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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 80(6): 153, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328394

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence has consolidated the interaction between viral infection and host alternative splicing. Serine-arginine (SR) proteins are a class of highly conserved splicing factors critical for the spliceosome maturation, alternative splicing and RNA metabolism. Serine-arginine protein kinases (SRPKs) are important kinases that specifically phosphorylate SR proteins to regulate their distribution and activities in the central pre-mRNA splicing and other cellular processes. In addition to the predominant SR proteins, other cytoplasmic proteins containing a serine-arginine repeat domain, including viral proteins, have been identified as substrates of SRPKs. Viral infection triggers a myriad of cellular events in the host and it is therefore not surprising that viruses explore SRPKs-mediated phosphorylation as an important regulatory node in virus-host interactions. In this review, we briefly summarize the regulation and biological function of SRPKs, highlighting their involvement in the infection process of several viruses, such as viral replication, transcription and capsid assembly. In addition, we review the structure-function relationships of currently available inhibitors of SRPKs and discuss their putative use as antivirals against well-characterized viruses or newly emerging viruses. We also highlight the viral proteins and cellular substrates targeted by SRPKs as potential antiviral therapeutic candidates.


Subject(s)
Protein Kinases , Virus Diseases , Humans , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Arginine/metabolism , Serine/metabolism , Phosphorylation , RNA Splicing , Alternative Splicing , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors/metabolism
2.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285770, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319825

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia, always a major malady, became the main public health and economic disaster of historical proportions with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was based on a premise that pathology of lung metabolism in inflammation may have features invariant to the nature of the underlying cause. Amino acid uptake by the lungs was measured from plasma samples collected pre-terminally from a carotid artery and vena cava in mice with bleomycin-induced lung inflammation (N = 10) and compared to controls treated with saline instillation (N = 6). In the control group, the difference in concentrations between the arterial and venous blood of the 19 amino acids measured reached the level of statistical significance only for arginine (-10.7%, p = 0.0372) and phenylalanine (+5.5%, p = 0.0266). In the bleomycin group, 11 amino acids had significantly lower concentrations in the arterial blood. Arginine concentration was decreased by 21.1% (p<0.0001) and only that of citrulline was significantly increased (by 20.1%, p = 0.0002). Global Arginine Bioavailability Ratio was decreased in arterial blood by 19.5% (p = 0.0305) in the saline group and by 30.4% (p<0.0001) in the bleomycin group. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline from arginine by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is greatly increased in the immune system's response to lung injury. Deprived of arginine, the endothelial cells downstream may fail to provide enough NO to prevent the activation of thrombocytes. Thrombotic-related vascular dysfunction is a defining characteristic of pneumonia, including COVID-19. This experiment lends further support to arginine replacement as adjuvant therapy in pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Mice , Humans , Animals , Arginine/metabolism , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Citrulline/metabolism , Pandemics , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
3.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271418

ABSTRACT

The environmental control of microbial pathogens currently relies on compounds that do not exert long-lasting activity on surfaces, are impaired by soil, and contribute to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. This study presents the scientific development and characterization of GS-2, a novel, water-soluble ammonium carboxylate salt of capric acid and L-arginine that demonstrates activity against a range of bacteria (particularly Gram-negative bacteria), fungi, and viruses. In real-world surface testing, GS-2 was more effective than a benzalkonium chloride disinfectant at reducing the bacterial load on common touch-point surfaces in a high-traffic building (average 1.6 vs. 32.6 CFUs recovered from surfaces 90 min after application, respectively). Toxicology testing in rats confirmed GS-2 ingredients were rapidly cleared and posed no toxicities to humans or animals. To enhance the time-kill against Gram-positive bacteria, GS-2 was compounded at a specific ratio with a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol, to produce a water-based antimicrobial solution. This GS-2 with thymol formulation could generate a bactericidal effect after five minutes of exposure and a viricidal effect after 10 min of exposure. Further testing of the GS-2 and thymol combination on glass slides demonstrated that the compound retained bactericidal activity for up to 60 days. Based on these results, GS-2 and GS-2 with thymol represent a novel antimicrobial solution that may have significant utility in the long-term reduction of environmental microbial pathogens in a variety of settings.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Anti-Infective Agents , Disinfectants , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Arginine , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes , Rats , Soil , Thymol , Water
4.
Adv Mater ; 35(19): e2210936, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281064

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial agents are massively used to disinfect the pathogen contaminated surfaces since the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. However, their defects of poor durability, strong irritation, and high environmental accumulation are exposed. Herein, a convenient strategy is developed to fabricate long-lasting and target-selective antimicrobial agent with the special hierarchical structure through bottom-up assembly of natural gallic acid with arginine surfactant. The assembly starts from rodlike micelles, further stacking into hexagonal columns and finally interpenetrating into spherical assemblies, which avoid explosive release of antimicrobial units. The assemblies show anti-water washing and high adhesion on various surfaces; and thus, possess highly efficient and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities even after using up to eleven cycles. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments prove that the assemblies are highly selective in killing pathogens without generating toxicity. The excellent antimicrobial virtues well satisfy the increasing anti-infection demands and the hierarchical assembly exhibits great potential as a clinical candidate.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Surface-Active Agents , Arginine , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Plants
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253568

ABSTRACT

Altered l-arginine metabolism has been described in patients with COVID-19 and has been associated with immune and vascular dysfunction. In the present investigation, we determined the serum concentrations of l-arginine, citrulline, ornithine, monomethyl-l-arginine (MMA), and symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA, ADMA) in adults with long COVID at baseline and after 28-days of l-arginine plus vitamin C or placebo supplementation enrolled in a randomized clinical trial, compared with a group of adults without previous history of SARS-CoV-2-infection. l-arginine-derived markers of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability (i.e., l-arginine/ADMA, l-arginine/citrulline+ornithine, and l-arginine/ornithine) were also assayed. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built to characterize systemic l-arginine metabolism and assess the effects of the supplementation. PLS-DA allowed discrimination of participants with long COVID from healthy controls with 80.2 ± 3.0% accuracy. Lower markers of NO bioavailability were found in participants with long COVID. After 28 days of l-arginine plus vitamin C supplementation, serum l-arginine concentrations and l-arginine/ADMA increased significantly compared with placebo. This supplement may therefore be proposed as a remedy to increase NO bioavailability in people with long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , Adult , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Citrulline/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Arginine/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Ornithine , Dietary Supplements
6.
Protein Sci ; 32(4): e4603, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268219

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid protein is the most abundantly expressed viral protein during infection where it targets both RNA and host proteins. However, identifying how a single viral protein interacts with so many different targets remains a challenge, providing the impetus here for identifying the interaction sites through multiple methods. Through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron microscopy, and biochemical methods, we have characterized nucleocapsid interactions with RNA and with three host proteins, which include human cyclophilin-A, Pin1, and 14-3-3τ. Regarding RNA interactions, the nucleocapsid protein N-terminal folded domain preferentially interacts with smaller RNA fragments relative to the C-terminal region, suggesting an initial RNA engagement is largely dictated by this N-terminal region followed by weaker interactions to the C-terminal region. The nucleocapsid protein forms 10 nm ribonuclear complexes with larger RNA fragments that include 200 and 354 nucleic acids, revealing its potential diversity in sequestering different viral genomic regions during viral packaging. Regarding host protein interactions, while the nucleocapsid targets all three host proteins through its serine-arginine-rich region, unstructured termini of the nucleocapsid protein also engage host cyclophilin-A and host 14-3-3τ. Considering these host proteins play roles in innate immunity, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein may block the host response by competing interactions. Finally, phosphorylation of the nucleocapsid protein quenches an inherent dynamic exchange process within its serine-arginine-rich region. Our studies identify many of the diverse interactions that may be important for SARS-CoV-2 pathology during infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cyclophilins/analysis , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Arginine , Serine , NIMA-Interacting Peptidylprolyl Isomerase/analysis
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 191: 106702, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245841

ABSTRACT

We have recently demonstrated in a double-blind randomized trial the beneficial effects of L-Arginine in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. We hypothesize that one of the mechanisms underlying the favorable effects of L-Arginine is its action on inflammatory cytokines. To verify our hypothesis, we measured longitudinal plasma levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines implied in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in patients randomized to receive oral L-Arginine or placebo. The study was successfully completed by 169 patients. Patients in the L-Arginine arm had a reduced respiratory support evaluated at 10 and 20 days; moreover, the time to hospital discharge was significantly shorter in the L-Arginine group. The assessment of circulating cytokines revealed that L-Arginine significantly reduced the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ and increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory IL-10. Taken together, these findings indicate that adding L-Arginine to standard therapy in COVID-19 patients markedly reduces the need of respiratory support and the duration of in-hospital stay; moreover, L-Arginine significantly regulates circulating levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Arginine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects
8.
Nutr Hosp ; 40(1): 186-199, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245702

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immunonutrition is a science that encompasses aspects related to nutrition, immunity, infection, inflammation and tissue damage. Immunomodulatory formulas have shown benefits in a wide variety of clinical situations. The objective of this work was to review the available evidence in immunonutrition (IN). For this, a bibliographic search has been carried out with the keywords: immunonutrition, arginine, glutamine, nucleotides, omega-3 fatty acids, ERAS, fast-track. Clinical trials, reviews and clinical practice guidelines have been included. IN has been shown to reduce postoperative fistulae in head and neck cancer patients and in gastric and esophageal cancer patients, infectious complications and hospital stay. Other clinical situations that benefit from the use of IN are pancreatic cancer surgery, colorectal cancer surgery and major burns. More controlled, prospective, and randomized studies are necessary to confirm the potential benefits of IN in other clinical situations such as non-esophageal thoracic surgery, bladder cancer, gynecological surgery, hip fracture, liver pathology and COVID-19, among others.


Introducción: La inmunonutrición es una ciencia que engloba aspectos relacionados con la nutrición, la inmunidad, la infección, la inflamación y el daño tisular. Las fórmulas inmunomoduladoras han demostrado beneficios en una amplia variedad de situaciones clínicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la evidencia disponible en inmunonutrición (IN). Para ello, se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica con las palabras clave: inmunonutrición, arginina, glutamina, nucleótidos, ácidos grasos omega-3, ERAS, fast-track. Se han incluido ensayos clínicos, revisiones y guías de práctica clínica. La IN ha demostrado reducir las fístulas en el postoperatorio en pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello. En pacientes con cáncer gástrico y cáncer de esófago, la IN se asocia a una disminución de las complicaciones infecciosas y la estancia hospitalaria. Otras situaciones clínicas que se benefician del uso de la IN son la cirugía del cáncer de páncreas, la cirugía del cáncer colorrectal y los grandes quemados. Son necesarios más estudios controlados, prospectivos y aleatorizados para confirmar los potenciales beneficios de la IN en otras situaciones clínicas como la cirugía torácica no esofágica, el cáncer vesical, la cirugía ginecológica, la fractura de cadera, la patología hepática y la COVID-19, entre otros.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , Arginine , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Immunonutrition Diet , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Prospective Studies
9.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 28(1): 8, 2023 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drug resistance is a critical problem in health care that affects therapy outcomes and requires new approaches to drug design. SARS-CoV-2 Mpro mutations are of concern as they can potentially reduce therapeutic efficacy. Viral infections are amongst the many disorders for which nutraceuticals have been employed as an adjunct therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the potential in vitro activity of L-arginine and vitamin C against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. METHODS: The Mpro inhibition assay was developed by cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of Mpro. Selected compounds were then screened for protease inhibition. RESULTS: L-arginine was found to be active against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, while a vitamin C/L-arginine combination had a synergistic antiviral action against Mpro. These findings confirm the results of our previous in silico repurposing study that showed L-arginine and vitamin C were potential Mpro inhibitors. Moreover, they suggest a possible molecular mechanism to explain the beneficial effect of arginine in COVID patients. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study are important because they help to identify COVID-19 treatments that are efficient, inexpensive, and have a favorable safety profile. The results of this study also suggest a possible adjuvant nutritional strategy for COVID-19 that could be used in conjunction with pharmacological agents.


Subject(s)
Arginine , Ascorbic Acid , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Arginine/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
ACS Nano ; 17(3): 2761-2781, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221751

ABSTRACT

Vascular disorders, characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction combined with inflammation, are correlated with numerous fatal diseases, such as coronavirus disease-19 and atherosclerosis. Achieving vascular normalization is an urgent problem that must be solved when treating inflammatory vascular diseases. Inspired by the vascular regulatory versatility of nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzing l-arginine (l-Arg), the eNOS-activating effects of l-Arg, and the powerful anti-inflammatory and eNOS-replenishing effects of budesonide (BUD), we constructed a bi-prodrug minimalist nanoplatform co-loaded with BUD and l-Arg via polysialic acid (PSA) to form BUD-l-Arg@PSA. This promoted vascular normalization by simultaneously regulating vascular endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Mediated by the special affinity between PSA and E-selectin, which is highly expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells (ECs), BUD-l-Arg@PSA selectively accumulated in activated ECs, targeted eNOS expression and activation, and promoted NO production. Consequently, the binary synergistic regulation of the NO/eNOS signaling pathway occurred and improved vascular endothelial function. NO-induced nuclear factor-kappa B alpha inhibitor (IκBα) stabilization and BUD-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) response gene site occupancy achieved dual-site blockade of the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby reducing the inflammatory response and inhibiting the infiltration of inflammation-related immune cells. In a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury mouse model, BUD-l-Arg@PSA reduced acute injury. In an atherosclerosis mouse model, BUD-l-Arg@PSA decreased atherosclerotic plaque burden and improved vasodilation. This represents a revolutionary therapeutic strategy for inflammatory vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Animals , Mice , Arginine , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 24(2)2023 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212717

ABSTRACT

Protein arginine methylation is an important posttranslational modification (PTM) associated with protein functional diversity and pathological conditions including cancer. Identification of methylation binding sites facilitates a better understanding of the molecular function of proteins. Recent developments in the field of deep neural networks have led to a proliferation of deep learning-based methylation identification studies because of their fast and accurate prediction. In this paper, we propose DeepGpgs, an advanced deep learning model incorporating Gaussian prior and gated attention mechanism. We introduce a residual network channel to extract the evolutionary information of proteins. Then we combine the adaptive embedding with bidirectional long short-term memory networks to form a context-shared encoder layer. A gated multi-head attention mechanism is followed to obtain the global information about the sequence. A Gaussian prior is injected into the sequence to assist in predicting PTMs. We also propose a weighted joint loss function to alleviate the false negative problem. We empirically show that DeepGpgs improves Matthews correlation coefficient by 6.3% on the arginine methylation independent test set compared with the existing state-of-the-art methylation site prediction methods. Furthermore, DeepGpgs has good robustness in phosphorylation site prediction of SARS-CoV-2, which indicates that DeepGpgs has good transferability and the potential to be extended to other modification sites prediction. The open-source code and data of the DeepGpgs can be obtained from https://github.com/saizhou1/DeepGpgs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , Methylation , Arginine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism
12.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 33(1): 010701, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203655

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study determines and compares the concentrations of arginine and methylated arginine products ((asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), n-monomethyl-1-arginine (L-NMMA) and homoarginine (HA)) for assessment of their association with disease severity in serum samples of COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: Serum arginine and methylated arginine products of 57 mild-moderate and 29 severe (N = 86) COVID-19 patients and 21 controls were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, the concentrations of some of the routine clinical laboratory parameters -neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein, ferritin, D-dimer, and fibrinogen measured during COVID-19 follow-up were also taken into consideration and compared with the concentrations of arginine and methylated arginine products. Results: Serum ADMA, SDMA and L-NMMA were found to be significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients, than in both mild-moderate patients and the control group (P < 0.001 for each). In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated L-NMMA (cut-off =120 nmol/L OR = 34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.5-302.0, P= 0.002), CRP (cut-off = 32 mg/L, OR = 37, 95% CI = 4.8-287.0, P < 0.001), and NLR (cut-off = 7, OR = 22, 95% CI = 1.4-335.0, P = 0.020) as independent risk factors for identification of severe patients. Conclusions: The concentration of methylated arginine metabolites are significantly altered in COVID-19 disease. The results of this study indicate a significant correlation between the severity of COVID-19 disease and concentrations of CRP, NLR and L-NMMA.


Subject(s)
Arginine , COVID-19 , Humans , Arginine/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Progression , omega-N-Methylarginine
13.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200907

ABSTRACT

Background, Aims, Methods, Results, Conclusions: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global challenge due to its ability to mutate into variants that spread more rapidly than the wild-type virus. The molecular biology of this virus has been extensively studied and computational methods applied are an example paradigm for novel antiviral drug therapies. The rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population is driven, in part, by mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S-) protein, some of which enable tighter binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2). More stable RBD-ACE2 association is coupled with accelerated hydrolysis by proteases, such as furin, trypsin, and the Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) that augment infection rates, while inhibition of the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) can prevent the viral replication. Additionally, non-RBD and non-interfacial mutations may assist the S-protein in adopting thermodynamically favorable conformations for stronger binding. This study aimed to report variant distribution of SARS-CoV-2 across European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries and relate mutations with the driving forces that trigger infections. Variants' distribution data for SARS-CoV-2 across EU/EEA countries were mined from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) based on the sequence or genotyping data that are deposited in the Global Science Initiative for providing genomic data (GISAID) and The European Surveillance System (TESSy) databases. Docking studies performed with AutoDock VINA revealed stabilizing interactions of putative antiviral drugs, e.g., selected anionic imidazole biphenyl tetrazoles, with the ACE2 receptor in the RBD-ACE2 complex. The driving forces of key mutations for Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Kappa, Lambda, and Omicron variants, which stabilize the RBD-ACE2 complex, were investigated by computational approaches. Arginine is the critical amino acid in the polybasic furin cleavage sites S1/S2 (681-PRRARS-686) S2' (814-KRS-816). Critical mutations into arginine residues that were found in the delta variant (L452R, P681R) and may be responsible for the increased transmissibility and morbidity are also present in two widely spreading omicron variants, named BA.4.6 and BQ.1, where mutation R346T in the S-protein potentially contributes to neutralization escape. Arginine binders, such as Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), could be a class of novel drugs for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Arginine , Furin , Molecular Epidemiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Mutation
14.
Curr Comput Aided Drug Des ; 19(4): 313-323, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Indian traditional medicinal plants are known for their great potential in combating viral diseases. Previously, we reported a systematic review approach of seven plausible traditional Indian medicinal plants against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Molecular docking was conducted with Biovia Discovery Studio. Three binding domains for spike glycoprotein (PDB IDs: 6LZG, 6M17, 6M0J) and one binding domain of RdRp (PDB ID: 7BTF) were used. Among 100 phytoconstituents listed from seven plants by the IMPPAT database used for virtual screening, the best six compounds were again filtered using Swiss ADME prediction and Lipinski's rule. Additionally, a pseudovirion assay was performed to study the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S1-protein with the ACE 2 receptor to further confirm the effect. RESULTS: Chebulagic acid (52.06 Kcal/mol) and kaempferol (48.84 Kcal/mol) showed increased interaction energy compared to umifenovir (33.68 Kcal/mol) for the 6LZG binding domain of spike glycoprotein. Epicatechin gallate (36.95 Kcal/mol) and arachidic acid (26.09 Kcal/mol) showed equally comparable interaction energy compared to umifenovir (38.20 Kcal/mol) for the 6M17 binding domain of spike glycoprotein. Trihydroxychalcone (35.23 Kcal/mol) and kaempferol (36.96 Kcal/mol) showed equally comparable interaction energy with umifenovir (36.60 Kcal/mol) for 6M0J binding domain of spike glycoprotein. Upon analyzing the phytoconstituents against RdRp binding domain, DL-arginine (41.78 Kcal/mol) showed comparable results with the positive control remdesivir (47.61 Kcal/mol). ADME analysis performed using Swiss ADME revealed that kaempferol and DL arginine showed drug-like properties with appropriate pharmacokinetic parameters. Further in vitro analysis of kaempferol by pseudovirion assay confirmed an acceptable decrease of the lentiviral particles in transfected HEK293T-hACE2 cells. CONCLUSION: The study highlights that kaempferol and DL-arginine could be the significant molecules to exhibit potent action against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Kaempferols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , HEK293 Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Virus Internalization , Medicine, Traditional , Arginine , Glycoproteins , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
15.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123776

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, a condition characterized by symptom and/or sign persistence following an acute COVID-19 episode, is associated with reduced physical performance and endothelial dysfunction. Supplementation of l-arginine may improve endothelial and muscle function by stimulating nitric oxide synthesis. A single-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in adults aged between 20 and 60 years with persistent fatigue attending a post-acute COVID-19 outpatient clinic. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive twice-daily orally either a combination of 1.66 g l-arginine plus 500 mg liposomal vitamin C or a placebo for 28 days. The primary outcome was the distance walked on the 6 min walk test. Secondary outcomes were handgrip strength, flow-mediated dilation, and fatigue persistence. Fifty participants were randomized to receive either l-arginine plus vitamin C or a placebo. Forty-six participants (median (interquartile range) age 51 (14), 30 [65%] women), 23 per group, received the intervention to which they were allocated and completed the study. At 28 days, l-arginine plus vitamin C increased the 6 min walk distance (+30 (40.5) m; placebo: +0 (75) m, p = 0.001) and induced a greater improvement in handgrip strength (+3.4 (7.5) kg) compared with the placebo (+1 (6.6) kg, p = 0.03). The flow-mediated dilation was greater in the active group than in the placebo (14.3% (7.3) vs. 9.4% (5.8), p = 0.03). At 28 days, fatigue was reported by two participants in the active group (8.7%) and 21 in the placebo group (80.1%; p < 0.0001). l-arginine plus vitamin C supplementation improved walking performance, muscle strength, endothelial function, and fatigue in adults with long COVID. This supplement may, therefore, be considered to restore physical performance and relieve persistent symptoms in this patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/complications , Hand Strength , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Double-Blind Method , Vitamins , Arginine/therapeutic use , Physical Functional Performance , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071503

ABSTRACT

Treatments for COVID-19 infections have improved dramatically since the beginning of the pandemic, and glucocorticoids have been a key tool in improving mortality rates. The UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance is for treatment to be targeted only at those requiring oxygen supplementation, however, and the interactions between glucocorticoids and COVID-19 are not completely understood. In this work, a multi-omic analysis of 98 inpatient-recruited participants was performed by quantitative metabolomics (using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and data-independent acquisition proteomics. Both 'omics datasets were analysed for statistically significant features and pathways differentiating participants whose treatment regimens did or did not include glucocorticoids. Metabolomic differences in glucocorticoid-treated patients included the modulation of cortisol and bile acid concentrations in serum, but no alleviation of serum dyslipidemia or increased amino acid concentrations (including tyrosine and arginine) in the glucocorticoid-treated cohort relative to the untreated cohort. Proteomic pathway analysis indicated neutrophil and platelet degranulation as influenced by glucocorticoid treatment. These results are in keeping with the key role of platelet-associated pathways and neutrophils in COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide opportunity for further understanding of glucocorticoid action. The findings also, however, highlight that glucocorticoids are not fully effective across the wide range of 'omics dysregulation caused by COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Proteomics/methods , Hydrocortisone , Metabolomics/methods , Amino Acids/metabolism , Tyrosine , Arginine , Bile Acids and Salts
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 52: 431-435, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: l-Arginine (l-Arg) has been shown to help reduce respiratory support requirements in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in an Italian study. We investigated the effect of l-Arg supplementation on the reduction in respiratory support for patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in an Indian population. METHODS: A parallel-group, triple-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia on oxygen (O2) support. Patients received either 3 g of oral l-Arg or placebo, daily under supervision, until they were off O2 support, or for a maximum of 10 days, whichever was earlier. The primary outcome was cessation in O2 support. Other outcomes were time to cessation of O2 support, duration of hospitalization, and incidence of adverse thrombotic events. RESULTS: We did an intention-to-treat analysis on 74 patients who were randomized into l-Arg (n = 38) or placebo group (n = 36). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the outcomes. At end of the study, 28 patients (73.6%) in l-Arg and 26 patients (72.2%) in the placebo group were weaned off oxygen support. The median number of days to the cessation of O2 support estimated using Kaplan Meir survival analysis, was 3 days in the l-Arg group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 4.7) and 5 days in the placebo group (95% CI, 4.1,5.8); P = 0.27. CONCLUSION: In this group of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, l-Arg supplementation did not show any significant difference in outcomes when compared to placebo supplementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxygen , Arginine/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements
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