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1.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 468-475, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648748

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients are associated with hypoxia, myocardial ischemia, cytokines, inflammation, electrolyte abnormalities, pro-arrhythmic or QT-prolonging medications, and underlying heart conditions such as severe congestive heart failure, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, or congenital heart conditions. In the pediatric population, multisystem inflammatory syndrome can lead to cardiac injury and arrhythmias. In addition, arrhythmias and cardiac arrests are most prevalent in the critically ill intensive care unit COVID-19 patient population. This review presents an overview of the association between COVID-19 and arrhythmias by detailing possible pathophysiological mechanisms, existing knowledge of pro-arrhythmic factors, and results from studies in adult and pediatric COVID-19 populations, and the clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Heart Arrest/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(3): e023473, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642968

ABSTRACT

Background The extent of cardiac dysfunction post-COVID-19 varies, and there is a lack of data on arrhythmic burden. Methods and Results This was a combined multicenter prospective cohort study and cross-sectional case-control study. Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography in patients with COVID-19 3 to 4 months after hospital discharge was compared with matched controls. The 24-hour ECGs were recorded in patients with COVID-19. A total of 204 patients with COVID-19 consented to participate (mean age, 58.5 years; 44% women), and 204 controls were included (mean age, 58.4 years; 44% women). Patients with COVID-19 had worse right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain (adjusted estimated mean difference, 1.5 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.6 to -0.5; P=0.005) and lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (-0.10 cm; 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.05; P<0.001) and cardiac index (-0.26 L/min per m2; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.12; P<0.001), but slightly better left ventricle global strain (-0.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.2-1.3; P=0.008) compared with controls. Reduced diastolic function was twice as common compared with controls (60 [30%] versus 29 [15%], respectively; odds ratio, 2.4; P=0.001). Having dyspnea or fatigue were not associated with cardiac function. Right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain was worse after intensive care treatment. Arrhythmias were found in 27% of the patients, mainly premature ventricular contractions and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (18% and 5%, respectively). Conclusions At 3 months after hospital discharge with COVID-19, right ventricular function was mildly impaired, and diastolic dysfunction was twice as common compared with controls. There was little evidence for an association between cardiac function and intensive care treatment, dyspnea, or fatigue. Ventricular arrhythmias were common, but the clinical importance is unknown. Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT04535154.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
3.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 95-104, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487631

ABSTRACT

While looking for a solution to treat COVID-19, the massive off-label use of several drugs in COVID-19 has generated concerns in the early phase of the pandemic because of possible arrhythmogenic effects in relation to QTc interval prolongation. Indeed, some of these drugs have been historically associated with QT prolongation and Torsade de Point, a potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmia, and their first-time use on a very large scale has raised several concerns in the scientific community. This work aims to summarize the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanisms related to the use of potentially QT-prolonging drugs used during the pandemic to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 129-137, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347476

ABSTRACT

During the clinical care of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diminished QRS amplitude on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was observed to precede clinical decompensation, culminating in death. This prompted investigation into the prognostic utility and specificity of low QRS complex amplitude (LoQRS) in COVID-19. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive adults admitted to a telemetry service with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 140) or influenza (n = 281) infection with a final disposition-death or discharge. LoQRS was defined as a composite of QRS amplitude <5 mm or <10 mm in the limb or precordial leads, respectively, or a ≥50% decrease in QRS amplitude on follow-up ECG during hospitalization. LoQRS was more prevalent in patients with COVID-19 than influenza (24.3% vs 11.7%, p = 0.001), and in patients who died than survived with either COVID-19 (48.1% vs 10.2%, p <0.001) or influenza (38.9% vs 9.9%, p <0.001). LoQRS was independently associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 when adjusted for baseline clinical variables (odds ratio [OR] 11.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9 to 33.8, p <0.001), presenting and peak troponin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, albumin, intubation, and vasopressor requirement (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 145.5, p = 0.029). The median time to death in COVID-19 from the first ECG with LoQRS was 52 hours (interquartile range 18 to 130). Dynamic QRS amplitude diminution is a strong independent predictor of death over not only the course of COVID-19 infection, but also influenza infection. In conclusion, this finding may serve as a pragmatic prognostication tool reflecting evolving clinical changes during hospitalization, over a potentially actionable time interval for clinical reassessment.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Influenza, Human/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with the coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) may have a high risk of cardiovascular adverse events, including death from cardiovascular causes. The long-term cardiovascular outcomes of these patients are entirely unknown. We aim to perform a registry of patients who have undergone a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and to determine their long-term cardiovascular outcomes. STUDY AND DESIGN: This is a multicenter, observational, retrospective registry to be conducted at 17 centers in Spain and Italy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04359927). Consecutive patients older than 18 years, who underwent a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV2 in the participating institutions, will be included since March 2020, to August 2020. Patients will be classified into two groups, according to the results of the RT-PCR: COVID-19 positive or negative. The primary outcome will be cardiovascular mortality at 1 year. The secondary outcomes will be acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, pulmonary embolism, and serious cardiac arrhythmias, at 1 year. Outcomes will be compared between the two groups. Events will be adjudicated by an independent clinical event committee. CONCLUSION: The results of this registry will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term cardiovascular implications of the COVID19.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular System/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Stroke/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(6): 1062-1074, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily causes lung infection, but recent studies have shown that cardiac involvement is associated with a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias detected by the electrocardiogram and their relationships with adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed and Google were searched for studies that reported on cardiac arrhythmias and/or examined the relationship between arrhythmias and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty studies with 12,713 participants were included in the systematic review, and 28 studies (n = 12,499) in the meta-analysis. The mean age was 61.3 ± 16.8 years; 39.3% were female. In 25 studies with 7578 patients, the overall prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias was 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.4%-12.3%). The most common arrhythmias documented during hospitalization were supraventricular arrhythmias (6.2%, 95% CI: 4.4%-8.1%) followed by ventricular arrhythmias (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.8%-3.1%). The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was higher among critically ill patients (relative risk [RR]: 12.1, 95% CI: 8.5-17.3) and among non-survivors (RR: 3.8, 95%, CI: 1.7-8.7). Eight studies reported changes in the QT interval. The prevalence of QTc > 500 ms was 12.3% (95% CI: 6.9%-17.8%). ST-segment deviation was reported in eight studies, with a pooled estimate of 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3% to 10.0%). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis showed that QTc prolongation, ST-segment deviation, and various other cardiac arrhythmias were observed in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The presence of cardiac arrhythmias was associated with a worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 20(1): 44-52, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135914

ABSTRACT

Due to the lack of prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies on inflammation and cardiovascular involvement, the exact mechanism of cardiac injury among patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains uncertain. It was demonstrated that there is a high and significantly positive linear correlation between troponin T and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, biomarkers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation, respectively. Cardiac injury and inflammation is a relatively common association among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and it is related to higher risk of in-hospital mortality. In our literature search, we identified several potential mechanisms of myocardial tissue damage, namely, coronavirus-associated acute myocarditis, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding affinity to the virus Spike protein, increased cytokine secretion, and hypoxia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Elucidation of the disease pathogenesis and prospective histopathological studies are crucial for future proper treatment in case of renewed outbreaks. Of interest is that with hundred of thousands of bodies available for autopsy studies, no prospective investigation has been reported so far. Strong efforts and continued research of the cardiovascular complications and identification of risk factors for poor prognosis in COVID-19 are steadily needed. The high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, its monumental economic burden and social impact, the despair of a new pandemic outbreak, and the thread of potential utilization of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as biologic weapons make it a preponderant necessity to better comprehend the therapeutic management of this lethal disease. Emerging as an acute infectious disease, COVID-19 may become a chronic epidemic because of genetic recombination. Therefore, we should be ready for the reemergence of COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocarditis/mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 224-229, 2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Several electrocardiographic markers have been used to predict the risk of arrhythmia in patients with COVID-19. We aim to investigate the electrocardiographic (ECG) ventricular repolarization indices in patients with COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: We performed a comprehensive systematic literature search from PubMed, EuropePMC, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Database, and Google Scholar Preprint Servers. The primary endpoints of this search were: Tp-e (T-peak-to-T-end) interval, QTd (QT dispersion), and Tp-e/QTc ratio in patients with newly diagnosed COVID-19 from inception up until August 2020. RESULTS: There were a total of 241 patients from 2 studies. Meta-analysis showed that Tp-e/QTc ratio was higher in COVID-19 group (mean difference 0.02 [0.01, 0.02], p < 0.001; I2: 18%,). Tp-e interval was more prolonged in COVID-19 group (mean difference 7.76 [3.11, 12.41], p < 0.001; I2: 80%) compared to control group. QT dispersion (QTd) also was increased in COVID-19 group (mean difference 1.22 [0.61, 1.83], p < 0.001 ; I2:30%). CONCLUSIONS: Several electrocardiographic markers including Tp-e/QTc, Tp-e interval, and QTd are significantly increased in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Middle Aged
9.
Europace ; 22(12): 1848-1854, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059441

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Our aim was to describe the electrocardiographic features of critical COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a multicentric, cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of 431 consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between 10 March and 14 April 2020 who died or were treated with invasive mechanical ventilation. This project is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04367129). Standard ECG was recorded at hospital admission. ECG was abnormal in 93% of the patients. Atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected in 22% of the patients. ECG signs suggesting acute right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO) were detected in 30% of the patients. In particular, 43 (10%) patients had the S1Q3T3 pattern, 38 (9%) had incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), and 49 (11%) had complete RBBB. ECG signs of acute RVPO were not statistically different between patients with (n = 104) or without (n=327) invasive mechanical ventilation during ECG recording (36% vs. 28%, P = 0.10). Non-specific repolarization abnormalities and low QRS voltage in peripheral leads were present in 176 (41%) and 23 (5%), respectively. In four patients showing ST-segment elevation, acute myocardial infarction was confirmed with coronary angiography. No ST-T abnormalities suggestive of acute myocarditis were detected. In the subgroup of 110 patients where high-sensitivity troponin I was available, ECG features were not statistically different when stratified for above or below the 5 times upper reference limit value. CONCLUSIONS: The ECG is abnormal in almost all critically ill COVID-19 patients and shows a large spectrum of abnormalities, with signs of acute RVPO in 30% of the patients. Rapid and simple identification of these cases with ECG at hospital admission can facilitate classification of the patients and provide pathophysiological insights.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Electrocardiography , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Europace ; 22(12): 1855-1863, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059434

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of the study was to describe ECG modifications and arrhythmic events in COVID-19 patients undergoing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy in different clinical settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: COVID-19 patients at seven institutions receiving HCQ therapy from whom a baseline and at least one ECG at 48+ h were available were enrolled in the study. QT/QTc prolongation, QT-associated and QT-independent arrhythmic events, arrhythmic mortality, and overall mortality during HCQ therapy were assessed. A total of 649 COVID-19 patients (61.9 ± 18.7 years, 46.1% males) were enrolled. HCQ therapy was administrated as a home therapy regimen in 126 (19.4%) patients, and as an in-hospital-treatment to 495 (76.3%) hospitalized and 28 (4.3%) intensive care unit (ICU) patients. At 36-72 and at 96+ h after the first HCQ dose, 358 and 404 ECGs were obtained, respectively. A significant QT/QTc interval prolongation was observed (P < 0.001), but the magnitude of the increase was modest [+13 (9-16) ms]. Baseline QT/QTc length and presence of fever (P = 0.001) at admission represented the most important determinants of QT/QTc prolongation. No arrhythmic-related deaths were reported. The overall major ventricular arrhythmia rate was low (1.1%), with all events found not to be related to QT or HCQ therapy at a centralized event evaluation. No differences in QT/QTc prolongation and QT-related arrhythmias were observed across different clinical settings, with non-QT-related arrhythmias being more common in the intensive care setting. CONCLUSION: HCQ administration is safe for a short-term treatment for patients with COVID-19 infection regardless of the clinical setting of delivery, causing only modest QTc prolongation and no directly attributable arrhythmic deaths.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Electrocardiol ; 65: 96-101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to impact populations around the globe. Information regarding the incidences and implications of arrhythmias in COVID-19 is limited. METHODS: A total of 463 patients with COVID-19 and who had at least one electrocardiogram recording from February 1 to March 19, 2020, in Wuhan Union Hospital were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: Arrhythmias occurred in 85 of 463 (18.4%) patients: atrial arrhythmias in 10.2%, junctional arrhythmias in 0.2%, ventricular arrhythmias in 3.5%, and conduction block in 7.3%. Compared with patients without arrhythmias, those with arrhythmias had higher mortality, both during the time from symptom onset (p < 0.001) and from admission to follow-up (p < 0.001). The frequencies of severe COVID-19 (44.7% vs. 21.2%; p < 0.001) and death (25.9% vs. 10.1%; p < 0.001) were higher in patients with arrhythmias than in those without arrhythmias. Atrial arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias could predict severity and mortality, their odds ratios (OR) were 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35 to 8.40), 5.80 (95% CI 1.89 to 17.76) respectively for severity, and were 3.51 (95% CI 1.74 to 7.08), 3.41 (95% CI 1.13 to 10.24) respectively for mortality. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 were associated with the occurrence of arrhythmias (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Arrhythmias were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Atrial arrhythmia was the most frequent arrhythmia type. IL-6 and IL-10 levels can predict the risk of arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , China/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(7): 1504-1507, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While systemic inflammation and pulmonary complications can result in significant morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular complications may also occur. OBJECTIVE: This brief report evaluates cardiovascular complications in the setting of COVID-19 infection. DISCUSSION: The current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over one million infected worldwide and thousands of death. The virus binds and enters through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). COVID-19 can result in systemic inflammation, multiorgan dysfunction, and critical illness. The cardiovascular system is also affected, with complications including myocardial injury, myocarditis, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmias, and venous thromboembolic events. Current therapies for COVID-19 may interact with cardiovascular medications. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency clinicians should be aware of these cardiovascular complications when evaluating and managing the patient with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Heart Failure/pathology , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2172, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777664

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 causes the clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) which has become a global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily affects the respiratory system, it also causes a wide variety of complex cardiac manifestations such as acute myopericarditis, acute coronary syndrome, congested heart failure, cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. There are numerous proposed mechanisms of cardiac injury, including direct cellular injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, myocardial oxygen-demand mismatch, and systemic inflammation causing multi-organ failure. Additionally, medications commonly used to treat COVID-19 patients have various cardiovascular side effects. We aim to provide a succinct review about the pathophysiology and cardiac manifestations of COVID-19, as well as treatment considerations and the various adaptations made to the current healthcare structure as a result of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pericarditis/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/pathology , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Pericarditis/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/pathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Texas/epidemiology
14.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(8): 451-460, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713789

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic marches unrelentingly, more patients with cardiac arrhythmias are emerging due to the effects of the virus on the respiratory and cardiovascular (CV) systems and the systemic inflammation that it incurs, and also as a result of the proarrhythmic effects of COVID-19 pharmacotherapies and other drug interactions and the associated autonomic imbalance that enhance arrhythmogenicity. The most worrisome of all arrhythmogenic mechanisms is the QT prolonging effect of various anti-COVID pharmacotherapies that can lead to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the form of torsade des pointes and sudden cardiac death. It is therefore imperative to monitor the QT interval during treatment; however, conventional approaches to such monitoring increase the transmission risk for the staff and strain the health system. Hence, there is dire need for contactless monitoring and telemetry for inpatients, especially those admitted to the intensive care unit, as well as for outpatients needing continued management. In this context, recent technological advances have ushered in a new era in implementing digital health monitoring tools that circumvent these obstacles. All these issues are herein discussed and a large body of recent relevant data are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Conduction System/virology , Heart Rate/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiotoxicity , Drug Interactions , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(15): 1095-1099, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705649

ABSTRACT

HISTORY: A 56-year-old, previously healthy male and long distance runner noticed short episodes of parosmia, followed by anosmia. Few days later, he monitored an increase in his resting heart rate. This was followed by a dry cough, fatigue, and myalgia. At the same time, symptoms occurred in all four family members. CLINICAL FINDINGS: The patient had a dry cough. The medical examination was normal. Heart rate was 60/min, sinus rhythm, body temperature 36.6 °C. Complete anosmia was present. The RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 from a deep pharyngeal swab was positive in all five family members. THERAPY AND COURSE: Symptoms were present for almost two weeks. All family members had anosmia, that started earlier and lasted longer than the other symptoms, and myalgia. Reduced taste sensation, fatigue, dry cough and sore throat were present in four of five persons. Shortness of breath at rest or gastrointestinal symptoms were absent. Four affected persons had sleep disturbances in the later course of the disease. None of the affected persons had raised temperature at any time during the disease. Specific medical or drug treatment was not necessary. All patients made full recoveries without signs of organ dysfunction, and with full restitution of physical strength. DISCUSSION: We describe a family of 5 previously healthy persons with a mild course of COVID-19 disease. The symptoms and course are described in detail. Anosmia can precede other symptoms by several days and can indicate an early phase of infection. An increase in resting heart rate can occur in the absence of raised temperature or fever. The symptoms and course are discussed in the context of the ongoing pandemic, and efforts to control infection chains.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Rate/physiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 20(5): 413-418, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691058

ABSTRACT

Amiodarone, one of the most widely prescribed antiarrhythmic drugs to treat both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias, has been identified as a candidate drug for use against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We present the rationale of using amiodarone in the COVID-19 scenario, as well as whether or not amiodarone administration represents a potential strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, rather than simply used to treat patients already symptomatic and/or with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), based on current evidence.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Virus Internalization/drug effects
17.
CMAJ ; 192(28): E791-E798, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is common in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to study predictors of in-hospital death, characteristics of arrhythmias and the effects of QT-prolonging therapy in patients with cardiac injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between Jan. 29 and Mar. 8, 2020. Among patients who had cardiac injury, which we defined as an elevated level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), we identified demographic and clinical characteristics associated with mortality and need for invasive ventilation. RESULTS: Among 1284 patients with severe COVID-19, 1159 had a cTnI level measured on admission to hospital, of whom 170 (14.7%) had results that showed cardiac injury. We found that mortality was markedly higher in patients with cardiac injury (71.2% v. 6.6%, p < 0.001). We determined that initial cTnI (per 10-fold increase, hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.66) and peak cTnI level during illness (per 10-fold increase, HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) were associated with poor survival. Peak cTnI was also associated with the need for invasive ventilation (odds ratio 3.02, 95% CI 1.92-4.98). We found arrhythmias in 44 of the 170 patients with cardiac injury (25.9%), including 6 patients with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, all of whom died. We determined that patients who received QT-prolonging drugs had longer QTc intervals than those who did not receive them (difference in medians, 45 ms, p = 0.01), but such treatment was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.69-1.57). INTERPRETATION: We found that in patients with COVID-19 and cardiac injury, initial and peak cTnI levels were associated with poor survival, and peak cTnI was a predictor of need for invasive ventilation. Patients with COVID-19 warrant assessment for cardiac injury and monitoring, especially if therapy that can prolong repolarization is started. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, No. ChiCTR2000031301.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Heart Injuries/mortality , Heart Injuries/virology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Heart Injuries/blood , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
20.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(11): 1984-1990, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620233

ABSTRACT

Up to 20%-30% of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have evidence of myocardial involvement. Acute cardiac injury in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. There are no data on how acute treatment of COVID-19 may affect the convalescent phase or long-term cardiac recovery and function. Myocarditis from other viral pathogens can evolve into overt or subclinical myocardial dysfunction, and sudden death has been described in the convalescent phase of viral myocarditis. This raises concerns for patients recovering from COVID-19. Some patients will have subclinical and possibly overt cardiovascular abnormalities. Patients with ostensibly recovered cardiac function may still be at risk of cardiomyopathy and cardiac arrhythmias. Screening for residual cardiac involvement in the convalescent phase for patients recovered from COVID-19-associated cardiac injury is needed. The type of testing and therapies for post COVID-19 myocardial dysfunction will need to be determined. Therefore, now is the time to plan for appropriate registries and clinical trials to properly assess these issues and prepare for long-term sequelae of "post-COVID-19 cardiac syndrome."


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Cardiovascular Diseases , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Survivors
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