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1.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias have been observed among patients hospitalised with acute COVID-19 infection, and palpitations remain a common symptom among the much larger outpatient population of COVID-19 survivors in the convalescent stage of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine arrhythmia prevalence among outpatients after a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Adults with a positive COVID-19 test and without a history of arrhythmia were prospectively evaluated with 14-day ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Participants were instructed to trigger the monitor for palpitations. RESULTS: A total of 51 individuals (mean age 42±11 years, 65% women) underwent monitoring at a median 75 (IQR 34-126) days after a positive COVID-19 test. Median monitoring duration was 13.2 (IQR 10.5-13.8) days. No participant demonstrated atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, sustained supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), sustained ventricular tachycardia or infranodal atrioventricular block. Nearly all participants (96%) had an ectopic burden of <1%; one participant had a 2.8% supraventricular ectopic burden and one had a 15.4% ventricular ectopic burden. While 47 (92%) participants triggered their monitor for palpitation symptoms, 78% of these triggers were for either sinus rhythm or sinus tachycardia. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of malignant or sustained arrhythmias in outpatients after a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. While palpitations were common, symptoms frequently corresponded to sinus rhythm/sinus tachycardia or non-malignant arrhythmias such as isolated ectopy or non-sustained SVT. While these findings cannot exclude the possibility of serious arrhythmias in select individuals, they do not support a strong or widespread proarrhythmic effect of COVID-19 infection after resolution of acute illness.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23959, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585800

ABSTRACT

Evidence that patients may avoid healthcare facilities for fear of COVID-19 infection has heightened the concern that true rates of myocardial infarctions have been under-ascertained and left untreated. We analyzed data from the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) and incident COVID-19 infections across the United States (US) between January 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. Grouping events by US Census Division, multivariable adjusted negative binomial regression models were utilized to estimate the relationship between COVID-19 and EMS cardiovascular activations. After multivariable adjustment, increasing COVID-19 rates were associated with less activations for chest pain and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarctions. Simultaneously, increasing COVID-19 rates were associated with more activations for cardiac arrests, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia. Although direct effects of COVID-19 infections may explain these discordant observations, these findings may also arise from patients delaying or avoiding care for myocardial infarction, leading to potentially lethal consequences.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Chest Pain/etiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/genetics , United States/epidemiology
4.
Nat Med ; 28(2): 410-422, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575259

ABSTRACT

Although myocarditis and pericarditis were not observed as adverse events in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trials, there have been numerous reports of suspected cases following vaccination in the general population. We undertook a self-controlled case series study of people aged 16 or older vaccinated for COVID-19 in England between 1 December 2020 and 24 August 2021 to investigate hospital admission or death from myocarditis, pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias in the 1-28 days following adenovirus (ChAdOx1, n = 20,615,911) or messenger RNA-based (BNT162b2, n = 16,993,389; mRNA-1273, n = 1,006,191) vaccines or a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive test (n = 3,028,867). We found increased risks of myocarditis associated with the first dose of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccines and the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine over the 1-28 days postvaccination period, and after a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We estimated an extra two (95% confidence interval (CI) 0, 3), one (95% CI 0, 2) and six (95% CI 2, 8) myocarditis events per 1 million people vaccinated with ChAdOx1, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively, in the 28 days following a first dose and an extra ten (95% CI 7, 11) myocarditis events per 1 million vaccinated in the 28 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273. This compares with an extra 40 (95% CI 38, 41) myocarditis events per 1 million patients in the 28 days following a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We also observed increased risks of pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Similar associations were not observed with any of the COVID-19 vaccines, apart from an increased risk of arrhythmia following a second dose of mRNA-1273. Subgroup analyses by age showed the increased risk of myocarditis associated with the two mRNA vaccines was present only in those younger than 40.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , /adverse effects , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4031-e4038, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged QTc intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias (LTA) are potential drug-induced complications previously reported with antimalarials, antivirals, and antibiotics. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of QTc interval prolongation and incidences of LTA during hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with normal admission QTc. METHODS: We enrolled 110 consecutive patients in a multicenter international registry. A 12-lead electrocardiograph was performed at admission, after 7, and at 14 days; QTc values were analyzed. RESULTS: After 7 days, 15 (14%) patients developed a prolonged QTc (pQTc; mean QTc increase 66 ± 20 msec; +16%; P < .001); these patients were older and had higher basal heart rates, higher rates of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and lower platelet counts. The QTc increase was inversely proportional to the baseline QTc level and leukocyte count and directly proportional to the basal heart rate (P < .01).We conducted a multivariate stepwise analysis including age, male gender, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, basal QTc values, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy; age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.13; P < .05), basal heart rate (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P < .01), and dual antiviral therapy (OR, 12.46; 95% CI, 2.09-74.20; P < .1) were independent predictors of QT prolongation.The incidence rate of LTA during hospitalization was 3.6%. There was 1 patient who experienced cardiac arrest and 3 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. LTAs were recorded after a median of 9 days from hospitalization and were associated with 50% of the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: After 7 days of hospitalization, 14% of patients with COVID-19 developed pQTc; age, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy were found to be independent predictors of pQTc. Life-threatening arrhythmias have an incidence rate of 3.6%, and were associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Electrocardiography , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 162: 111-115, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560061

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrhythmias have been observed in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Most analyses of rhythm disturbances to date include cases of sinus tachycardia, which may not accurately reflect true cardiac dysfunction. Furthermore, limited data exist regarding the development of conduction disturbances in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Hence, we performed a retrospective review and compared characteristics and outcomes for patients with versus without incident arrhythmia, excluding sinus tachycardia, as well as between those with versus without incident conduction disturbances. There were 27 of 173 patients (16%) hospitalized with COVID-19 who developed a new arrhythmia. Incident arrhythmias were associated with an increased risk of intensive care unit admission (59% vs 31%, p = 0.0045), intubation (56% vs 20%, p <0.0001), and inpatient death (41% vs 10%, p = 0.0002) without an associated increase in risk of decompensated heart failure or other cardiac issues. New conduction disturbances were found in 13 patients (8%). Incident arrhythmias in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with an increased risk of mortality, likely reflective of underlying COVID-19 disease severity more than intrinsic cardiac dysfunction. Conduction disturbances occurred less commonly and were not associated with adverse patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
7.
Respir Med ; 191: 106714, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor outcomes in the setting of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary objective is to compare outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 CAP and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP in patients with COPD. The secondary objective is to compare outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 CAP with and without COPD. METHODS: In this analysis of two observational studies, three cohorts were analyzed: (1) patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP; (2) patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP; and (3) patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP without COPD. Outcomes included length of stay, ICU admission, cardiac events, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP were compared to 1129 patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP. 536 patients without COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP were analyzed for the secondary objective. Patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP had longer hospital stay (15 vs 5 days, p < 0.001), 4.98 higher odds of cardiac events (95% CI: 3.74-6.69), and 7.31 higher odds of death (95% CI: 5.36-10.12) in comparison to patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, presence of COPD was associated with 1.74 (95% CI: 1.39-2.19) higher odds of ICU admission and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05-2.05) higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: In patients with COPD and CAP, presence of SARS-CoV-2 as an etiologic agent is associated with more cardiovascular events, longer hospital stay, and seven-fold increase in mortality. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, presence of COPD is associated with 1.5-fold increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Comorbidity , Edema, Cardiac/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology
9.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(10): 881-889, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488109

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is associated with many different systemic complications. Among these, cardiovascular system complications are particularly important as these are associated with significant mortality. There are many different subgroups of cardiovascular complications, with Arrhythmias being one of them. Arrhythmias are especially important as there are a substantial percentage of patients who have arrhythmia after a COVID-19 infection, and these patients are seen with an increased mortality rate. The main interest of this review is understanding some of the specific post-COVID-19 arrhythmic complications and their predisposing factors. AREAS COVERED: This paper will highlight the findings of studies on cardiovascular system disease after COVID-19 infection, different specific arrhythmic complications of COVID-19, and changes in electrophysiologic interventions post-COVID-19 outbreak in different centers around the world. An extensive literature search was made to find pertinent articles. EXPERT OPINION: Studies show us that a significant percentage of COVID-19 patients have arrhythmia. Many distinct types of arrhythmias are associated with COVID-19 infection, and specific risk factors of these arrhythmias are important as this information can be used to detect and prioritize certain at-risk patients for early treatment, which can mean life or death in some cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 11-20, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487624

ABSTRACT

We review the current data on epidemiology, the clinical significance, the pathophysiologic mechanisms, and the treatment of VAs in the setting of COVID-19. VAs prevail in 0.15% to 8% of hospitalized patients, but only sustained and rapid tachyarrhythmias are purportedly associated with a significant increase in mortality. Multiple factors can elicit VAs, which are ultimately deemed to be a marker of severe systemic disease rather than a distinct cardiac condition. Even though the electrophysiologist plays a determinant role in the secondary prevention of VAs, a multidisciplinary approach is indispensable for primary prophylaxis and acute management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia
11.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 372-378, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483189

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread unrelentingly all over the world, millions of cases have been reported. Despite a high number of asymptomatic cases, the course of the disease can be serious or even fatal. The affection of the myocardium, called myocardial injury, is caused by multiple triggers. The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients with myocardial involvement and a critical course is common. In this review, potential mechanisms, incidence, and treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients will be provided by performing a literature research in MESH database and the National Library of Medicine. Common cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients were sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), atrioventricular block, sinusoidal block or QTc prolongation. AF was the most common heart rhythm disorder. About 10% of COVID-19 patients develop new-onset AF and 23 to 33% showed recurrence of AF in patients with known AF. One retrospective trial revealed the incidence of VT or VF to be 5.9% in hospitalized patients. Both AF and VT are clearly associated with worse outcome. Several mechanisms such as hypoxia, myocarditis, myocardial ischemia, or abnormal host immune response, which induce cardiac arrhythmias, have been described. The effect of QT-prolonging drugs in inducing cardiac arrhythmias has become mitigated as these medications are no longer recommended. Acute management of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients is affected by the reduction of exposure of health care personnel. More prospective data are desirable to better understand pathophysiology and consecutively adapt management.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/etiology
14.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 74(11): 971-982, 2021 Nov.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: We present the data corresponding to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implants in Spain in 2020. METHODS: The data in this registry were drawn from implantation centers, which voluntarily completed a data collection sheet. RESULTS: In 2020, 7056 implant sheets were received compared with 7106 reported by Eucomed (European Confederation of Medical Suppliers Associations), indicating that data were collected from 99% of the devices implanted in Spain. Completion of the implant sheet ranged from 99.8% for the field "name of the implanting hospital" to 2.6% for the variable "referral hospital". A total of 173 hospitals performed ICD implants and participated in the registry, which is a similar figure to that in 2019 (n=172). The total rate of registered implants was 149/million inhabitants (150 according to Eucomed), revealing a slight reduction in implants in Spain in 2020 as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This reduction was uneven among the autonomous communities. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Registry for 2020 shows an improvement in the rate of implants reported and a reduction in the number of ICD implants, which likely reflects the decrease in hospital activity not related to the treatment of COVID-19 infection. Similar to previous years, the total number of implants in Spain is still much lower than the average for the European Union, with an increase in the differences between Spanish autonomous communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(5): 1010-1015, 2021 11.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with cardiovascular clinical manifestations, including cardiac arrhythmias. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias (atrial tachyarrhythmia, bradyarrhythmia, and sustained ventricular tachycardia) and cardiac arrest (CA) in a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a tertiary university-affiliated hospital. METHODS: Cohort study with retrospective analysis of electronic medical records. For comparison between groups, a value of p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We included 241 consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (mean age, 57.8 ± 15.0 years; 51.5% men; 80.5% white), 35.3% of whom received invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). The overall mortality was 26.6%, being 58.8% among those on MV. Cardiac arrhythmias were identified in 8.7% of the patients, the most common being atrial tachyarrhythmia (76.2%). Patients with arrhythmias had higher mortality (52.4% versus 24.1%, p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, only the presence of heart failure (HF) was associated with a higher risk of arrhythmias (hazard ratio, 11.9; 95% CI: 3.6-39.5; p <0.001). During hospitalization, 3.3% of the patients experienced CA, with a predominance of non-shockable rhythms. All patients experiencing CA died during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients admitted with COVID-19 to a Brazilian tertiary hospital was 8.7%, and atrial tachyarrhythmia was the most common. Presence of HF was associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias. Patients with COVID-19 experiencing CA have high mortality.


FUNDAMENTO: A doença pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19) está associada a manifestações clínicas cardiovasculares, incluindo a ocorrência de arritmias cardíacas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a incidência de arritmias cardíacas (taquiarritmia atrial, bradiarritmia e taquicardia ventricular sustentada) e de parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) em uma coorte de pacientes internados com COVID-19 em hospital universitário terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo realizado por meio de revisão dos registros de prontuário médico. Para comparação entre os grupos, foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo valor de P < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 241 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de COVID-19 (idade média, 57,8 ± 15,0 anos; 51,5% homens; 80,5% de raça branca) e 35,3% com necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva (VM). A mortalidade geral foi de 26,6%, sendo de 58,8% entre aqueles em VM. Arritmias cardíacas ocorreram em 8,7% dos pacientes, sendo a mais comum taquiarritmia atrial (76,2%). Pacientes com arritmias apresentaram maior mortalidade, 52,4% versus 24,1% (p=0,005). Em análise multivariada, apenas a presença de insuficiência cardíaca foi associada a maior risco de arritmias ( hazard ratio , 11,9; IC 95%: 3,6-39,5; p<0,001). Durante a internação, 3,3% dos pacientes foram atendidos em PCR, com predomínio de ritmos não chocáveis. Todos os atendidos em PCR evoluíram com óbito durante a internação. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de arritmias cardíacas em pacientes internados com COVID-19 em hospital terciário brasileiro foi de 8,7%, sendo a mais comum taquiarritmias atrial. A presença de insuficiência cardíaca foi associada a maior risco de arritmias. Pacientes com COVID-19 atendidos em PCR apresentam elevada mortalidade.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 394-403, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1399818

ABSTRACT

Resumo Desde dezembro de 2019, observamos o rápido avanço da síndrome respiratória aguda grave causada pelo coronavírus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2). O impacto da evolução clínica de uma infecção respiratória é pouco conhecido em pacientes portadores de arritmias hereditárias, devido à baixa prevalência dessas doenças. Os pacientes que apresentam quadros infecciosos podem exacerbar arritmias primárias ocultas ou bem controladas, por diversos fatores, tais como febre, distúrbios eletrolíticos, interações medicamentosas, estresse adrenérgico e, eventualmente, o próprio dano miocárdico do paciente séptico. O objetivo desta revisão é destacar os principais desafios que podemos encontrar durante a pandemia pela Covid 19, especificamente nos pacientes com arritmias hereditárias, com destaque para a síndrome do QT longo congênito (SQTL), a síndrome de Brugada (SBr), a taquicardia ventricular polimórfica catecolaminérgica (TVPC) e a cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito.


Abstract Since December 2019 we have observed the rapid advance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the clinical course of a respiratory infection is little known in patients with hereditary arrhythmias, due to the low prevalence of these diseases. Patients who present with infectious conditions may exacerbate hidden or well-controlled primary arrhythmias, due to several factors, such as fever, electrolyte disturbances, drug interactions, adrenergic stress and, eventually, the septic patient's own myocardial damage. The aim of this review is to highlight the main challenges we may encounter during the Covid 19 pandemic, specifically in patients with hereditary arrhythmias, with emphasis on the congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (SBr), ventricular tachycardia polymorphic catecholaminergic (CPVT) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brugada Syndrome , COVID-19 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/genetics , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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