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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081827

ABSTRACT

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and its complication, macrophage activation syndrome (sJIA-MAS), are rare but sometimes very serious or even critical diseases of childhood that can occasionally be characterized by nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms at onset-such as non-remitting high fever, headache, rash, or arthralgia-and are biologically accompanied by an increase in acute-phase reactants. For a correct positive diagnosis, it is necessary to rule out bacterial or viral infections, neoplasia, and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Delays in diagnosis will result in late initiation of targeted therapy. A set of biomarkers is useful to distinguish sJIA or sJIA-MAS from similar clinical entities, especially when arthritis is absent. Biomarkers should be accessible to many patients, with convenient production and acquisition prices for pediatric medical laboratories, as well as being easy to determine, having high sensitivity and specificity, and correlating with pathophysiological disease pathways. The aim of this review was to identify the newest and most powerful biomarkers and their synergistic interaction for easy and accurate recognition of sJIA and sJIA-MAS, so as to immediately guide clinicians in correct diagnosis and in predicting disease outcomes, the response to treatment, and the risk of relapses. Biomarkers constitute an exciting field of research, especially due to the heterogeneous nature of cytokine storm syndromes (CSSs) in the COVID era. They must be selected with utmost care-a fact supported by the increasingly improved genetic and pathophysiological comprehension of sJIA, but also of CSS-so that new classification systems may soon be developed to define homogeneous groups of patients, although each with a distinct disease.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Humans , Child , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers
2.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 47(4): xvii-xviii, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400485
3.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(5): 1591-1596, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729320

ABSTRACT

We report the case of an 18-year-old male with Still's disease for the last 3 years, in remission, who developed two flares of his disease after receiving two doses of the ChAdOX1 nCoV-19 vaccine. While the first flare was mild requiring steroid initiation and resolved rapidly, the second flare after the second dose was much severe, requiring pulse steroid and tocilizumab. We also review three reported cases of flares of Still's disease after COVID-19 vaccination. The temporal association of the flares with both vaccine doses strengthens the association between the vaccine administration and the flare. The proposed mechanism may be due to activation of the innate immune system by the vaccine adjuvants. This review serves to inform the medical community regarding a possible role of the vaccine in producing a systemic inflammatory response. Early detection and treatment can help reduce morbidity in these cases.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Male , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/complications
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(1): 161-163, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648507

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and serious COVID-19 manifestation characterised by generalised inflammatory response including inflammation of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes and gastrointestinal system. Children usually present with fever lasting for 24 hours or more along with other symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, skin rash, red eyes, and swelling of the lips, tongue, hands and feet. Children with MIS-C usually have negative results for a current infection with COVID-19 but positive antibody results indicating that these children were infected with the COVID-19 virus in the past. We present the case of a 12-month-old girl with multisystem inflammatory syndrome presenting as systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) and positive Covid-19 PCR. She was treated successfully with Dexamethasone and Naproxen.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
5.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(5): 1523-1533, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to find out the asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence among pediatric patients with rheumatic diseases and healthy children and to compare them with each other. METHODS: Patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE) and healthy children as healthy control (HC) group who remained asymptomatic during the pandemic are examined by ELISA immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG tests in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Overall, 149 subjects (90 females) were included in the study. While IgA was positive in 15 subjects (10%) (HC: 8, jSLE: 3, FMF: 2, JIA: 2; p = 0.196), IgG was positive in 14 subjects (9.4%) (HC: 7, JIA: 5, FMF: 1, jSLE: 1; p = 0.156). Nineteen subjects (12.75%) were IgA or IgG positive (HC: 8, JIA: 5, jSLE: 3, FMF: 3; p = 0.644). Although not significant, seropositivity was more often in HC group. Both IgA and IgG positivity were not found to be related to age, sex, underlying rheumatic diseases, and received treatments of the patients. CONCLUSION: We revealed that patients with childhood-onset rheumatic diseases, even if they receive immunosuppressive medication such as biologic or conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, might have an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, similarly to their healthy peers. Key points • Although it has been already known that children are most likely to have asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is a lack of data on the disease course of children with rheumatic disease. • There was no significant difference regarding the asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rates between healthy children and the patients with childhood-onset rheumatic diseases. • Patients with childhood-onset rheumatic diseases, even if they receive immunosuppressive medication, might have asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, similarly to their healthy peers.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Rheumatic Diseases , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 163, 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flares of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been described in the context of various infections. Flares of rheumatic diseases in adults have been described following infection with SARS-CoV-2 in several cohorts. So far, the effect of infection with SARS-CoV-2 on the course of JIA is unknown. METHODS: The database of the German Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology was searched for patients with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent disease flare, admitted from July 2020 until June 2021. cJADAS-27, ESR and C-reactive protein, as well as uveitis activity, medication at the time of flare and treatment of flare was extracted. Patient cases were described individually. RESULTS: Out of 988 patients admitted, five patients with remission off medication (n = 2) or inactive disease on medication (n = 3) were identified, with flare symptoms up to four weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Flares can occur after infection with SARS-CoV-2 in patients with JIA in remission or inactive disease on medication. Treating physicians need to be aware of this fact, especially when counseling patients with rheumatic diseases about the respective dangers of COVID-19 and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Symptom Flare Up , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/metabolism , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Child , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Remission Induction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/physiopathology
10.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 162, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) and identify the risk factors associated with symptomatic or severe disease defined as hospital admission, intensive care admission or death. METHODS: An observational longitudinal study was conducted during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (March 2020-March 2021). All pediatric patients attended at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of six tertiary referral hospitals in Madrid, Spain, with a diagnosis of RMD and COVID-19 were included. Main outcomes were symptomatic disease and hospital admission. The covariates were sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and treatment regimens. We ran a multivariable logistic regression model to assess associated factors for outcomes. RESULTS: The study population included 77 pediatric patients. Mean age was 11.88 (4.04) years Of these, 30 patients (38.96%) were asymptomatic, 41 (53.25%) had a mild-moderate COVID-19 and 6 patients (7.79%) required hospital admission. The median length of hospital admission was 5 (2-20) days, one patient required intensive care and there were no deaths. Previous comorbidities increased the risk for symptomatic disease and hospital admission. Compared with outpatients, the factor independently associated with hospital admission was previous use of glucocorticoids (OR 3.51; p = 0.00). No statistically significant risk factors for symptomatic COVID-19 were found in the final model. CONCLUSION: No differences in COVID-19 outcomes according to childhood-onset rheumatic disease types were found. Results suggest that associated comorbidities and treatment with glucocorticoids increase the risk of hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
13.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(9): 3723-3727, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate a possible negative action of lockdown, during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, in the follow-up of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. METHODS: We compared the number of JIA reactivations in the period March-July 2020 to the same months of 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: A total of 10 JIA reactivations have been documented on 58 patients (17%) visited in the period March-July 2018; 10 reactivations on 61 patients (16%) in the period March-July 2019; and 19 reactivations on 39 patients (49%) in the period March-July 2020, with a statistically significant increase (p <0.001). The other 19 patients who should have been visited during the same period, contacted by phone, indicated remission. Therefore, we hypothesize that the effective number of reactivations in the period March-July 2020 would be 19/58 patients (33%) which remains significantly greater than in the previous 2 years (p < 0.05). Among the 19 JIA patients reactivated in 2020, 3 spontaneously stopped the basic treatment due to parents' choice for fear of serious complications in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 4 had poor compliance with underlying treatment. In addition, 14/19 reactivated JIA patients did not perform the scheduled check according to the follow-up. In fact, the mean time interval between two follow-up visits was significantly greater in 2020 (157 ± 53 days, p < 0.0001) vs 2018 (108 ± 68 days) and 2019 (107 ± 40 days). CONCLUSIONS: We have found a significant increase in JIA reactivations in the period March-July 2020 compared to the same interval of 2018 and 2019. This increase may have been caused by poor compliance with background treatment, as documented in 7/19 JIA patients reactivated, and by a greater interval in follow-up checks. Therefore, it is necessary, in occasion of a new pandemic and lockdown, to implement greater controls using more appropriate telemedicine tools. Key Points • COVID-19 pandemic lockdown had a negative effect on the follow-up of JIA patients. • A significant increase in JIA reactivations was found during the lockdown. • Poor therapeutic compliance and follow-up checks have been proven during the lockdown. • It is necessary to improve telemedicine tools and scientific information during a pandemic and lockdown.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(1): 48-52, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with autoimmune conditions treated with antimalarials in a population-based study. METHODS: All residents treated with chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents living in the same areas who have had swabs and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 4,408 patients were identified. The prevalence of patients receiving antimalarials was 0.85 per 1,000 men and 3.3 per 1,000 women. The cumulative incidence of testing during the study period was 2.7% in the general population and 3.8% among those receiving CQ or HCQ, while the cumulative incidence of testing positive was 0.55% in the general population and 0.70% among those receiving CQ/HCQ. Multivariate models showed that those receiving CQ/HCQ had a slightly higher probability of being tested compared to the general population (OR 1.09 [95% CI 0.94-1.28]), the same probability of being diagnosed as having COVID-19 (OR 0.94 [95% CI 0.66-1.34]), and a slightly lower probability of being positive once tested (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.56-1.23]). None of the differences were significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the use of antimalarials as a prophylactic treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1613-1623, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692201

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research was to further extend current knowledge of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) entails a risk for children with various rheumatic diseases under immunosuppressive treatment. Telephone survey was administered by conducting interviews with the parents from May 1, 2020 to May 20, 2020. A message containing a link to the actual questionnaire was sent to their phones simultaneously. The medical records of the patients were reviewed for gathering information about demographic data, clinical follow-up, and treatments. Patients who were followed-up under immunosuppressive treatment (n = 439) were attempted to be contacted. The diagnostic distribution of patients (n = 414) eligible for the study was as follows: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 243, 58.7%), autoinflammatory diseases (n = 109, 26.3%), connective tissue diseases (n = 51, 12.3%), and vasculitis (n = 11, 2.7%). In the entire cohort, the mean age was 12 ± 4.7 years, and 54.1% (n = 224) were female. Nine patients have attended the hospital for COVID-19 evaluation, 6 of whom were in close contact with confirmed cases. One patient with seronegative polyarticular JIA, previously prescribed methotrexate and receiving leflunomide during pandemic was identified to be diagnosed with COVID-19. None, including the confirmed case, had any severe symptoms. More than half of the patients with household exposure did not require hospitalization as they were asymptomatic. Although circumstances such as compliance in social distancing policy, transmission patterns, attitude following contact may have influenced the results, immunosuppressive treatment does not seem to pose an additional risk in terms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Connective Tissue Diseases/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vasculitis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
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