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1.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias have been observed among patients hospitalised with acute COVID-19 infection, and palpitations remain a common symptom among the much larger outpatient population of COVID-19 survivors in the convalescent stage of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine arrhythmia prevalence among outpatients after a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Adults with a positive COVID-19 test and without a history of arrhythmia were prospectively evaluated with 14-day ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Participants were instructed to trigger the monitor for palpitations. RESULTS: A total of 51 individuals (mean age 42±11 years, 65% women) underwent monitoring at a median 75 (IQR 34-126) days after a positive COVID-19 test. Median monitoring duration was 13.2 (IQR 10.5-13.8) days. No participant demonstrated atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, sustained supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), sustained ventricular tachycardia or infranodal atrioventricular block. Nearly all participants (96%) had an ectopic burden of <1%; one participant had a 2.8% supraventricular ectopic burden and one had a 15.4% ventricular ectopic burden. While 47 (92%) participants triggered their monitor for palpitation symptoms, 78% of these triggers were for either sinus rhythm or sinus tachycardia. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of malignant or sustained arrhythmias in outpatients after a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. While palpitations were common, symptoms frequently corresponded to sinus rhythm/sinus tachycardia or non-malignant arrhythmias such as isolated ectopy or non-sustained SVT. While these findings cannot exclude the possibility of serious arrhythmias in select individuals, they do not support a strong or widespread proarrhythmic effect of COVID-19 infection after resolution of acute illness.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies
2.
Clin Cardiol ; 45(1): 110-118, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with an increased risk of acute cardiac events. However, the effect of COVID-19 on repolarization heterogeneity is not yet established. In this study, we evaluated electrocardiogram (ECG) markers of repolarization heterogeneity in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. In addition, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published studies. METHODS: QT dispersion (QTd), the interval between T wave peak to T wave end (TpTe), TpTe/QT (with and without correction), QRS width, and the index of cardio-electrophysiological balance (iCEB) were calculated in 101 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and it was compared with 101 non-COVID-19 matched controls. A systematic review was performed in four databases and meta-analysis was conducted using Stata software. RESULTS: Tp-Te, TpTe/QT, QRS width, and iCEB were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with controls (TpTe = 82.89 vs. 75.33 ms (ms), p-value = .005; TpTe/QT = 0.217 vs. 0.203 ms, p-value = .026). After a meta-analysis of 679 COVID-19 cases and 526 controls from 9 studies, TpTe interval, TpTe/QT, and TpTe/QTc ratios were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients. Meta-regression analysis moderated by age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking reduced the heterogeneity. QTd showed no significant correlation with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 adversely influences the ECG markers of transmural heterogeneity of repolarization. Studies evaluating the predictive value of these ECG markers are warranted to determine their clinical utility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(2): 129-138, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, palpitations, which may result from a life­threatening tachyarrhythmia, are one of the most common causes of cardiac visits and hospitalizations. Effective diagnosis is essential in this population of patients. AIMS: This study aimed to assess the usefulness of long­term telemetric electrocardiograms compared with Holter monitoring in the diagnostic workup in children with palpitations. METHODS: A total of 350 children with undocumented palpitations were examined in a multicenter study. In 167 patients (47.7%), the TELE group, month­long continuous telemetric electrocardiogram monitoring (using the PocketECG system) was performed. In 183 patients (52.3%), the HOLT group, 24­hour Holter electrocardiography was carried out and repeated after a month if tachyarrhythmia was not recorded. RESULTS: A total of 152 children (43.4%) reported palpitations, and 36.2% of them had sinus tachycardia during palpitations. Tachyarrhythmias were recorded in 68 patients (40.7%) in the TELE group and in 7 (3.8%) in the HOLT group after the second examination (P <0.001); the mean time to record tachycardia was 15.8 (8.7) days versus 25.4 (11.1) days (P = 0.004). In the TELE group, we noted a greater number of children with palpitations during recording (62.9% vs 18%), tachycardia with normal QRS complexes (21.6% vs 1.6%), ventricular tachycardia (11.4% vs 0.5%), and asymptomatic arrhythmias than in the HOLT group. CONCLUSIONS: In children, long­term telemetric electrocardiogram monitoring using the PocketECG system is well tolerated and has a high diagnostic efficacy. In young patients with palpitations, telemetric cardiac monitoring lasting up to a month increased the number of patients with recorded tachyarrhythmia by almost 10-fold compared with the analysis of 2 Holter electrocardiograms. We found that a large number of children have asymptomatic cardiac arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Child , Electrocardiography , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Humans , Telemetry
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497893

ABSTRACT

Adverse consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination which have been reported in scientific papers are varied. One possible but rare consequence is myocarditis, which may have a diversity of clinical manifestations. We report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented to the hospital for some syncope, 3 days after his first COVID-19 AstraZeneca Vaccination. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a long QT interval (QTc = 600 milliseconds). Laboratory tests revealed elevated troponin and lack of evidence of viral infection. Further investigations revealed the vaccine-induced myocarditis and arrhythmias linked to it. Within one week of magnesium treatment, the QT interval was completely corrected, and the patient discharged with no typical syncope attacks. This case like the previous reported one confirms that myocarditis is a complication of COVID-19 vaccine, but implies its clinical manifestations may be varied and even may happen after the single dose of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Syncope/etiology , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Syncope/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
9.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(8): 598-604, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318440

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the index of Cardiac Electrophysiological Balance (iCEB) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving Hydroxychloroquine / azithromycin (HCQ / AZ) combination therapy to determine the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia among these patients. METHOD: Sixty-seven COVID-19 patients admitted to the ward were included in the study. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained from all patients before the initiation of treatment and on treatment day 5. QT/QRS (iCEB) and QTc/QRS (iCEBc) ratios were calculated. RESULTS: QRS, QT and QTc intervals were significantly prolonged on day 5 measurements compared to pre-treatment period (p <0.05). Overall, mean iCEB was 3.6±0.4 before treatment and 3.8±0.4 on day 5 in the study population (p <0.001). Considering the iCEBc values, a significant increase was observed in patients receiving HCQ/AZ treatment compared to pre-treatment period (4.1±0.5 vs 4.4±0.6; p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate iCEB and iCEBc parameters in patients with COVID-19 on HCQ/AZ therapy. In this study, we demonstrated significantly increased iCEB and iCEBc values following HCQ/AZ treatment in COVID-19 patients. iCEB and iCEBc may serve as a noninvasive, simple, and novel biomarker for detecting increased pro-arrhythmia risk in COVID-19 patients (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 36).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Azithromycin , Electrocardiography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
JCI Insight ; 6(13)2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305529

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has resulted in an unprecedented pandemic that has been accompanied by a global health crisis. Although the lungs are the main organs involved in COVID-19, systemic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations also develops in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. One of the major systems affected by this virus is the cardiovascular system. The presence of preexisting cardiovascular disease increases mortality in patients with COVID-19, and cardiovascular injuries, including myocarditis, cardiac rhythm abnormalities, endothelial cell injury, thrombotic events, and myocardial interstitial fibrosis, are observed in some patients with COVID-19. The underlying pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated cardiovascular complications is not fully understood, although direct viral infection of myocardium and cytokine storm have been suggested as possible mechanisms of myocarditis. In this Review, we summarize available data on SARS-CoV-2-related cardiac damage and discuss potential mechanisms of cardiovascular implications of this rapidly spreading virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Fibrosis/diagnosis , Fibrosis/etiology , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Primary Dysautonomias/diagnosis , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Vasculitis/diagnosis , Vasculitis/etiology
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 153: 125-128, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293528

ABSTRACT

Mobile electrocardiogram (mECG) devices are being used increasingly, supplying recordings to providers and providing automatic rhythm interpretation. Given the intermittent nature of certain cardiac arrhythmias, mECGs allow instant access to a recording device. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, efforts to limit in-person patient interactions and avoid overwhelming emergency and inpatient services would add value. Our goal was to evaluate whether a mECG device would reduce healthcare utilization overall, particularly those of urgent nature. We identified a cohort of KardiaMobile (AliveCor, USA) mECG users and compared their healthcare utilization 1 year prior to obtaining the device and 1 year after. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were studied (mean age 64, 47% female). Mean duration of follow-up pre-intervention was 9.8 months. One hundred and twenty-three of 128 individuals completed post-intervention follow-up. Patients were less likely to have cardiac monitors ordered (30 vs 6; p <0.01), outpatient office visits (525 vs 382; p <0.01), cardiac-specific ED visits (51 vs 30; p <0.01), arrhythmia related ED visits (45 vs 20; p <0.01), and unplanned arrhythmia admissions (34 vs 11; p <0.01) in the year after obtaining a KardiaMobile device compared to the year prior to obtaining the device. Mobile technology is available for heart rhythm monitoring and can give feedback to the user. This study showed a reduction of in-person, healthcare utilization with mECG device use. In conclusion, this strategy would be expected to decrease the risk of exposure to patients and providers and would avoid overwhelming emergency and inpatient services.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computers, Handheld/statistics & numerical data , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
14.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 407-414, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a fast-growing worldwide pandemic. AIMS: We aimed to investigate the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias among a large French cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients over the first 5 months of 2020. METHODS: Five thousand nine hundred and fifty-four implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients were followed by remote monitoring during the COVID-19 period (from 01 January to 31 May 2020). Data were obtained from automated remote follow-up of implantable cardioverter defibrillators utilizing the Implicity® platform. For all patients, the type of arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation), the number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and the type of implantable cardioverter defibrillator-delivered therapy were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 472 (7.9%) patients presented 4917 ventricular arrhythmia events. An increase in ventricular arrhythmia incidence was observed after the first COVID-19 case in France, and especially during weeks #10 and #11, at the time of major governmental measures, with an increase in the incidence of antitachycardia pacing delivered therapy. During the 11 weeks before the lockdown order, the curve of the percentage of live-stream television coverage of COVID-19 information matched the ventricular arrhythmia incidence. During the lockdown, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia decreased significantly compared with baseline (0.05±0.7 vs. 0.09±1.2 episodes per patient per week, respectively; P<0.001). Importantly, no correlation was observed between ventricular arrhythmia incidence and the curve of COVID-19 incidence. No changes were observed regarding atrial fibrillation/atrial tachycardia episodes over time. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in ventricular arrhythmia incidence was observed in the 2 weeks before the lockdown order, at the time of major governmental measures. Ventricular arrhythmia incidence decreased dramatically during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Remote Sensing Technology/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Heart Rate , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Ambulatory/instrumentation , Monitoring, Ambulatory/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Quarantine , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology
15.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(9): 687-694, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237553

ABSTRACT

Several medicines, including cancer therapies, are known to alter the electrophysiological function of ventricular myocytes resulting in abnormal prolongation and dispersion of ventricular repolarization (quantified by multi-lead QTc measurement). This effect could be amplified by other concomitant factors (e.g., combination with other drugs affecting the QT, and/or electrolyte abnormalities, such as especially hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, and hypocalcemia). Usually, this condition results in higher risk of torsade de point and other life-threatening arrhythmias, related to unrecognized unpaired cardiac ventricular repolarization reserve (VRR). Being VRR a dynamic phenomenon, QT prolongation might often not be identified during the 10-s standard 12-lead ECG recording at rest, leaving the patient at increased risk for life-threatening event. We report the case of a 49-year woman, undergoing tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer, which alteration of ventricular repolarization reserve, persisting also after correction of concomitant recurrent hypokalemia, was evidenced only after manual measurements of the corrected QT (QTc) interval from selected intervals of the 12-lead ECG Holter monitoring. This otherwise missed finding was fundamental to drive the discontinuation of tamoxifen, shifting to another "safer" therapeutic option, and to avoid the use of potentially arrhythmogenic antibiotics when treating a bilateral pneumonia in recent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Estrogen Antagonists/adverse effects , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Action Potentials , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Substitution , Female , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(5): 1308-1311, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220012

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: A pandemic can strain all aspects of the healthcare system, including the ability to monitor the safety of medication use. Reviewing the adequacy of medication safety practices during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical to informing responses to future pandemics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate medication safety practices at a height of both COVID-19 cases and hydroxychloroquine use. METHODS: This was a multicentre observational point prevalence study. Adult inpatients receiving hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 between March 22 and 28, 2020 were included. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients receiving appropriate QTc monitoring. Secondary outcomes included QTc prolongation, early discontinuation of hydroxychloroquine and ventricular arrhythmias. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 59% (167/284) of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine received appropriate QTc monitoring. QTc prolongation occurred in 25%. Hydroxychloroquine was prematurely discontinued in 1.4% of patients, all due to QTc prolongation. Ventricular arrhythmia occurred in 1.1%. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Medication safety practices were suboptimal with regard to hydroxychloroquine monitoring at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. Preparation for future pandemics should devote considerable attention to medication safety.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/methods , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Electrocardiol ; 66: 102-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 seem to be prone to the development of arrhythmias. The objective of this trial was to determine the characteristics, clinical significance and therapeutic consequences of these arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 113 consecutive patients (mean age 64.1 ± 14.3 years, 30 (26.5%) female) with positive PCR testing for SARS-CoV2 as well as radiographically confirmed pulmonary involvement admitted to the ICU from March to May 2020 were included and observed for a cumulative time of 2321 days. Fifty episodes of sustained atrial tachycardias, five episodes of sustained ventricular arrhythmias and thirty bradycardic events were documented. Sustained new onset atrial arrhythmias were associated with hemodynamic deterioration in 13 cases (35.1%). Patients with new onset atrial arrhythmias were older, showed higher levels of Hs-Troponin and NT-proBNP, and a more severe course of disease. The 5 ventricular arrhythmias (two ventricular tachycardias, two episodes of ventricular fibrillation, and one torsade de pointes tachycardia) were observed in 4 patients. All episodes could be terminated by immediate defibrillation/cardioversion. Five bradycardic events were associated with hemodynamic deterioration. Precipitating factors could be identified in 19 of 30 episodes (63.3%), no patient required cardiac pacing. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between patients with or without bradycardic events. CONCLUSION: Relevant arrhythmias are common in severely ill ICU patients with COVID-19. They are associated with worse courses of disease and require specific treatment. This makes daily close monitoring of telemetric data mandatory in this patient group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
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