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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 162: 111-115, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560061

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrhythmias have been observed in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Most analyses of rhythm disturbances to date include cases of sinus tachycardia, which may not accurately reflect true cardiac dysfunction. Furthermore, limited data exist regarding the development of conduction disturbances in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Hence, we performed a retrospective review and compared characteristics and outcomes for patients with versus without incident arrhythmia, excluding sinus tachycardia, as well as between those with versus without incident conduction disturbances. There were 27 of 173 patients (16%) hospitalized with COVID-19 who developed a new arrhythmia. Incident arrhythmias were associated with an increased risk of intensive care unit admission (59% vs 31%, p = 0.0045), intubation (56% vs 20%, p <0.0001), and inpatient death (41% vs 10%, p = 0.0002) without an associated increase in risk of decompensated heart failure or other cardiac issues. New conduction disturbances were found in 13 patients (8%). Incident arrhythmias in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with an increased risk of mortality, likely reflective of underlying COVID-19 disease severity more than intrinsic cardiac dysfunction. Conduction disturbances occurred less commonly and were not associated with adverse patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
2.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 11-20, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487624

ABSTRACT

We review the current data on epidemiology, the clinical significance, the pathophysiologic mechanisms, and the treatment of VAs in the setting of COVID-19. VAs prevail in 0.15% to 8% of hospitalized patients, but only sustained and rapid tachyarrhythmias are purportedly associated with a significant increase in mortality. Multiple factors can elicit VAs, which are ultimately deemed to be a marker of severe systemic disease rather than a distinct cardiac condition. Even though the electrophysiologist plays a determinant role in the secondary prevention of VAs, a multidisciplinary approach is indispensable for primary prophylaxis and acute management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia
5.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 74(11): 971-982, 2021 Nov.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: We present the data corresponding to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implants in Spain in 2020. METHODS: The data in this registry were drawn from implantation centers, which voluntarily completed a data collection sheet. RESULTS: In 2020, 7056 implant sheets were received compared with 7106 reported by Eucomed (European Confederation of Medical Suppliers Associations), indicating that data were collected from 99% of the devices implanted in Spain. Completion of the implant sheet ranged from 99.8% for the field "name of the implanting hospital" to 2.6% for the variable "referral hospital". A total of 173 hospitals performed ICD implants and participated in the registry, which is a similar figure to that in 2019 (n=172). The total rate of registered implants was 149/million inhabitants (150 according to Eucomed), revealing a slight reduction in implants in Spain in 2020 as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This reduction was uneven among the autonomous communities. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Registry for 2020 shows an improvement in the rate of implants reported and a reduction in the number of ICD implants, which likely reflects the decrease in hospital activity not related to the treatment of COVID-19 infection. Similar to previous years, the total number of implants in Spain is still much lower than the average for the European Union, with an increase in the differences between Spanish autonomous communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 407-414, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a fast-growing worldwide pandemic. AIMS: We aimed to investigate the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias among a large French cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients over the first 5 months of 2020. METHODS: Five thousand nine hundred and fifty-four implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients were followed by remote monitoring during the COVID-19 period (from 01 January to 31 May 2020). Data were obtained from automated remote follow-up of implantable cardioverter defibrillators utilizing the Implicity® platform. For all patients, the type of arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation), the number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and the type of implantable cardioverter defibrillator-delivered therapy were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 472 (7.9%) patients presented 4917 ventricular arrhythmia events. An increase in ventricular arrhythmia incidence was observed after the first COVID-19 case in France, and especially during weeks #10 and #11, at the time of major governmental measures, with an increase in the incidence of antitachycardia pacing delivered therapy. During the 11 weeks before the lockdown order, the curve of the percentage of live-stream television coverage of COVID-19 information matched the ventricular arrhythmia incidence. During the lockdown, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia decreased significantly compared with baseline (0.05±0.7 vs. 0.09±1.2 episodes per patient per week, respectively; P<0.001). Importantly, no correlation was observed between ventricular arrhythmia incidence and the curve of COVID-19 incidence. No changes were observed regarding atrial fibrillation/atrial tachycardia episodes over time. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in ventricular arrhythmia incidence was observed in the 2 weeks before the lockdown order, at the time of major governmental measures. Ventricular arrhythmia incidence decreased dramatically during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Remote Sensing Technology/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Heart Rate , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Ambulatory/instrumentation , Monitoring, Ambulatory/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Quarantine , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology
9.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(6): 1033-1038, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy, a nationwide full lockdown was declared between March and May 2020 to hinder the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The potential individual health effects of long-term isolation are largely unknown. The current study investigated the arrhythmic consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown in patients with defibrillators (ICDs) living in the province of Ferrara, Italy. METHODS: Both the arrhythmias and the delivered ICD therapies as notified by the devices were prospectively collected during the lockdown period (P1) and compared to those occurred during the 10 weeks before the lockdown began (P2) and during the same period in 2019 (P3). Changes in outcome over the three study periods were evaluated for significance using McNemar's test. RESULTS: A total of 413 patients were included in the analysis. No differences were found concerning either arrhythmias or shocks or anti-tachycardia pacing. Only the number of patients experiencing non-sustained ventricular tachycardias (NSVTs) during P1 significantly decreased as compared to P2 (p = 0.026) and P3 (p = 0.009). The subgroup analysis showed a significant decrease in NSVTs during P1 for men (vs. P2, p = 0.014; vs. P3, p = 0.040) and younger patients (vs. P2, p = 0.002; vs. P3, p = 0.040) and for ischemic etiology (vs. P2, p = 0.003). No arrhythmic deaths occurred during P1. CONCLUSIONS: The complete nationwide lockdown, as declared by the Italian government during the first COVID-19 pandemic peak, did not impact on the incidence of arrhythmias in an urban cohort of patients with ICDs.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 437.e5-437.e8, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198570

ABSTRACT

Patients with diabetes have increased susceptibility to infection with Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 and increased morbidity and mortality from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Mortality from COVID-19 is sometimes caused by cardiac arrhythmias. Electrolyte disturbances in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Despite these correlations, little has been reported about the co-incidence of these three conditions: COVID-19, DKA and cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report we describe two children with COVID-19, new-onset DKA and cardiac arrhythmias. These cases emphasize the importance of close cardiac and electrolyte monitoring in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
12.
Heart Vessels ; 36(11): 1694-1700, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155268

ABSTRACT

In Italy, a strict lockdown was imposed from 8 March 2020 to stop the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We explored the effect of this lockdown on data transmitted by remote monitoring (RM) of implantable cardioverter and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (ICDs/CRT-Ds). RM daily transmissions from ICDs and CRT-Ds were analyzed and compared in two consecutive 1 month frames pre and post-lockdown: period I (7 February-7 March 2020) and period II (8 March-7 April 2020). The study cohort included 180 patients (81.1% male, 63.3% ICDs and 36.7% CRT-Ds) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range 62-78) years. The median value of physical activity provided by accelerometric sensors showed a significant reduction between period I and II [13.1% (8.2-18.1%) versus 9.4% (6.3-13.8%), p < 0.001]. Eighty nine % of patients decreased their activity, for 43.3% the relative reduction was ≥ 25%. The mean heart rate decreased significantly [69.2 (63.8-75.6) bpm vs 67.9 (62.7-75.3) bpm, p < 0.001], but with greater reduction (≈3 beats/minute) in patients aged < 70 years. Resting heart rate and thoracic impedance showed minor variations. No differences were observed in device pacing % and arrhythmias. In cardiac patients, the lockdown imposed to contain COVID-19 outbreak significantly reduced the amount of physical activity and the mean heart rate. These side effects of in-home confinement quarantine should be taken in consideration for frail patients.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electric Countershock/instrumentation , Remote Sensing Technology , Actigraphy , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/adverse effects , Electric Countershock/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Health Status , Heart Rate , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
13.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 15, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145668

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has modified the cardiovascular care of ambulatory patients. The aim of this survey was to study changes in lifestyle habits, treatment adherence, and mental health status in patients with cardiometabolic disease, but no clinical evidence of COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in ambulatory patients with cardiometabolic disease using paper/digital surveys. Variables investigated included socioeconomic status, physical activity, diet, tobacco use, alcohol intake, treatment discontinuation, and psychological symptoms. Results: A total of 4,216 patients (50.9% males, mean age 60.3 ± 15.3 years old) from 13 Spanish-speaking Latin American countries were enrolled. Among the study population, 46.4% of patients did not have contact with a healthcare provider, 31.5% reported access barriers to treatments and 17% discontinued some medication. Multivariate analysis showed that non-adherence to treatment was more prevalent in the secondary prevention group: peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.55, CI 1.08-2.24; p = 0.018), heart failure (OR 1.36, CI 1.05-1.75; p = 0.017), and coronary artery disease (OR 1.29 CI 1.04-1.60; p = 0.018). No physical activity was reported by 38% of patients. Only 15% of patients met minimum recommendations of physical activity (more than 150 minutes/week) and vegetable and fruit intake. Low/very low income (45.5%) was associated with a lower level of physical activity (p < 0.0001), less fruit and vegetables intake (p < 0.0001), more tobacco use (p < 0.001) and perception of depression (p < 0.001). Low educational level was also associated with the perception of depression (OR 1.46, CI 1.26-1.70; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with cardiometabolic disease but without clinical evidence of COVID-19 showed significant medication non-adherence, especially in secondary prevention patients. Deterioration in lifestyle habits and appearance of depressive symptoms during the pandemic were frequent and related to socioeconomic status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Depression/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diet , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Exercise , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Educational Status , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/therapy , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Prevention , Social Class , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Eur Heart J ; 42(5): 520-528, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104867

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Our objective was to determine the ventricular arrhythmia burden in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients during COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicentre, observational, cohort study over a 100-day period during the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA, we assessed ventricular arrhythmias in ICD patients from 20 centres in 13 states, via remote monitoring. Comparison was via a 100-day control period (late 2019) and seasonal control period (early 2019). The primary outcome was the impact of COVID-19 on ventricular arrhythmia burden. The secondary outcome was correlation with COVID-19 incidence. During the COVID-19 period, 5963 ICD patients underwent remote monitoring, with 16 942 episodes of treated ventricular arrhythmias (2.8 events per 100 patient-days). Ventricular arrhythmia burden progressively declined during COVID-19 (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with ventricular arrhythmias amongst the high COVID-19 incidence states was significantly reduced compared with those in low incidence states [odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.69, P < 0.001]. Comparing patients remotely monitored during both COVID-19 and control periods (n = 2458), significantly fewer ventricular arrhythmias occurred during COVID-19 [incident rate ratio (IRR) 0.68, 95% CI 0.58-0.79, P < 0.001]. This difference persisted when comparing the 1719 patients monitored during both the COVID-19 and seasonal control periods (IRR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.85, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19, there was a 32% reduction in ventricular arrhythmias needing device therapies, coinciding with measures of social isolation. There was a 39% reduction in the proportion of patients with ventricular arrhythmias in states with higher COVID-19 incidence. These findings highlight the potential role of real-life stressors in ventricular arrhythmia burden in individuals with ICDs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry; URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/; Unique Identifier: ACTRN12620000641998.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Defibrillators, Implantable , Ventricular Fibrillation/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Protective Factors , Registries , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology , Ventricular Fibrillation/etiology , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy
17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(8): 1053-1066, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597505

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented substantial challenges to patient care and impacted health care delivery, including cardiac electrophysiology practice throughout the globe. Based upon the undetermined course and regional variability of the pandemic, there is uncertainty as to how and when to resume and deliver electrophysiology services for arrhythmia patients. This joint document from representatives of the Heart Rhythm Society, American Heart Association, and American College of Cardiology seeks to provide guidance for clinicians and institutions reestablishing safe electrophysiological care. To achieve this aim, we address regional and local COVID-19 disease status, the role of viral screening and serologic testing, return-to-work considerations for exposed or infected health care workers, risk stratification and management strategies based on COVID-19 disease burden, institutional preparedness for resumption of elective procedures, patient preparation and communication, prioritization of procedures, and development of outpatient and periprocedural care pathways.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Cardiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care , American Heart Association , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decision Making, Shared , Health Personnel , Humans , Mass Screening , Organizational Policy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Return to Work , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology
18.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 14(3): e009458, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072830
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066836

ABSTRACT

This case represents a rare fulminant course of fried-rice associated food poisoning in an immunocompetent person due to pre-formed exotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus, with severe manifestations of sepsis, including multi-organ (hepatic, renal, cardiac, respiratory and neurological) failure, shock, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis and coagulopathy. Despite maximal supportive measures (continuous renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis, N-acetylcysteine infusion and blood products, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials) and input from a multidisciplinary team (consisting of infectious diseases, intensive care, gastroenterology, surgery, toxicology, immunology and haematology), mortality resulted. This case is the first to use whole genome sequencing techniques to confirm the toxigenic potential of B. cereus It has important implications for food preparation and storage, particularly given its occurrence in home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acidosis/physiopathology , Acidosis/therapy , Adult , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Brain Diseases , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/physiopathology , Foodborne Diseases/therapy , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunocompetence , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Liver Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Plasmapheresis , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Rhabdomyolysis/therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Shock/physiopathology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Whole Genome Sequencing
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