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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149578, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525945

ABSTRACT

In the current pandemic of COVID-19, sewage surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 genome has been used to complement viral epidemiology in different countries. The aim of this work was to introduce and evaluate this wastewater-based tool in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires, Argentina. As a pilot study, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater from three districts of this area was performed for more than nine months from June 2020 to April 2021. Viruses present in the samples were concentrated using polyethylene glycol precipitation and quantified using RT-qPCR CDC N1 assay. Virus recovery for SARS-CoV-2 and a potential surrogate, bovine coronavirus Mebus strain, that shares the Betacoronavirus genus and structural characteristics with SARS-CoV-2, were evaluated after concentration and detection procedures. Recovery of both viruses did not differ significantly, with a median for SARS-CoV-2 and BCoV of 0.085 (95% CI: 0.021-0.179) and 0.262 (95% CI: 1.18 × 10-5-0.564) respectively. The concentration of SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater ranged from 10 -1 to 10 3 cg/ml, depending on the wastewater treatment plant, type of collection site, viral recovery of the concentration method and the epidemiological situation of the outbreaks. Significant correlations were observed between SARS-CoV-2 concentration in wastewater and reported clinical cases, reinforcing the utility of this approach to monitor the epidemiological status of populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , Animals , Argentina/epidemiology , Cattle , Humans , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Gen Virol ; 102(11)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522470

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread worldwide as a severe pandemic, and a significant portion of the infected population may remain asymptomatic. Given this, five surveys were carried out between May and September 2020 with a total of 3585 volunteers in the municipality of Foz do Iguaçu, State of Paraná, a triple border region between Brazil/Argentina/Paraguay. Five months after the first infection, volunteers were re-analysed for the production of IgG anti-Spike and anti-RBD-Spike, in addition to analyses of cellular immunity. Seroconversion rates ranged from 4.4 % to a peak of 37.21 % followed by a reduction in seroconversion to 21.1 % in September, indicating that 25 % of the population lost their circulating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 3 months after infection. Analyses after 5 months of infection showed that only 17.2 % of people still had anti-RBD-Spike antibodies, however, most volunteers had some degree of cellular immune response. The strategy of letting people become naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 to achieve herd immunity is flawed, and the first contact with the virus may not generate enough immunogenic stimulus to prevent a possible second infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Argentina/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/virology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2130800, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490643

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although there are reports of COVID-19 vaccine implementation in real-world populations, these come from high-income countries or from experience with messenger RNA technology vaccines. Data on outcomes of vaccine deployment in low- or middle-income countries are lacking. Objective: To assess whether the pragmatic application of the 3 COVID-19 vaccines available in Argentina, 2 of which have no reports of evaluation in real-world settings to date, were associated with a reduction in morbidity, all-cause mortality, and mortality due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used individual and ecological data to explore outcomes following vaccination with rAd26-rAd5, ChAdOx1, and BBIBP-CorV. To correct for differences in exposure times, results are shown using incidence density per 100 000 person-days from the start of the vaccination campaign (December 29, 2020) to the occurrence of an event or the end of follow-up (May 15, 2021). Participants included 663 602 people aged at least 60 years residing in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Statistical analysis was performed from June 1 to June 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, death from all causes, and death within 30 days of a diagnosis of COVID-19. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate associations with all 3 outcomes. Results: Among 663 602 residents of the city of Buenos Aires included in the study, 540 792 (81.4%) were vaccinated with at least 1 dose, with 457 066 receiving 1 dose (mean [SD] age, 74.5 (8.9) years; 61.5% were female [n = 281 284]; 68.0% [n = 310 987] received the rAd26-rAd5 vaccine; 29.5% [n = 135 036] received ChAdOx1; 2.4% [n = 11 043] received BBIBP-CorV) and 83 726 receiving 2 doses (mean [SD] age, 73.4 [6.8] years; 63.5% were female [n = 53 204]). The incidence density of confirmed COVID-19 was 36.25 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 35.80-36.70 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who did not receive a vaccine, 19.13 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 18.63-19.62 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who received 1 dose, and 4.33 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 3.85-4.81 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who received 2 doses. All-cause mortality was 11.74 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 11.51-11.96 cases/100 000 person-days), 4.01 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 3.78-4.24 cases/100 000 person-days) and 0.40 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.26-0.55 cases/100 000 person-days). COVID-19-related-death rate was 2.31 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 2.19-2.42 cases/100 000 person-days), 0.59 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.50-0.67 cases/100 000 person-days), and 0.04 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.0-0.09 cases/100 000 person-days) among the same groups. A 2-dose vaccination schedule was associated with an 88.1% (95% CI, 86.8%-89.2%) reduction in documented infection, 96.6% (95% CI, 95.3%-97.5%) reduction in all-cause death, and 98.3% (95% CI, 95.3%-99.4%) reduction in COVID-19-related death. A single dose was associated with a 47.2% (95% CI, 44.2%-50.1%) reduction in documented infection, 65.8% (95% CI, 61.7%-69.5%) reduction in all-cause death, and 74.5% (95% CI, 66%-80.8%) reduction in COVID-19-related death. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that within the first 5 months after the start of the vaccination campaign, vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in COVID-19 infection as well as a reduction in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/methods , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccine Potency
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical features and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections diverge in different countries. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes in a cohort of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 in Argentina. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study of ≥18 years-old patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection consecutively admitted to 19 hospitals in Argentina. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify variables associated with 30-day mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: A total of 809 patients were analyzed. Median age was 53 years, 56% were males and 71% had at least one comorbidity. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (32%), obesity (23%) and diabetes (17%). Disease severity at admission was classified as mild 25%, moderate 51%, severe 17%, and critical 7%. Almost half of patients (49%) required supplemental oxygen, 18% ICU, and 12% invasive ventilation. Overall, 30-day mortality was 11%. Factors independently associated with ICU admission were male gender (OR 1.81; 95%CI 1.16-2.81), hypertension (OR 3.21; 95%CI 2.08-4.95), obesity (OR 2.38; 95%CI 1.51-3.7), oxygen saturation ≤93% (OR 6.45; 95%CI 4.20-9.92) and lymphopenia (OR 3.21; 95%CI 2.08-4.95). Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality included age ≥60 years-old (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.63-4.43), oxygen saturation ≤93% (OR 3.19; 95%CI 1.97-5.16) and lymphopenia (OR 2.65; 95%CI 1.64-4.27). CONCLUSIONS: This cohort validates crucial clinical data on patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 in Argentina.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 989-998, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 has greatly affected many low-income and middle-income countries, detailed information about patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is still scarce. Our aim was to examine ventilation characteristics and outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 in Argentina, an upper middle-income country. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre cohort study (SATICOVID), we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 who were on invasive mechanical ventilation and admitted to one of 63 ICUs in Argentina. Patient demographics and clinical, laboratory, and general management variables were collected on day 1 (ICU admission); physiological respiratory and ventilation variables were collected on days 1, 3, and 7. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. All patients were followed until death in hospital or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality, identification of independent predictors of mortality, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, and patterns of change in physiological respiratory and mechanical ventilation variables. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04611269, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between March 20, 2020, and Oct 31, 2020, we enrolled 1909 invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19, with a median age of 62 years [IQR 52-70]. 1294 (67·8%) were men, hypertension and obesity were the main comorbidities, and 939 (49·2%) patients required vasopressors. Lung-protective ventilation was widely used and median duration of ventilation was 13 days (IQR 7-22). Median tidal volume was 6·1 mL/kg predicted bodyweight (IQR 6·0-7·0) on day 1, and the value increased significantly up to day 7; positive end-expiratory pressure was 10 cm H2O (8-12) on day 1, with a slight but significant decrease to day 7. Ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 160 (IQR 111-218), respiratory system compliance 36 mL/cm H2O (29-44), driving pressure 12 cm H2O (10-14), and FiO2 0·60 (0·45-0·80) on day 1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 1672 (87·6%) of patients; 1176 (61·6%) received prone positioning. In-hospital mortality was 57·7% (1101/1909 patients) and ICU mortality was 57·0% (1088/1909 patients); 462 (43·8%) patients died of refractory hypoxaemia, frequently overlapping with septic shock (n=174). Cox regression identified age (hazard ratio 1·02 [95% CI 1·01-1·03]), Charlson score (1·16 [1·11-1·23]), endotracheal intubation outside of the ICU (ie, before ICU admission; 1·37 [1·10-1·71]), vasopressor use on day 1 (1·29 [1·07-1·55]), D-dimer concentration (1·02 [1·01-1·03]), PaO2/FiO2 on day 1 (0·998 [0·997-0·999]), arterial pH on day 1 (1·01 [1·00-1·01]), driving pressure on day 1 (1·05 [1·03-1·08]), acute kidney injury (1·66 [1·36-2·03]), and month of admission (1·10 [1·03-1·18]) as independent predictors of mortality. INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation, lung-protective ventilation was widely used but mortality was high. Predictors of mortality in our study broadly agreed with those identified in studies of invasively ventilated patients in high-income countries. The sustained burden of COVID-19 on scarce health-care personnel might have contributed to high mortality over the course of our study in Argentina. These data might help to identify points for improvement in the management of patients in middle-income countries and elsewhere. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tidal Volume , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
Public Health ; 195: 118-122, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a longitudinal study to analyze emotions that are related to the development of creative activities during isolation and social distancing that are associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: The study was performed in two stages: beginning of isolation (April 2020) and 6 months later during the social distancing period (September 2020). METHODS: A total of 305 people who resided in medium-sized cities (population: 50,000 to one million) in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, participated in the study. In the first stage, the participants answered an online questionnaire about creative activities in which they engaged during isolation. In the second stage, semistructured interviews were conducted that asked about changes in life, creative processes, and new endeavors during the social distancing period. RESULTS: In April 2020, positive emotions were associated with the development of creative activities. In September 2020, a predominance of negative emotions that were related to economic, family, and personal difficulties was observed. However, some positive emotions that are related to the development of new ventures and the consolidation of healthy and sustainable habits were also found. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the value of creativity as a resilience factor in the development of new projects and postponed activities. Our findings may contribute to the design and development of policies and programs to promote mental health in times of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Creativity , Emotions , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009161, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388959

ABSTRACT

We report the emergency development and application of a robust serologic test to evaluate acute and convalescent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Argentina. The assays, COVIDAR IgG and IgM, which were produced and provided for free to health authorities, private and public health institutions and nursing homes, use a combination of a trimer stabilized spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD) in a single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate. Over half million tests have already been distributed to detect and quantify antibodies for multiple purposes, including assessment of immune responses in hospitalized patients and large seroprevalence studies in neighborhoods, slums and health care workers, which resulted in a powerful tool for asymptomatic detection and policy making in the country. Analysis of antibody levels and longitudinal studies of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in over one thousand patient samples provided insightful information about IgM and IgG seroconversion time and kinetics, and IgM waning profiles. At least 35% of patients showed seroconversion within 7 days, and 95% within 45 days of symptoms onset, with simultaneous or close sequential IgM and IgG detection. Longitudinal studies of asymptomatic cases showed a wide range of antibody responses with median levels below those observed in symptomatic patients. Regarding convalescent plasma applications, a protocol was standardized for the assessment of end point IgG antibody titers with COVIDAR with more than 500 plasma donors. The protocol showed a positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titers, and was used for clinical trials and therapies across the country. Using this protocol, about 80% of convalescent donor plasmas were potentially suitable for therapies. Here, we demonstrate the importance of providing a robust and specific serologic assay for generating new information about antibody kinetics in infected individuals and mitigation policies to cope with pandemic needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341555

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo describe el inicio de las preocupaciones sanitarias vinculadas a las epidemias ocurridas durante el siglo XX en La Pampa, provincia argentina. Las epidemias, como las de la viruela, fueron un estímulo para estas políticas que frecuentemente tuvieron origen en Buenos Aires, la capital del país. El contagio de muchas epidemias dependía de carencias de infraestructura: agua, desagüe y desecho adecuado de basuras, de la ausencia de un número suficiente de trabajadores de salud, de la presencia de vectores transmisores de enfermedades como los mosquitos y, en última instancia, de la pobreza. La experiencia histórica descrita en este texto resalta la importancia de analizar el impacto del SARS-CoV-2 más allá de las grandes ciudades.


Abstract This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , History, 20th Century , Smallpox/history , Epidemics/history , COVID-19/history , Argentina/epidemiology , Poverty/history , Sewage , Water Supply/history , Smallpox/prevention & control , Smallpox/epidemiology , Indians, South American/history , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Refuse Disposal/history , Vaccination/history , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Cities/history , Cities/epidemiology , Health Personnel/history , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Disease Eradication/history , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy/history , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Insect Vectors , Military Personnel/history
10.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(7): 639-642, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differential characteristics of SARS-COV-2 associated inflammatory multisystem syndrome (MIS-C) in children. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted.  The definition of MIS- C was based on WHO criteria. Temporally related COVID-19 patients were included as controls. RESULTS: 25 patients with MIS-C and 75 controls were included. Multivariate multiple logistic regression model of variables that showed to be significant in univariate analysis revealed that age ≥2 years (OR 24.7; 95% CI 1.03 -592.4; P=0.048), lymphopenia (OR 9.03, 95%CI 2.05-39.7; P=0.004), and platelet count <150x109/L (OR 11.7; 95% CI 1.88-75.22; P=0.009) were significantly associated with MIS-C. Presence of underlying disease seemed to reduce the risk of MIS-C (OR 0.06; 95% CI 0.01-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was more common in patients older than 2 years and in those with lymphopenia or thrombocytopenia. Underlying disease appears to reduce the risk of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Argentina/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
11.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): 266-269, 2021 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a pediatric cardiovascular surgery program and estimate the necessary time to reduce the surgery waiting list. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study. Surgical outcomes from the pre-COVID-19 period and COVID-19 period were compared. A mathematical model was used to estimate the time necessary to reduce the waiting list. RESULTS: Between March 23rd and August 31st, 2020, 83 patients underwent surgery, accounting for a 60 % reduction compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. Their median age was 6 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 25-75, 1.8 months to 2.9 years; p = 0.0023). The time necessary to eliminate the waiting list ranges from 10 to 19 months. CONCLUSIONS: There was a 60 % reduction in the program. The time required to clear the backlog of cases may range from, at least, 10 to 19 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Hospitals, Public/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Waiting Lists , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
12.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): 224-229, 2021 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325943

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Appendicitis is the leading cause of surgical acute abdomen in pediatrics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, management strategies were reassessed and the number of visits to the emergency department dropped down, which may be associated with delayed diagnoses and complications. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on children with acute appendicitis. METHODS: Analytical, retrospective, comparative study of pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in the 5 months of COVID-19 lockdown versus the same period in the previous year. Incidence, clinical data, stage, surgical approach, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: The total number of appendicitis cases went down by 25% (n = 67 versus n = 50 in 2020). The mean time to consultation was 24 hours in both periods (p = 0.989). The incidence of peritonitis was 44% (n = 22) versus 37% (n = 22) (p = 0.22) in 2019. No differences were observed in terms of appendicitis stage based on surgery reports. In 2019, all surgeries were laparoscopic; while in 2020, only 42% (n = 21). The incidence of complications was 6% versus 7.5% in the previous period (p = 0.75). One patient was COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSION: Although in our population the number of appendicitis cases dropped down, consultation was not delayed. The greater impact was associated with the reformulation of management strategies, in which the laparoscopic approach is avoided to reduce virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laparoscopy/trends , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(7): e00345920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1319536

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar perfiles epidemiológico-nutricionales en Argentina, y comparar su carga de morbi-mortalidad por COVID-19. Se condujo un estudio ecológico multigrupal (24 unidades geográficas de Argentina). Se estimó el porcentaje de cambio 2005-2018 de indicadores de transición epidemiológica-nutricional, y sociodemográficos por unidad geográfica. Se condujo un análisis de componentes principales y análisis de clúster jerárquico para identificar agrupamientos geográficos que definan perfiles de transición epidemiológica-nutricional. Por grupo, se calcularon medidas resumen de incidencia acumulada (IA), mortalidad y tasa de letalidad por COVID-19 (semana epidemiológica 50), estableciendo comparaciones mediante prueba t de Student. Se identificaron tres perfiles denominados: (1) reemergencia de enfermedades infecciosas, (2) persistencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares con mejoras sociosanitarias y en estilos de vida, y (3) consolidación de la tríada obesidad-sedentarismo-enfermedades cardiometabólicas. La IA y mortalidad por COVID-19 promedio fue mayor en provincias con perfil 1, en comparación con el perfil 2 (IA: p = 0,0159; mortalidad: p = 0,0187) y el perfil 3 (IA: p = 0,0205). La letalidad resultó mayor en el perfil 3, que aglomera provincias con situación socioeconómica más desfavorable, estimándose diferencias significativas respecto al perfil 2 (p = 0,0307). En conclusión, existen distintos perfiles epidemiológico-nutricionales en Argentina, que tienden a diferenciarse en su situación epidemiológica de COVID-19. Las estrategias contra COVID-19 deberían considerar las características epidemiológico-nutricionales y sociodemográficas de base.


Abstract: The study aimed to identify epidemiological-nutritional profiles in Argentina and to compare the burden of morbimortality from COVID-19. A multigroup ecological study was conducted with 24 geographic units in Argentina. We estimated the percent change from 2005 to 2018 in indicators of the epidemiological-nutritional transition and sociodemographic indicators according to geographic unit. We performed principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to identify geographic groupings to define profiles in the epidemiological-nutritional transition. By group, we calculated summary measures of COVID-19 cumulative incidence (CI), mortality, and case fatality (epidemiological week 50), establishing comparisons via Student's t test. Three profiles were identified: (1) reemergence of infectious diseases, (2) persistence of cardiovascular diseases despite social, health, and lifestyle improvements, and (3) consolidation of the triad obesity-sedentarism-cardiometabolic diseases. Mean COVID-19 cumulative incidence and mortality were higher in provinces with profile 1 compared to profile 2 (CI: p = 0.0159; mortality: p = 0.0187) and profile 3 (CI: p = 0.0205). Case-fatality was higher in profile 3, which includes provinces with more unfavorable socioeconomic conditions, showing significant differences from profile 2 (p=0.0307). In conclusion, there are distinct epidemiological-nutritional profiles in Argentina which tend to differ in terms of their COVID-19 epidemiological situation. Strategies to fight COVID-19 should consider the underlying epidemiological, nutritional, and sociodemographic characteristics.


Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho era identificar perfis epidemiológico-nutricionais na Argentina, e comparar a sua carga de morbimortalidade por COVID-19. Foi desenvolvido um estudo ecológico multigrupal (24 unidades geográficas da Argentina). Foi avaliado o percentual de mudança 2005-2018 de indicadores de transição epidemiológica-nutricional, e sociodemográficos, por unidade geográfica. Foi feita uma análise de componentes principais e de cluster hierárquico para identificar agrupamentos geográficos, definindo perfis de transição epidemiológica-nutricional. Por grupo, foram calculadas medidas de resumo de incidência acumulada (IA), mortalidade e taxa de letalidade por COVID-19 (semana epidemiológica 50), estabelecendo comparações mediante teste t de Student. Foram identificados três perfis: (1) reemergência de doenças infecciosas, (2) persistência de doenças cardiovasculares com melhorias sociossanitárias e nos estilos de vida, e (3) consolidação da tríade obesidade-sedentarismo-doenças cardiometabólicas. A IA e a mortalidade média por COVID-19 foi maior nas províncias com perfil 1, comparado com o perfil 2 (IA: p = 0,0159; mortalidade: p = 0,0187) e o perfil 3 (IA: p = 0,0205). A letalidade resultou maior no perfil 3, que abrange províncias com situação socioeconômica mais desfavorável, sendo encontradas diferenças significativas com relação ao perfil 2 (p = 0,0307). Em conclusão, existem distintos perfis epidemiológico-nutricionais na Argentina, que tendem a diferenciar-se na sua situação epidemiológica de COVID-19. As estratégias contra a COVID-19 deveriam considerar as características epidemiológico-nutricionais e sociodemográficas de base.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19 , Argentina/epidemiology , Brazil , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148887, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301004

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an emerging tool that gives temporal and spatial information on a population's health status. Here, we report the epidemiological dynamics of a population of ~1.2 million residents in the metropolitan region of Mendoza province, Argentina, within the period July 2020 to January 2021. We combined the use of WBE of two wastewater treatment plants with epidemiological surveillance of the corresponding populations. We applied two viral concentration methods (polyethylene glycol precipitation and aluminum-based adsorption-flocculation) and RNA isolation methods in each wastewater sample to increase the possibility of detection and quantification of nucleocapsid markers (N1 and N2) of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR. Overall, our results allowed us to trace the rise, exponential growth, plateau, and fall of SARS-CoV-2 infections for 26 weeks. Individual analysis for each wastewater treatment plant showed a positive correlation between the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers and COVID-19 cases that were diagnosed per week. Our findings indicate that WBE is a useful epidemiological indicator to anticipate the increase in COVID-19 cases and monitor the advance of the pandemic and different waves of infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , Argentina/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8192, 2021 May 24.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259723

ABSTRACT

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, a mandatory lockdown was imposed in Argentina due to the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Objectives: To explore the elderlys healthcare experiences during the lockdown and the problems that may have arisen regarding accessibility to the healthcare system and emerging adaptations to medical care. Methods: We coded the data using Atlas.ti 8 software and then triangled the analysis among researchers from different backgrounds. Finally, concept maps were developed and themes arising from these were described. Results: Thirty-nine participants were interviewed from the metropolitan area in Buenos Aires from April to July of 2020. The main emerging themes were: 1) access to regularly scheduled consults, 2) access to chronic medication, 3) emergency consultations, and 4) the role of information and communication technologies. Accessibility to the healthcare system was compromised due to reduced outpatient consultations, affecting health checkups, diagnosis, and treatment. However, participants tried to keep their immunizations up to date. Information and communication technologies were used to fill digital prescriptions and online medical consultations. While this was a solution to many, others did not have access to these technologies or had trouble using them. Conclusions: The global pandemic caused a reduction in outpatient medical consultations. Emerging needs originated new ways of carrying out medical consultations, mainly through information and communication technologies, which was a solution for many but led to the exclusion of others because of the preexisting technology gap.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services for the Aged , Quarantine , Aged , Ambulatory Care , Appointments and Schedules , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Electronic Prescribing , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Information Technology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Qualitative Research , Telemedicine , Vaccination
17.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8186, 2021 May 24.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259722

ABSTRACT

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, preventive and mandatory social isolation was decreed in Argentina in response to the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the disease it causes (COVID-19). This measure aimed to reduce the transmission of the virus and the resulting severe respira-tory condition that frequently besets older adults. However, this measure can also affect the support networks of these isolated people. Objectives: To explore the emerging needs related to the mental health of isolated older adults in this period and to identify the main support networks they have and the emerging coping strategies in the face of the situation. Methodology: We carried out an exploratory qualitative study, summoning participants over 60 years of age. Using snowball sampling, a group of researchers contacted them by phone to collect data. The analysis of the findings was triangulated among researchers with different academic backgrounds (medicine, psychology, and sociology). The concepts emerging from the interviews were linked in conceptual networks using an inductive methodology and were mapped into conceptual frameworks available to researchers. Atlas.ti 8 software was used for coding. Results: Thirty-nine participants belonging to the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area were interviewed between April and July 2020. For greater clarity, the main themes were described in five cross-sectional axes: network configurations, resources and coping strategies, affective states and emo-tions, perceptions and reflections on the future, and actions emerging from the participatory approach. Participants reported distress, anxiety, anger, uncertainty, exhaustion, and expressed fear of contagion from themselves and their loved ones. We identify greater vulnerability in people living alone, in small and closed environments, with weak linkages and networks, or limited access to technologies. We also found vari-ous coping strategies and technology was a fundamental factor in maintaining the bonds. Conclusions: The findings of this research have implications for decision-making at the individual level, health systems, professional care, and policy devel-opment. Future research may elucidate the regional, temporal, and socioeconomic variations of the phenomena explored in our research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Needs Assessment , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation/psychology , Activities of Daily Living , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Family Relations , Fear , Female , Government Regulation , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Online Social Networking , Peer Group , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/psychology , Social Networking , Social Participation , Social Support
18.
Methods ; 195: 15-22, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243244

ABSTRACT

Epidemic control may be hampered when the percentage of asymptomatic cases is high. Seeking remedies for this problem, test positivity was explored between the first 60 to 90 epidemic days in six countries that reported their first COVID-19 case between February and March 2020: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Uruguay. Test positivity (TP) is the percentage of test-positive individuals reported on a given day out of all individuals tested the same day. To generate both country-specific and multi-country information, this study was implemented in two stages. First, the epidemiologic data of the country infected last (Uruguay) were analyzed. If at least one TP-related analysis yielded a statistically significant relationship, later assessments would investigate the six countries. The Uruguayan data indicated (i) a positive correlation between daily TP and daily new cases (r = 0.75); (ii) a negative correlation between TP and the number of tests conducted per million inhabitants (TPMI, r = -0.66); and (iii) three temporal stages, which differed from one another in both TP and TPMI medians (p < 0.01) and, together, revealed a negative relationship between TPMI and TP. No significant relationship was found between TP and the number of active or recovered patients. The six countries showed a positive correlation between TP and the number of deaths/million inhabitants (DMI, r = 0.65, p < 0.01). With one exception -a country where isolation was not pursued-, all countries showed a negative correlation between TP and TPMI (r = 0.74). The temporal analysis of country-specific policies revealed four patterns, characterized by: (1) low TPMI and high DMI, (2) high TPMI and low DMI; (3) an intermediate pattern, and (4) high TPMI and high DMI. Findings support the hypothesis that test positivity may guide epidemiologic policy-making, provided that policy-related factors are considered and high-resolution geographical data are utilized.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Bolivia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/trends , Chile/epidemiology , Cuba/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Uruguay/epidemiology
19.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(3): 198-201, 2021 06.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242313

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The reduction in the number of visits to health care centers since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may affect mandatory vaccination. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the administration of the pentavalent and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines to children younger than 2 years at the vaccination center of a children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. METHOD: Cross-sectional study using the vaccination center's digital records from January to May 2019 and 2020. Results. In the second fortnight of March 2020, vaccinations dropped by 64.2 %. When examining the first dose of the pentavalent and MMR vaccines, such reduction was 74.9 % and 55.1 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: As of the second fortnight of March 2020, vaccinations dropped by 64.2 % compared to the same period of the previous year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Immunization Schedule , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/trends , Vaccines, Combined , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Physical Distancing
20.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, 2021 06.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242312

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school. POPULATION AND METHODS: Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Health/trends , Education, Distance , Mental Health/trends , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parents , Prospective Studies , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Schools , Young Adult
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