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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257982, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: J-waves represent a common finding in routine ECGs (5-6%) and are closely linked to ventricular tachycardias. While arrhythmias and non-specific ECG alterations are a frequent finding in COVID-19, an analysis of J-wave incidence in acute COVID-19 is lacking. METHODS: A total of 386 patients consecutively, hospitalized due to acute COVID-19 pneumonia were included in this retrospective analysis. Admission ECGs were analyzed, screened for J-waves and correlated to clinical characteristics and 28-day mortality. RESULTS: J-waves were present in 12.2% of patients. Factors associated with the presence of J-waves were old age, female sex, a history of stroke and/or heart failure, high CRP levels as well as a high BMI. Mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with J-waves in the admission ECG compared to the non-J-wave cohort (J-wave: 14.9% vs. non-J-wave 3.8%, p = 0.001). After adjusting for confounders using a multivariable cox regression model, the incidence of J-waves was an independent predictor of mortality at 28-days (OR 2.76 95% CI: 1.15-6.63; p = 0.023). J-waves disappeared or declined in 36.4% of COVID-19 survivors with available ECGs for 6-8 months follow-up. CONCLUSION: J-waves are frequently and often transiently found in the admission ECG of patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19. Furthermore, they seem to be an independent predictor of 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
3.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(5): 856-864, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific details about cardiovascular complications, especially arrhythmias, related to the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) are not well described. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the incidence and predictive factors of cardiovascular complications and new-onset arrhythmias in Black and White hospitalized COVID-19 patients and determine the impact of new-onset arrhythmia on outcomes. METHODS: We collected and analyzed baseline demographic and clinical data from COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the Tulane Medical Center in New Orleans, Louisiana, between March 1 and May 1, 2020. RESULTS: Among 310 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the mean age was 61.4 ± 16.5 years, with 58,7% females, and 67% Black patients. Black patients were more likely to be younger, have diabetes and obesity. The incidence of cardiac complications was 20%, with 9% of patients having new-onset arrhythmia. There was no significant difference in cardiovascular outcomes between Black and White patients. A multivariate analysis determined age ≥60 years to be a predictor of new-onset arrhythmia (OR = 7.36, 95% CI [1.95;27.76], p = .003). D-dimer levels positively correlated with cardiac and new-onset arrhythmic event. New onset atrial arrhythmias predicted in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.99 95% CI [1.35;6.63], p = .007), a longer intensive care unit length of stay (mean of 6.14 days, 95% CI [2.51;9.77], p = .001) and mechanical ventilation duration(mean of 9.08 days, 95% CI [3.75;14.40], p = .001). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that new onset atrial arrhythmias are commonly encountered in COVID-19 patients and can predict in-hospital mortality. Early elevation in D-dimer in COVID-19 patients is a significant predictor of new onset arrhythmias. Our finding suggest continuous rhythm monitoring should be adopted in this patient population during hospitalization to better risk stratify hospitalized patients and prompt earlier intervention.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/ethnology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , /statistics & numerical data , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New Orleans/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 20(1): 44-52, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135914

ABSTRACT

Due to the lack of prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies on inflammation and cardiovascular involvement, the exact mechanism of cardiac injury among patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains uncertain. It was demonstrated that there is a high and significantly positive linear correlation between troponin T and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, biomarkers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation, respectively. Cardiac injury and inflammation is a relatively common association among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and it is related to higher risk of in-hospital mortality. In our literature search, we identified several potential mechanisms of myocardial tissue damage, namely, coronavirus-associated acute myocarditis, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding affinity to the virus Spike protein, increased cytokine secretion, and hypoxia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Elucidation of the disease pathogenesis and prospective histopathological studies are crucial for future proper treatment in case of renewed outbreaks. Of interest is that with hundred of thousands of bodies available for autopsy studies, no prospective investigation has been reported so far. Strong efforts and continued research of the cardiovascular complications and identification of risk factors for poor prognosis in COVID-19 are steadily needed. The high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, its monumental economic burden and social impact, the despair of a new pandemic outbreak, and the thread of potential utilization of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as biologic weapons make it a preponderant necessity to better comprehend the therapeutic management of this lethal disease. Emerging as an acute infectious disease, COVID-19 may become a chronic epidemic because of genetic recombination. Therefore, we should be ready for the reemergence of COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocarditis/mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 14(3): e009458, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072830
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244533, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999845

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmias have been reported frequently in COVID-19 patients, but the incidence and nature have not been well characterized. Patients admitted with COVID-19 and monitored by telemetry were prospectively enrolled in the study. Baseline characteristics, hospital course, treatment and complications were collected from the patients' medical records. Telemetry was monitored to detect the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. The incidence and types of cardiac arrhythmias were analyzed and compared between survivors and non-survivors. Among 143 patients admitted with telemetry monitoring, overall in-hospital mortality was 25.2% (36/143 patients) during the period of observation (mean follow-up 23.7 days). Survivors were less tachycardic on initial presentation (heart rate 90.6 ± 19.6 vs. 99.3 ± 23.1 bpm, p = 0.030) and had lower troponin (peak troponin 0.03 vs. 0.18 ng/ml. p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (peak C-reactive protein 97 vs. 181 mg/dl, p = 0.029), and interleukin-6 levels (peak interleukin-6 30 vs. 246 pg/ml, p = 0.003). Sinus tachycardia, the most common arrhythmia (detected in 39.9% [57/143] of patients), occurred more frequently in non-survivors (58.3% vs. 33.6% in survivors, p = 0.009). Premature ventricular complexes occurred in 28.7% (41/143), and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 15.4% (22/143) of patients, with no difference between survivors and non-survivors. Sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation were not frequent (seen only in 1.4% and 0.7% of patients, respectively). Contrary to reports from other regions, overall mortality was higher and ventricular arrhythmias were infrequent in this hospitalized and monitored COVID-19 population. Either disease or management-related factors could explain this divergence of clinical outcomes, and should be urgently investigated.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Electrocardiography/mortality , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality , Telemetry/mortality , United States , Ventricular Fibrillation/etiology , Ventricular Fibrillation/mortality
7.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008920, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop cardiac injury are reported to experience higher rates of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. However, little is known about these arrhythmias-their frequency, the underlying mechanisms, and their impact on mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from a registry (NCT04358029) regarding consecutive inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 who were receiving continuous telemetric ECG monitoring and had a definitive disposition of hospital discharge or death. Between patients who died versus discharged, we compared a primary composite end point of cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or bradyarrhythmias such as atrioventricular block. RESULTS: Among 800 patients with COVID-19 at Mount Sinai Hospital with definitive dispositions, 140 patients had telemetric monitoring, and either died (52) or were discharged (88). The median (interquartile range) age was 61 years (48-74); 73% men; and ethnicity was White in 34%. Comorbidities included hypertension in 61%, coronary artery disease in 25%, ventricular arrhythmia history in 1.4%, and no significant comorbidities in 16%. Compared with discharged patients, those who died had elevated peak troponin I levels (0.27 versus 0.02 ng/mL) and more primary end point events (17% versus 4%, P=0.01)-a difference driven by tachyarrhythmias. Fatal tachyarrhythmias invariably occurred in the presence of severe metabolic imbalance, while atrioventricular block was largely an independent primary event. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who die experience malignant cardiac arrhythmias more often than those surviving to discharge. However, these events represent a minority of cardiovascular deaths, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are mainly associated with severe metabolic derangement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04358029.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(12): 3086-3096, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Electrocardiographic characteristics in COVID-19-related mortality have not yet been reported, particularly in racial/ethnic minorities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed demographics, laboratory and cardiac tests, medications, and cardiac rhythm proximate to death or initiation of comfort care for patients hospitalized with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in three New York City hospitals between March 1 and April 3, 2020 who died. We described clinical characteristics and compared factors contributing toward arrhythmic versus nonarrhythmic death. Of 1258 patients screened, 133 died and were enrolled. Of these, 55.6% (74/133) were male, 69.9% (93/133) were racial/ethnic minorities, and 88.0% (117/133) had cardiovascular disease. The last cardiac rhythm recorded was VT or fibrillation in 5.3% (7/133), pulseless electrical activity in 7.5% (10/133), unspecified bradycardia in 0.8% (1/133), and asystole in 26.3% (35/133). Most 74.4% (99/133) died receiving comfort measures only. The most common abnormalities on admission electrocardiogram included abnormal QRS axis (25.8%), atrial fibrillation/flutter (14.3%), atrial ectopy (12.0%), and right bundle branch block (11.9%). During hospitalization, an additional 17.6% developed atrial ectopy, 14.7% ventricular ectopy, 10.1% atrial fibrillation/flutter, and 7.8% a right ventricular abnormality. Arrhythmic death was confirmed or suspected in 8.3% (11/133) associated with age, coronary artery disease, asthma, vasopressor use, longer admission corrected QT interval, and left bundle branch block (LBBB). CONCLUSIONS: Conduction, rhythm, and electrocardiographic abnormalities were common during COVID-19-related hospitalization. Arrhythmic death was associated with age, coronary artery disease, asthma, longer admission corrected QT interval, LBBB, ventricular ectopy, and usage of vasopressors. Most died receiving comfort measures.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/ethnology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Time Factors
11.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(11): 2803-2811, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732126

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic, and cardiovascular complications and arrhythmias in these patients are common. Cardiac monitoring is recommended for at risk patients; however, the availability of telemetry capable hospital beds is limited. We sought to evaluate a patch-based mobile telemetry system for inpatient cardiac monitoring during the pandemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed of inpatients hospitalized during the pandemic who had mobile telemetry devices placed; patients were studied up until the time of discharge or death. The primary outcome was a composite of management changes based on data obtained from the system and detection of new arrhythmias. Other clinical outcomes and performance characteristics of the mobile telemetry system were studied. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients underwent mobile telemetry device placement, of which 31 (37.8%) met the primary outcome, which consisted of 24 (29.3%) with new arrhythmias detected and 18 (22.2%) with management changes. Twenty-one patients (25.6%) died during the study, but none from primary arrhythmias. In analyses, age and heart failure were associated with the primary outcome. Monitoring occurred for an average of 5.3 ± 3.4 days, with 432 total patient-days of monitoring performed; of these, QT-interval measurements were feasible in 400 (92.6%). CONCLUSION: A mobile telemetry system was successfully implemented for inpatient use during the COVID-19 pandemic and was shown to be useful to inform patient management, detect occult arrhythmias, and monitor the QT-interval. Patients with advanced age and structural heart disease may be more likely to benefit from this system.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Heart Rate , Inpatients , Telemetry/instrumentation , Action Potentials , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110198, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716874

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were among the first drugs repurposed for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A few in vitro studies confirmed that both drugs exhibited dose dependent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities. These observations and the encouraging results from early poorly conducted observational studies created a major hype about the therapeutic potential of these drugs in the treatment of COVID-19 disease. This was further catalyzed by media and political influences leading to a widespread use of these agents. Subsequent randomized trials revealed lack of efficacy of these agents in improving the outcomes of COVID-19 or in preventing infection in post-exposure prophylaxis studies. Nevertheless, many ongoing trials continue to actively recruit tens of thousands of patients to receive HCQ worldwide. In this perspective, we address the possible mechanisms behind the lack of efficacy and the increased risk of cardiac toxicity of HCQ in COVID-19 disease. For the lack of efficacy, we discuss the fundamental differences of treatment initiation between in vitro and in vivo studies, the pitfalls of the pharmacological calculations of effective blood drug concentrations and related dosing regimens, and the possible negative effect of HCQ on the antiviral type-I interferon response. Although it has been repeatedly claimed that HCQ has a longstanding safety track record for many decades in use, we present counterarguments for this contention due to disease-drug and drug-drug interactions. We discuss the molecular mechanisms and the cumulative epidemiological evidence of HCQ cardiac toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Drug Interactions , Heart/drug effects , Heart Failure/chemically induced , Heart Failure/mortality , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
13.
CMAJ ; 192(28): E791-E798, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is common in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to study predictors of in-hospital death, characteristics of arrhythmias and the effects of QT-prolonging therapy in patients with cardiac injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between Jan. 29 and Mar. 8, 2020. Among patients who had cardiac injury, which we defined as an elevated level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), we identified demographic and clinical characteristics associated with mortality and need for invasive ventilation. RESULTS: Among 1284 patients with severe COVID-19, 1159 had a cTnI level measured on admission to hospital, of whom 170 (14.7%) had results that showed cardiac injury. We found that mortality was markedly higher in patients with cardiac injury (71.2% v. 6.6%, p < 0.001). We determined that initial cTnI (per 10-fold increase, hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.66) and peak cTnI level during illness (per 10-fold increase, HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) were associated with poor survival. Peak cTnI was also associated with the need for invasive ventilation (odds ratio 3.02, 95% CI 1.92-4.98). We found arrhythmias in 44 of the 170 patients with cardiac injury (25.9%), including 6 patients with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, all of whom died. We determined that patients who received QT-prolonging drugs had longer QTc intervals than those who did not receive them (difference in medians, 45 ms, p = 0.01), but such treatment was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.69-1.57). INTERPRETATION: We found that in patients with COVID-19 and cardiac injury, initial and peak cTnI levels were associated with poor survival, and peak cTnI was a predictor of need for invasive ventilation. Patients with COVID-19 warrant assessment for cardiac injury and monitoring, especially if therapy that can prolong repolarization is started. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, No. ChiCTR2000031301.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Heart Injuries/mortality , Heart Injuries/virology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Heart Injuries/blood , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
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