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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785899

ABSTRACT

Fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) assessment is essential throughout pregnancy to monitor the wellbeing and development of the fetus, and to possibly diagnose potential congenital heart defects. Due to the high noise incorporated in the abdominal ECG (aECG) signals, the extraction of fECG has been challenging. And it is even a lot more difficult for fECG extraction if only one channel of aECG is provided, i.e., in a compact patch device. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on the Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for non-invasive fECG extraction from a single-channel aECG signal. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we used our own clinical data, obtained from a pilot study with 10 subjects each of 20 min recording, and data from the PhysioNet 2013 Challenge bank with labeled QRS complex annotations. The proposed methodology shows the average positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.59%, sensitivity (SE) of 96.91%, and F1-score of 97.25% from the PhysioNet 2013 Challenge bank. Our results also indicate that the proposed algorithm is reliable and effective, and it outperforms the recently proposed extended Kalman filter (EKF) based algorithm.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Algorithms , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Fetal Monitoring/methods , Fetus , Humans , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785897

ABSTRACT

Sensors that track physiological biomarkers of health must be successfully incorporated into a fieldable, wearable device if they are to revolutionize the management of remote patient care and preventative medicine. This perspective article discusses logistical considerations that may impede the process of adapting a body-worn laboratory sensor into a commercial-integrated health monitoring system with a focus on examples from sleep tracking technology.


Subject(s)
Wearable Electronic Devices , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Electrocardiography , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Sleep
3.
Sports Med ; 52(4): 725-740, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756976

ABSTRACT

It is well established that physical activity reduces all-cause mortality and can prolong life. Ultra-endurance running (UER) is an extreme sport that is becoming increasingly popular, and comprises running races above marathon distance, exceeding 6 h, and/or running fixed distances on multiple days. Serious acute adverse events are rare, but there is mounting evidence that UER may lead to long-term health problems. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding the potential long-term health problems derived from UER, specifically potential maladaptation in key organ systems, including cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, renal, immunological, gastrointestinal, neurological, and integumentary systems. Special consideration is given to youth, masters, and female athletes, all of whom may be more susceptible to certain long-term health issues. We present directions for future research into the pathophysiological mechanisms that underpin athlete susceptibility to long-term issues. Although all body systems can be affected by UER, one of the clearest effects of endurance exercise is on the cardiovascular system, including right ventricular dysfunction and potential increased risk of arrhythmias and hypertension. There is also evidence that rare cases of acute renal injury in UER could lead to progressive renal scarring and chronic kidney disease. There are limited data specific to female athletes, who may be at greater risk of certain UER-related health issues due to interactions between energy availability and sex-hormone concentrations. Indeed, failure to consider sex differences in the design of female-specific UER training programs may have a negative impact on athlete longevity. It is hoped that this review will inform risk stratification and stimulate further research about UER and the implications for long-term health.


Subject(s)
Running , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Athletes , Female , Humans , Male , Marathon Running , Nutritional Status , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology
4.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(23-24): 1289-1297, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756807

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), puts a heavy strain on healthcare systems around the globe with high numbers of infected patients. Pre-existing cardiovascular disease is a major risk factor for a severe clinical course of COVID-19 and is associated with adverse outcome. COVID-19 may directly exacerbate underlying heart disease and is frequently aggravated by cardiovascular complications, including arterial and venous thromboembolic events, malignant arrhythmia and myocardial injury. In addition to these direct cardiac manifestations of COVID-19, patients with cardiovascular disease face further indirect consequences of the pandemic, as the respective resources in the healthcare systems need to be redirected to cope with the high numbers of infected patients. Consecutively, a substantial decrease in cardiac procedures was reported during the pandemic with lower numbers of coronary angiographies and device implantations worldwide. As a consequence an increased number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, late-comers with subacute myocardial infarction and of patients presenting in cardiogenic shock or preshock were observed. Maintenance of high-quality cardiac care by avoiding a reduction of cardiac services is of utmost importance, especially in times of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686940

ABSTRACT

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered a fundamental of cardiology. The ECG consists of P, QRS, and T waves. Information provided from the signal based on the intervals and amplitudes of these waves is associated with various heart diseases. The first step in isolating the features of an ECG begins with the accurate detection of the R-peaks in the QRS complex. The database was based on the PTB-XL database, and the signals from Lead I-XII were analyzed. This research focuses on determining the Few-Shot Learning (FSL) applicability for ECG signal proximity-based classification. The study was conducted by training Deep Convolutional Neural Networks to recognize 2, 5, and 20 different heart disease classes. The results of the FSL network were compared with the evaluation score of the neural network performing softmax-based classification. The neural network proposed for this task interprets a set of QRS complexes extracted from ECG signals. The FSL network proved to have higher accuracy in classifying healthy/sick patients ranging from 93.2% to 89.2% than the softmax-based classification network, which achieved 90.5-89.2% accuracy. The proposed network also achieved better results in classifying five different disease classes than softmax-based counterparts with an accuracy of 80.2-77.9% as opposed to 77.1% to 75.1%. In addition, the method of R-peaks labeling and QRS complexes extraction has been implemented. This procedure converts a 12-lead signal into a set of R waves by using the detection algorithms and the k-mean algorithm.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Algorithms , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer
6.
Am Heart J ; 247: 33-41, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammatory pathways during acute myocardial infarction contributes to infarct size and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The present prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy and safety of broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor to reduce infarct size. DESIGN: Controlled-Level EVERolimus in Acute Coronary Syndrome (CLEVER-ACS, clinicaltrials.gov NCT01529554) is a phase II randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of a 5-day course of oral everolimus on infarct size, LV remodeling, and inflammation in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Within 5 days of successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), patients are randomly assigned to everolimus (first 3 days: 7.5 mg every day; days 4 and 5: 5.0 mg every day) or placebo, respectively. The primary efficacy outcome is the change from baseline (defined as 12 hours to 5 days after pPCI) to 30-day follow-up in myocardial infarct size as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Secondary endpoints comprise corresponding changes in cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers as well as microvascular obstruction and LV volumes assessed by CMRI. Clinical events, laboratory parameters, and blood cell counts are reported as safety endpoints at 30 days. CONCLUSION: The CLEVER-ACS trial tests the hypothesis whether mTOR inhibition using everolimus at the time of an acute STEMI affects LV infarct size following successful pPCI.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Double-Blind Method , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Remodeling
7.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 468-475, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648748

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients are associated with hypoxia, myocardial ischemia, cytokines, inflammation, electrolyte abnormalities, pro-arrhythmic or QT-prolonging medications, and underlying heart conditions such as severe congestive heart failure, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, or congenital heart conditions. In the pediatric population, multisystem inflammatory syndrome can lead to cardiac injury and arrhythmias. In addition, arrhythmias and cardiac arrests are most prevalent in the critically ill intensive care unit COVID-19 patient population. This review presents an overview of the association between COVID-19 and arrhythmias by detailing possible pathophysiological mechanisms, existing knowledge of pro-arrhythmic factors, and results from studies in adult and pediatric COVID-19 populations, and the clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Heart Arrest/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(3): e023473, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642968

ABSTRACT

Background The extent of cardiac dysfunction post-COVID-19 varies, and there is a lack of data on arrhythmic burden. Methods and Results This was a combined multicenter prospective cohort study and cross-sectional case-control study. Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography in patients with COVID-19 3 to 4 months after hospital discharge was compared with matched controls. The 24-hour ECGs were recorded in patients with COVID-19. A total of 204 patients with COVID-19 consented to participate (mean age, 58.5 years; 44% women), and 204 controls were included (mean age, 58.4 years; 44% women). Patients with COVID-19 had worse right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain (adjusted estimated mean difference, 1.5 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.6 to -0.5; P=0.005) and lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (-0.10 cm; 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.05; P<0.001) and cardiac index (-0.26 L/min per m2; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.12; P<0.001), but slightly better left ventricle global strain (-0.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.2-1.3; P=0.008) compared with controls. Reduced diastolic function was twice as common compared with controls (60 [30%] versus 29 [15%], respectively; odds ratio, 2.4; P=0.001). Having dyspnea or fatigue were not associated with cardiac function. Right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain was worse after intensive care treatment. Arrhythmias were found in 27% of the patients, mainly premature ventricular contractions and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (18% and 5%, respectively). Conclusions At 3 months after hospital discharge with COVID-19, right ventricular function was mildly impaired, and diastolic dysfunction was twice as common compared with controls. There was little evidence for an association between cardiac function and intensive care treatment, dyspnea, or fatigue. Ventricular arrhythmias were common, but the clinical importance is unknown. Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT04535154.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
9.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias have been observed among patients hospitalised with acute COVID-19 infection, and palpitations remain a common symptom among the much larger outpatient population of COVID-19 survivors in the convalescent stage of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine arrhythmia prevalence among outpatients after a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Adults with a positive COVID-19 test and without a history of arrhythmia were prospectively evaluated with 14-day ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Participants were instructed to trigger the monitor for palpitations. RESULTS: A total of 51 individuals (mean age 42±11 years, 65% women) underwent monitoring at a median 75 (IQR 34-126) days after a positive COVID-19 test. Median monitoring duration was 13.2 (IQR 10.5-13.8) days. No participant demonstrated atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, sustained supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), sustained ventricular tachycardia or infranodal atrioventricular block. Nearly all participants (96%) had an ectopic burden of <1%; one participant had a 2.8% supraventricular ectopic burden and one had a 15.4% ventricular ectopic burden. While 47 (92%) participants triggered their monitor for palpitation symptoms, 78% of these triggers were for either sinus rhythm or sinus tachycardia. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of malignant or sustained arrhythmias in outpatients after a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. While palpitations were common, symptoms frequently corresponded to sinus rhythm/sinus tachycardia or non-malignant arrhythmias such as isolated ectopy or non-sustained SVT. While these findings cannot exclude the possibility of serious arrhythmias in select individuals, they do not support a strong or widespread proarrhythmic effect of COVID-19 infection after resolution of acute illness.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1075, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642005

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory diseases including COVID-19 are associated with a cytokine storm characterized by high interleukin-6 (IL-6) titers. In particular, while recent studies examined COVID-19 associated arrhythmic risks from cardiac injury and/or from pharmacotherapy such as the combination of azithromycin (AZM) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the role of IL-6 per se in increasing the arrhythmic risk remains poorly understood. The objective is to elucidate the electrophysiological basis of inflammation-associated arrhythmic risk in the presence of AZM and HCQ. IL-6, AZM and HCQ were concomitantly administered to guinea pigs in-vivo and in-vitro. Electrocardiograms, action potentials and ion-currents were analyzed. IL-6 alone or the combination AZM + HCQ induced mild to moderate reduction in heart rate, PR-interval and corrected QT (QTc) in-vivo and in-vitro. Notably, IL-6 alone was more potent than the combination of the two drugs in reducing heart rate, increasing PR-interval and QTc. In addition, the in-vivo or in-vitro combination of IL-6 + AZM + HCQ caused severe bradycardia, conduction abnormalities, QTc prolongation and asystole. These electrocardiographic abnormalities were attenuated in-vivo by tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptor, and are due in part to the prolongation of action potential duration and selective inhibition of Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents. Inflammation confers greater risk for arrhythmia than the drug combination therapy. As such, in the setting of elevated IL-6 during inflammation caution must be taken when co-administering drugs known to predispose to fatal arrhythmias and TCZ could be an important player as a novel anti-arrhythmic agent. Thus, identifying inflammation as a critical culprit is essential for proper management.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Male
11.
Clin Cardiol ; 45(1): 110-118, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with an increased risk of acute cardiac events. However, the effect of COVID-19 on repolarization heterogeneity is not yet established. In this study, we evaluated electrocardiogram (ECG) markers of repolarization heterogeneity in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. In addition, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published studies. METHODS: QT dispersion (QTd), the interval between T wave peak to T wave end (TpTe), TpTe/QT (with and without correction), QRS width, and the index of cardio-electrophysiological balance (iCEB) were calculated in 101 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and it was compared with 101 non-COVID-19 matched controls. A systematic review was performed in four databases and meta-analysis was conducted using Stata software. RESULTS: Tp-Te, TpTe/QT, QRS width, and iCEB were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with controls (TpTe = 82.89 vs. 75.33 ms (ms), p-value = .005; TpTe/QT = 0.217 vs. 0.203 ms, p-value = .026). After a meta-analysis of 679 COVID-19 cases and 526 controls from 9 studies, TpTe interval, TpTe/QT, and TpTe/QTc ratios were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients. Meta-regression analysis moderated by age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking reduced the heterogeneity. QTd showed no significant correlation with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 adversely influences the ECG markers of transmural heterogeneity of repolarization. Studies evaluating the predictive value of these ECG markers are warranted to determine their clinical utility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(1): 15, 2022 Jan.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609116
15.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(2): 129-138, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, palpitations, which may result from a life­threatening tachyarrhythmia, are one of the most common causes of cardiac visits and hospitalizations. Effective diagnosis is essential in this population of patients. AIMS: This study aimed to assess the usefulness of long­term telemetric electrocardiograms compared with Holter monitoring in the diagnostic workup in children with palpitations. METHODS: A total of 350 children with undocumented palpitations were examined in a multicenter study. In 167 patients (47.7%), the TELE group, month­long continuous telemetric electrocardiogram monitoring (using the PocketECG system) was performed. In 183 patients (52.3%), the HOLT group, 24­hour Holter electrocardiography was carried out and repeated after a month if tachyarrhythmia was not recorded. RESULTS: A total of 152 children (43.4%) reported palpitations, and 36.2% of them had sinus tachycardia during palpitations. Tachyarrhythmias were recorded in 68 patients (40.7%) in the TELE group and in 7 (3.8%) in the HOLT group after the second examination (P <0.001); the mean time to record tachycardia was 15.8 (8.7) days versus 25.4 (11.1) days (P = 0.004). In the TELE group, we noted a greater number of children with palpitations during recording (62.9% vs 18%), tachycardia with normal QRS complexes (21.6% vs 1.6%), ventricular tachycardia (11.4% vs 0.5%), and asymptomatic arrhythmias than in the HOLT group. CONCLUSIONS: In children, long­term telemetric electrocardiogram monitoring using the PocketECG system is well tolerated and has a high diagnostic efficacy. In young patients with palpitations, telemetric cardiac monitoring lasting up to a month increased the number of patients with recorded tachyarrhythmia by almost 10-fold compared with the analysis of 2 Holter electrocardiograms. We found that a large number of children have asymptomatic cardiac arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Child , Electrocardiography , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Humans , Telemetry
16.
Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 40(8): 581-582, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596608
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23959, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585800

ABSTRACT

Evidence that patients may avoid healthcare facilities for fear of COVID-19 infection has heightened the concern that true rates of myocardial infarctions have been under-ascertained and left untreated. We analyzed data from the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) and incident COVID-19 infections across the United States (US) between January 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. Grouping events by US Census Division, multivariable adjusted negative binomial regression models were utilized to estimate the relationship between COVID-19 and EMS cardiovascular activations. After multivariable adjustment, increasing COVID-19 rates were associated with less activations for chest pain and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarctions. Simultaneously, increasing COVID-19 rates were associated with more activations for cardiac arrests, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia. Although direct effects of COVID-19 infections may explain these discordant observations, these findings may also arise from patients delaying or avoiding care for myocardial infarction, leading to potentially lethal consequences.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Chest Pain/etiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/genetics , United States/epidemiology
19.
Nat Med ; 28(2): 410-422, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575259

ABSTRACT

Although myocarditis and pericarditis were not observed as adverse events in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trials, there have been numerous reports of suspected cases following vaccination in the general population. We undertook a self-controlled case series study of people aged 16 or older vaccinated for COVID-19 in England between 1 December 2020 and 24 August 2021 to investigate hospital admission or death from myocarditis, pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias in the 1-28 days following adenovirus (ChAdOx1, n = 20,615,911) or messenger RNA-based (BNT162b2, n = 16,993,389; mRNA-1273, n = 1,006,191) vaccines or a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive test (n = 3,028,867). We found increased risks of myocarditis associated with the first dose of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccines and the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine over the 1-28 days postvaccination period, and after a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We estimated an extra two (95% confidence interval (CI) 0, 3), one (95% CI 0, 2) and six (95% CI 2, 8) myocarditis events per 1 million people vaccinated with ChAdOx1, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively, in the 28 days following a first dose and an extra ten (95% CI 7, 11) myocarditis events per 1 million vaccinated in the 28 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273. This compares with an extra 40 (95% CI 38, 41) myocarditis events per 1 million patients in the 28 days following a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We also observed increased risks of pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Similar associations were not observed with any of the COVID-19 vaccines, apart from an increased risk of arrhythmia following a second dose of mRNA-1273. Subgroup analyses by age showed the increased risk of myocarditis associated with the two mRNA vaccines was present only in those younger than 40.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , /adverse effects , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
20.
Cardiol J ; 28(6): 1001-1002, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572881
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