase in infections and deaths. For this reason, this study explored indicators of psychological distress in the Argentine population, as well as its relationship with sociodemographic and health variables.Cross-sectional observational study, with data collection from May to August 2020. A total of 1112 people over the age of 18 who responded to various measurement instruments through an online questionnaire participated. A bivariate analysis and logistic regression were carried out in order to determine predictive factors of psychological distress.The data revealed that 60.9% of the sample presented psychological distress. A greater number with this condition was observed in women, apart from younger people, with a greater number of symptoms associated with the disease and with worse self-perceived health. There was no evidence of association between psychological distress and contact with people infected with coronavirus disease 2019 or with material suspicious of being infected.This research provided an overview of the mental health status of a significant population sample in Argentina, months after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. These findings complement those found in other national and international studies, allowing the accumulation of evidence that states the need to demand to draw attention to the mental health of the population, especially the most vulnerable groups, on behalf of the public authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
17.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(1): 39-45, 2022 02.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580015

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Argentina established a preventive and mandatory social isolation policy (ASPO, for its acronym in Spanish) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To explore the behaviors and habits of the adolescent population during the ASPO and the extent of compliance. POPULATION AND METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative, cross sectional study in Argentine adolescents aged 12-20 years. An anonymous, semi-structured questionnaire was administered during epidemiological weeks 34 to 36. RESULTS: A total of 1535 questionnaires were analyzed. Participants' average age was 16 years; 72% were females. Non-compliance with the ASPO during the first 3 months was 27% versus 59% during the past month. A good to excellent family environment was described by 73%, and 87% performed educational activities. The average non-educational screen time was 6.8 hours per day. Results. A total of 1535 questionnaires were analyzed. Participants' average age was 16 years; 72% were females. Non-compliance with the ASPO during the first 3 months was 27% versus 59% during the past month. A good to excellent family environment was described by 73%, and 87% performed educational activities. The average non-educational screen time was 6.8 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: Most adolescents maintained their educational activities, spent a lot of noneducational screen time, and referred a low drug use. Adherence to the ASPO decreased progressively over time. The main positive aspects were strengthening family bonds and discovering or returning to activities; whereas negative aspects were emotional distress and not being able to see family members or friends.


Introducción. En marzo de 2020 comenzó en Argentina el aislamiento social, preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO) debido a la pandemia por COVID-19. Objetivo. Explorar las conductas y hábitos de la población adolescente durante el ASPO y su grado de acatamiento. Población y métodos. Estudio cualicuantitativo de corte transversal en adolescentes de Argentina entre 12 y 20 años. Se envió un cuestionario semiestructurado anónimo durante las semanas epidemiológicas 34 a 36. Resultados. Se analizaron 1535 cuestionarios. La edad promedio fue 16 años, el 72 % de sexo femenino. El incumplimiento del ASPO durante los primeros 3 meses fue del 27 % frente el 59 % durante el último mes. El 73 % refirió un clima familiar bueno a excelente y el 87 % realizó actividades educativas. El tiempo promedio de pantallas sin fines educativos fue de 6,8 horas por día. INTRODUCCIÓN El adolescente, como sujeto social, participa de un mundo de relaciones primarias y secundarias que lo contienen, afectan y transforman. Durante la adolescencia, los seres humanos experimentamos una serie de cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales, conocidos como crisis de la adolescencia, una crisis vital y normativa. Cualquier otra crisis que aparezca en ese momento afectará la búsqueda de independencia y de interacción social característica de esta etapa.1 El 70 % manifestó que no consumió drogas durante el último mes. Describieron como aspectos positivos: afianzar vínculos familiares (34 %) y descubrir o retomar actividades (20 %); y como negativos: malestares emocionales (23 %) y no ver a la familia o a los amigos (21 %). a. Sección de Adolescencia, Servicio de Clínica Pediátrica, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Correspondencia: Alfredo Eymann: alfredo.eymann@ hospitalitaliano.org.ar Financiamiento: Ninguno. Conflicto de intereses: Ninguno que declarar. Recibido: 31-5-2021 Aceptado: 26-8-2021 Conclusiones. La mayoría de los adolescentes mantuvo actividades educativas, estuvo un elevado tiempo en pantallas sin fines educativos y refirió un bajo consumo de drogas. El cumplimiento del ASPO fue decreciendo a lo largo del tiempo. Los principales aspectos positivos fueron afianzar vínculos familiares y descubrir o retomar actividades, y los negativos, malestares emocionales y no poder ver a la familia o a los amigos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(1): e105-e113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have established the high effectiveness and safety of medication abortion in clinical settings. However, barriers to clinical abortion care have shifted most medication abortion use to out-of-clinic settings, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given this shift, we aimed to estimate the effectiveness of self-managed medication abortion (medication abortion without clinical support), and to compare it to effectiveness of clinician-managed medication abortion. METHODS: For this prospective, observational cohort study, we recruited callers from two safe abortion accompaniment groups in Argentina and Nigeria who requested information on self-managed medication abortion. Before using one of two medication regimens (misoprostol alone or in combination with mifepristone), participants completed a baseline survey, and then two follow-up phone surveys at 1 week and 3 weeks after taking pills. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants reporting a complete abortion without surgical intervention. Legal restrictions precluded enrolment of a concurrent clinical control group; thus, a non-inferiority analysis compared abortion completion among those in our self-managed medication abortion cohort with abortion completion reported in historical clinical trials using the same medication regimens, restricted to participants with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation. This study was registered with ISCRTN, ISRCTN95769543. FINDINGS: Between July 31, 2019, and April 27, 2020, we enrolled 1051 participants. We analysed abortion outcomes for 961 participants, with an additional 47 participants reached after the study period. Most pregnancies were less than 12 weeks' duration. Participants in follow-up self-managed their abortions using misoprostol alone (593 participants) or the combined regimen of misoprostol plus mifepristone (356 participants). At last follow-up, 586 (99%) misoprostol alone users and 334 (94%) combined regimen users had a complete abortion without surgical intervention. For those with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation, both regimens were non-inferior to medication abortion effectiveness in clinical settings. INTERPRETATION: Findings from this prospective cohort study show that self-managed medication abortion with accompaniment group support is highly effective and, for those with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation, non-inferior to the effectiveness of clinician-managed medication abortion administered in a clinical setting. These findings support the use of remote self-managed models of early abortion care, as well as telemedicine, as is being considered in several countries because of the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: David and Lucile Packard Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the Arabic, French, Bahasa Indonesian, Spanish and Yoruba translations of the Article see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Self Administration , Self-Management/methods , Abortifacient Agents/administration & dosage , Argentina , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Mifepristone/administration & dosage , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Nigeria , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(6): 501-505, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are reports on COVID-19 in pediatrics, the characteristics of the population of each country, its health systems, and how the pandemic was addressed could give the disease distinctive features worldwide. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a tertiary pediatric hospital in the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study, including all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from 04/26/2020 to 10/31/2020 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. We described the demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: During the period studied, 578 patients were hospitalized with COVID-19. The median age was 4.2 years, and 83% reported close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case. Regarding severity, 30.8% were asymptomatic, and 60.4% showed mild, 7.4% moderate, and 1.4% severe symptoms. Among symptomatic patients, fever was the most frequent symptom, followed by sore throat and cough. CONCLUSIONS: We reported 578 cases of children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19, of which the majority showed mild or asymptomatic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Argentina/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569335

ABSTRACT

The spread of misinformation is a global phenomenon, with implications for elections, state-sanctioned violence, and health outcomes. Yet, even though scholars have investigated the capacity of fact-checking to reduce belief in misinformation, little evidence exists on the global effectiveness of this approach. We describe fact-checking experiments conducted simultaneously in Argentina, Nigeria, South Africa, and the United Kingdom, in which we studied whether fact-checking can durably reduce belief in misinformation. In total, we evaluated 22 fact-checks, including two that were tested in all four countries. Fact-checking reduced belief in misinformation, with most effects still apparent more than 2 wk later. A meta-analytic procedure indicates that fact-checks reduced belief in misinformation by at least 0.59 points on a 5-point scale. Exposure to misinformation, however, only increased false beliefs by less than 0.07 points on the same scale. Across continents, fact-checks reduce belief in misinformation, often durably so.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Global Warming , Information Dissemination , Recognition, Psychology/physiology , Social Media/supply & distribution , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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