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1.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 26(7): 1227-1234, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231969

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines approved by the Food and Drug Administration have been studied mainly in healthy individuals and there is limited information on their immunogenicity in patients with autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the current systematic review and meta-analysis study, aimed to comprehensively investigate the immunogenicity of these vaccines in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatoid diseases (AIRDs). A comprehensive literature search was performed on various databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, to select cohort and randomized clinical trial (RCT) studies up to January 2022. Also, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist protocol and the I2 statistic were used for quality assessment and heterogeneity tests of the selected studies. Fixed and random-effects models were estimated based on the heterogeneity tests, and pooled data were determined as the ratio of mean (ROM) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). As a result, we found that vaccines can cause favorable immunogenicity and antibody response in vaccinated AIRD patients; however, older age and the concomitant consumption of conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) and biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) could significantly reduce the vaccine immunogenicity. Consequently, our findings revealed significant humoral responses (seropositive) in AIRD patients following the administration of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Humans , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
3.
Clin Drug Investig ; 43(5): 325-334, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are emerging as a therapeutic option for alopecia areata. The risk of potential adverse events is currently debated. In particular, several safety data for JAK inhibitors are extrapolated from a single study in elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tofacitinib or adalimumab/etanercept as a comparator. The population of patients with alopecia areata is clinically and immunologically different from persons with rheumatoid arthritis and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are not effective in these patients. The objective of this systematic review was to analyze available data on the safety of various JAK inhibitors in patients with alopecia areata. METHODS: The systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature review was performed by searching PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO databases with the last search on March 13, 2023. RESULTS: In total, 36 studies were included. The frequency and odds ratio (OR) for most common adverse events versus placebo were: for baricitinib hypercholesterolemia (18.2% vs 10.5%, OR = 1.9) and headache (6.1% vs 5.1%, OR = 1.2), for brepocitinib elevated creatinine level (27.7% vs 4.3%, OR = 8.6) and acne (10.6% vs 4.3%, OR = 2.7), for ritlecitinib acne (10.4% vs 4.3%, OR = 2.6) and headache (12.5% vs 10.6%, OR = 1.2) and for deuruxolitinib headache (21.4% vs 9.1%, OR = 2.7) and acne (13.6% vs 4.5%, OR = 3.3). The respective numbers for upper respiratory infections were: baricitinib (7.3% vs 7.0%, OR = 1.0) and brepocitinib (23.4% vs 10.6%, OR = 2.6); for nasopharyngitis: ritlecitinib (12.5% vs 12.8%, OR = 1.0) and deuruxolitinib (14.6% vs 2.3%, OR = 7.3). CONCLUSIONS: The most common side effects of JAK inhibitors in patients with alopecia areata were headache and acne. The OR for upper respiratory tract infections varied from over 7-fold increased to comparable to placebo. The risk of serious adverse events was not increased.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Humans , Aged , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Alopecia Areata/drug therapy , Alopecia Areata/chemically induced , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Alopecia/drug therapy
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960001, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325197

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the factors that have significant impact on the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vaccination induced immune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serological response was measured by quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, while the cell-mediated response was measured by a whole-blood test quantifying the interferon (IFN)-γ response to different SARS-CoV-2-specific domains. Results: We prospectively enrolled 109 RA patients and 43 healthy controls. The median time (IQR) between the confirmed infection or the last vaccination dose and the day when samples were taken ("sampling interval") was 3.67 (2.03, 5.50) months in the RA group. Anti-Spike (anti-S) specific antibodies were detected in 94% of RA patients. Among the investigated patient related variables, age (p<0.004), sampling interval (p<0.001), the brand of the vaccine (p<0.001) and targeted RA therapy (TNF-inhibitor, IL-6 inhibitor, anti-CD20 therapy) had significant effect on the anti-S levels. After covariate adjustment TNF-inhibitor therapy decreased the anti-S antibody concentrations by 80% (p<0.001). The same figures for IL-6 inhibitor and anti-CD20 therapy were 74% (p=0.049) and 97% (p=0.002), respectively. Compared to subjects who were infected but were not vaccinated, the RNA COVID-19 vaccines increased the anti-S antibody levels to 71.1 (mRNA-1273) and 36.0 (BNT162b2) fold (p<0.001). The corresponding figure for the ChAdOx1s vaccine is 18.1(p=0.037). Anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides) positive patients had 6.28 times (p= 0.00165) higher anti-S levels, than the anti-CCP negative patients. Positive T-cell response was observed in 87% of the healthy volunteer group and in 52% of the RA patient group. Following vaccination or infection it declined significantly (p= 0.044) but more slowly than that of anti-S titer (6%/month versus 25%). Specific T-cell responses were decreased by 65% in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy (p=0.055). Conclusion: Our study showed that the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels were substantially reduced in RA patients treated with TNF-α-inhibitors (N=51) and IL-6-inhibitor (N=15). In addition, anti-CD20 therapy (N=4) inhibited both SARS-CoV-2-induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, the magnitude of humoral and cellular immune response was dependent on the age and decreased over time. The RNA vaccines and ChAdOx1s vaccine effectively increased the level of anti-S antibodies.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies , Interleukin-6 , BNT162 Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Immunity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy
5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(3): 433-439, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate absolute and relative risks for seasonal influenza outcomes in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). To contextualise recent findings on corresponding COVID-19 risks. METHODS: Using Swedish nationwide registers for this cohort study, we followed 116 989 patients with IJD and matched population comparators across four influenza seasons (2015-2019). We quantified absolute risks of hospitalisation and death due to influenza, and compared IJD to comparators via Cox regression. We identified 71 556 patients with IJD on active treatment with conventional synthetic DMARDs and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (tsDMARDs) at the start of each influenza season, estimated risks for the same outcomes and compared these risks across DMARDs via Cox regression. RESULTS: Per season, average risks for hospitalisation listing influenza were 0.25% in IJD and 0.1% in the general population, corresponding to a crude HR of 2.38 (95% CI 2.21 to 2.56) that decreased to 1.44 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.56) following adjustments for comorbidities. For death listing influenza, the corresponding numbers were 0.015% and 0.006% (HR=2.63, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.58, and HR=1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.01). Absolute risks for influenza outcomes were half (hospitalisation) and one-tenth (death) of those for COVID-19, but relative estimates comparing IJD to the general population were similar. CONCLUSIONS: In absolute terms, COVID-19 in IJD outnumbers that of average seasonal influenza, but IJD entails a 50%-100% increase in risk for hospitalisation and death for both types of infections, which is largely dependent on associated comorbidities. Overall, bDMARDs/tsDMARDs do not seem to confer additional risk for hospitalisation or death related to seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seasons , Sweden/epidemiology
6.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 238: 107584, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) than healthy population, but there is still no therapeutic strategy available for RA patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Guizhi-Shaoyao-Zhimu decoction (GSZD), Chinese ancient experience decoction, has a significant effect on the treatment of Rheumatism and gout. To prevent RA patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 from developing into severe COVID-19, this study explored the potential possibility and mechanism of GSZD in the treatment of this population. METHODS: In this study, we used bioinformatic approaches to explore common pharmacological targets and signaling pathways between RA and mild-to-moderate COVID-19, and to assess the potential mechanisms of in the treatment of patients with both diseases. Beside, molecular docking was used to explore the molecular interactions between GSZD and SARS-CoV-2 related proteins. RESULTS: Results showed that 1183 common targets were found in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and RA, of which TNF was the most critical target. The crosstalk signaling pathways of the two diseases focused on innate immunity and T cells pathways. In addition, GSZD intervened in RA and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 mainly by regulating inflammation-related signaling pathways and oxidative stress. Twenty hub compounds in GSZD exhibited good binding potential to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, 3C-like protease (3CLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), papain-like protease (PLpro) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), thereby intervening in viral infection, replication and transcription. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides a therapeutic option for RA patients against mild-to-moderate COVID-19, but further clinical validation is still needed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Computational Biology
7.
Autoimmun Rev ; 22(7): 103337, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291893

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a progressive autoimmune disease. It is among the most widespread chronic illnesses in children, with an annual incidence of 1.6 to 23 new instances per 100,000 adolescents. About 1 child in every 1000 develops Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) type of chronic arthritis. The cause of JIA is not well known but what known is that it involves inflammation of the synovium and destruction of tissues in joints which can cause early-onset of oligo articular JIA. It is challenging to diagnose the condition in some children who initially complain of pain and joint swelling as there is no blood test discovered that can confirm the diagnoses of JIA. As JIA patients are immunosuppressed due to the use of drugs, making them vulnerable to catch infections like COVID-19 which can lead to cardiovascular diseases having high rate of morbidity and mortality. The comorbidity like Diabetes has higher incidence in these patients resulting in synergistic effect on inflammation. Currently, the connection of genetics in JIA provides evidence that HLA Class I and II alleles have a role in the pathophysiology of various subtypes of JIA which includes inflammation in the axial skeletal. The primary objective of therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the suppression of clinical symptoms. The pharmacological approach includes use of medications like DMARDs, NSAIDs etc. and non-pharmacological approach includes physiotherapy, which helps in restoring normal joint function and herbs as adjuvants which has the benefit of no side effects.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Juvenile , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy
8.
Lancet ; 401(10381): 1001-1010, 2023 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib is an oral selective inhibitor of Janus kinase 1 and 2 approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, and alopecia areata. In a 24-week phase 2 study in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), baricitinib 4 mg significantly improved SLE disease activity compared with placebo. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in patients with active SLE in a 52-week phase 3 study. METHODS: In a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 study, SLE-BRAVE-I, patients (aged ≥18 years) with active SLE receiving stable background therapy were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to baricitinib 4 mg, 2 mg, or placebo once daily for 52 weeks with standard of care. Glucocorticoid tapering was encouraged but not required per protocol. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reaching an SLE Responder Index (SRI)-4 response at week 52 in the baricitinib 4 mg treatment group compared with placebo. The primary endpoint was assessed by logistic regression analysis with baseline disease activity, baseline corticosteroid dose, region, and treatment group in the model. Efficacy analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat population, comprising all participants who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of investigational product. Safety analyses were done on all randomly assigned participants who received at least one dose of investigational product and who did not discontinue from the study for the reason of lost to follow-up at the first post-baseline visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03616912. FINDINGS: 760 participants were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of baricitinib 4 mg (n=252), baricitinib 2 mg (n=255), or placebo (n=253). A significantly greater proportion of participants who received baricitinib 4 mg (142 [57%]; odds ratio 1·57 [95% CI 1·09 to 2·27]; difference with placebo 10·8 [2·0 to 19·6]; p=0·016), but not baricitinib 2 mg (126 [50%]; 1·14 [0·79 to 1·65]; 3·9 [-4·9 to 12·6]; p=0·47), reached SRI-4 response compared with placebo (116 [46%]). There were no significant differences between the proportions of participants in either baricitinib group reaching any of the major secondary endpoints compared with placebo, including glucocorticoid tapering and time to first severe flare. 26 (10%) participants receiving baricitinib 4 mg had serious adverse events, 24 (9%) participants receiving baricitinib 2 mg, and 18 (7%) participants receiving placebo. The safety profile of baricitinib in participants with SLE was consistent with the known baricitinib safety profile. INTERPRETATION: The primary endpoint in this study was met for the 4 mg baricitinib group. However, key secondary endpoints were not. No new safety signals were observed. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rheumatol Int ; 43(5): 881-888, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299129

ABSTRACT

Randomized controlled trials showed high comparability of biosimilar rituximab (bs-RTX) GP2013 to biologic originator RTX (bo-RTX). Data on effectiveness of switching from bo-RTX to bs-RTX, starting therapy with bs-RTX, and bs-RTX drug survival in real-world setting are sparse. To explore long-term drug effectiveness and survival of bs-RTX GP2013 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients both naïve to and mandatory switched from bo-RTX, and to clarify reasons for treatment cessation. Retrospective observational cohort study including RA outpatient clinic patients treated with bs-RTX between 2018 and 2021 in Norway. Patients were examined and monitored using recommended measures for disease activity and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). For description of population medians and interquartile range were used. Difference between observation times was assessed with Signed-Rank test, drug survival with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Reasons for discontinuation were ascertained. Among 110 patients, at baseline, 88 were mandatory switched from bo-RTX and 22 were RTX-naïve. During 2-year follow-up, disease activity and PROs measures remained stable in switchers subgroup and improved in subgroup starting bs-RTX for the first time. Overall drug survival was 80.0% after 1 year and 57.7% after 2 years and was significantly higher in bs-RTX-switched than in bs-RTX-naïve patients (p = 0.036). Two most frequently reported reasons for drug discontinuation were remission (38.6%) and doctor's decision (27.1%). RA patients treated with bs-RTX had satisfactory treatment response and drug retention rates which supports equivalence of bs-RTX GP2013 to bo-RTX, both in patients naïve to and mandatory switched from bo-RTX.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Humans , Rituximab/adverse effects , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/chemically induced
10.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(5): 431-445, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the role of inflammation in severe forms of COVID-19, glucocorticoids and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been assessed as potential COVID-19 therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that glucocorticoids reduce mortality in severe COVID-19. RCTs of DMARDs have shown mixed results varying on intervention and inclusion criteria. DMARDs, including colchicine or biologic agents, may improve COVID-19 outcomes in specific patient populations. SUMMARY: Glucocorticoids are an effective treatment for the management of severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to better define the patient populations who could benefit from DMARD use, as well as provide guidance regarding the timing of these interventions.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(3): 255-261, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255994

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) face unique challenges during the pandemic, including concerns regarding infection risk, drug shortages, limited access to care, social isolation, and mental health. This review will examine the multifaceted impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients living with RA. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients with RA, risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes include older age and comorbidities, similar to those in the general population. Glucocorticoids, but not other classes of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), appear to be associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. RA patients have been affected by changes in access to care, telemedicine, drug shortages, anxiety, and social isolation, which may contribute to disease flares. SUMMARY: Glucocorticoids, but not other DMARDs, are associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in RA patients. Further studies are needed to explore the impact of specific DMARDs on COVID-19 outcomes, understand the broader implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on RA disease activity, and optimize the use of telemedicine in RA management.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 19(5): 265-287, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255953

ABSTRACT

Evidence supporting the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D in modulating immune responses is centred on the effects of its final metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3, also known as calcitriol), which is regarded as a true steroid hormone. 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, can modulate the innate immune system in response to invading pathogens, downregulate inflammatory responses and support the adaptive arm of the immune system. Serum concentrations of its inactive precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3, also known as calcidiol) fluctuate seasonally (being lowest in winter) and correlate negatively with the activation of the immune system as well as with the incidence and severity of autoimmune rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. Thus, a low serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 is considered to be a risk factor for autoimmune rheumatic diseases and vitamin D3 supplementation seems to improve the prognosis; moreover, long-term vitamin D3 supplementation seems to reduce their incidence (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis). In the setting of COVID-19, 1,25(OH)2D3 seems to downregulate the early viral phase (SARS-CoV-2 infection), by enhancing innate antiviral effector mechanisms, as well as the later cytokine-mediated hyperinflammatory phase. This Review provides an update of the latest scientific and clinical evidence concerning vitamin D and immune response in autoimmune rheumatic diseases and COVID-19, which justify the need for monitoring of serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations and for appropriate supplementation following clinical trial-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Calcitriol , Calcifediol , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology
15.
RMD Open ; 9(1)2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of COVID-19 vaccination on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients under targeted therapies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1765 vaccinated patients COVID-19, 1178 (66.7%) with RA and 587 (33.3%) with PsA from the COVID-19 registry in patients with rheumatic diseases (COVIDSER) project, were included. Demographics, disease characteristics, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) and targeted treatments were collected. DAS28-based flare rates and categorised disease activity distribution prevaccination and post vaccination were analysed by log-linear regression and contingency analyses, respectively. The influence of vaccination on DAS28 variation as a continuous measure was evaluated using a random coefficient model. RESULTS: The distribution of categorised disease activity and flare rates was not significantly modified by vaccination. Log-linear regression showed no significant changes in the rate of flares in the 6-month period after vaccination compared with the same period prior to vaccination in neither patients with RA nor patients with PsA. When DAS28 variations were analysed using random coefficient models, no significant variations in disease activity were detected after vaccination for both groups of patients. However, patients with RA treated with Janus kinase inhibitors (JAK-i) (1) and interleukin-6 inhibitor (IL-6-i) experienced a worsening of disease activity (1.436±0.531, p=0.007, and 1.201±0.550, p=0.029, respectively) in comparison with those treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNF-i). Similarly, patients with PsA treated with interleukin-12/23 inhibitor (IL-12/23-i) showed a worsening of disease activity (4.476±1.906, p=0.019) compared with those treated with TNF-i. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with increased rate of flares in patients with RA and PsA. However, a potential increase in disease activity in patients with RA treated with JAK-i and IL-6-i and in patients with PsA treated with IL-12/23-i warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Humans , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Arthritis, Psoriatic/pathology , Interleukin-6 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Interleukin-12
16.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 55, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is associated with joint pain and stiffness. Biologics represent some of the most effective treatments for RA, but previous guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has limited their use to patients with severely active disease. This has meant patients with moderately active RA have been treated as if they have an acceptable disease state, despite many cases where the inflammation has a major impact on joint damage, mobility, pain and quality of life. However, recent guideline changes (NICE TA715) have approved the use of three biologics - adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab - for the treatment of moderately active RA. MAIN BODY: In response to these changes, we have held discussions with medical teams from across the UK to consider the main implications for implementation of these new recommendations, as well as any differences in approach that may exist at a local level. Several key challenges were identified. These included establishing methods of educating both physicians and patients concerning the new availability of the biologic treatments, with suggestions of various organisations that could be approached to circulate informative material. Identifying which patients with moderately active RA stand to benefit was another discussion topic. Relying solely on scoring systems like Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) was acknowledged to have limitations, and alternative complementary approaches such as ultrasound, as well as assessing a patient's co-morbidities, could also be useful tools in determining those who could benefit from biologics. An additional challenge for the process of patient identification has been the increase in the use of telemedicine consultations in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. More use of patient-reported outcomes was raised as one possible solution, and the importance of maintaining up-to-date databases on patient disease scores and treatment history was also stressed. CONCLUSION: While challenges exist in education and identifying patients who may benefit from the use of biologics, the NICE TA715 recommendations hold great potential in addressing an unmet need for the treatment of moderate RA.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Humans , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use
17.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 35(3): 175-184, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237393

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the findings of studies investigating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and risk of acute and postacute COVID-19 outcomes 3 years into the pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies early in the pandemic included all patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs), not only those with RA, due to limited sample size. Many of these studies found that patients with SARDs were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes, including hospitalization, hyperinflammation, mechanical ventilation, and death. Studies performed later were able to focus on RA and found similar associations, while also identifying RA-specific factors such as immunosuppressive medications, disease activity/severity, and interstitial lung disease as risk factors for severe COVID-19. After COVID-19 vaccination, the risks for COVID-19 infection and severity were reduced for patients with RA, but a gap between the general population persisted, and some patients with RA are susceptible to breakthrough infection after vaccination. Preexposure prophylaxis, effective treatments, and changes in viral variants have also contributed to improved COVID-19 outcomes throughout the pandemic. Emerging data suggest that patients with RA may be at risk for postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). SUMMARY: Although COVID-19 outcomes have improved over the pandemic for patients with RA, some experience poor acute and postacute outcomes after COVID-19. Clinicians and patients should remain vigilant about risk mitigation for infection and consider early treatment for RA patients with COVID-19. Future studies are needed to investigate clinical outcomes and mechanisms of PASC among patients with RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Risk Factors
18.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 113(5): 1107-1116, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234562

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is critical in frequently immunocompromised patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there is a question about the risk of RA flares following vaccination. Our study intended to find out about cases of new RA or flare-ups in people who already had RA that were reported in French and international pharmacovigilance databases after COVID-19 vaccination. We performed a "case-noncase" method in the international pharmacovigilance database VigiBase to identify the risk of RA following COVID-19 vaccination compared with other nonlive vaccines. Using the French Pharmacovigilance Database (FPVD), a descriptive analysis was carried out for RA cases after COVID-19 immunization and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare variables in the new-onset vs. flare-up groups. In 2021, 2,387 cases of RA were reported from 2,817,902 adverse drug reactions associated with COVID-19 vaccines recorded in VigiBase. The reporting odds ratio of RA onset with COVID-19 vaccines compared with the other nonlive vaccines was 0.66 (P < 0.0001). The FPVD reported 161 cases of RA with COVID-19 vaccines, including 77 new-onset RA and 84 cases of RA flare-up. In 88 cases (84.7%), RA occurred after the first dose. The mean time between vaccination and disease onset was 14 ± 21 days, and the delay was significantly shorter in the flare-up group. We do not show a higher risk of RA after COVID-19 vaccination compared with other nonlive vaccines in adults. De novo RA was more likely to happen quickly, be more severe, and have a worse outcome than flares in patients with RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Incidence , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 82(5): 594-598, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213913

ABSTRACT

To detail the unmet clinical and scientific needs in the field of rheumatology. After a 2-year hiatus due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the 22nd annual international Advances in Targeted Therapies meeting brought together more than 100 leading basic scientists and clinical researchers in rheumatology, immunology, epidemiology, molecular biology and other specialties. Breakout sessions were convened with experts in five rheumatological disease-specific groups including: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and connective tissue diseases (CTDs). In each group, experts were asked to identify and prioritise current unmet needs in clinical and translational research, as well as highlight recent progress in meeting formerly identified unmet needs. Clinical trial design innovation was emphasised across all disease states. Within RA, developing therapies and trials for refractory disease patients remained among the most important identified unmet needs and within lupus and spondyloarthritis the need to account for disease endotypes was highlighted. The RA group also identified the need to better understand the natural history of RA, pre-RA states and the need ultimately for precision medicine. In CTD generally, experts focused on the need to better identify molecular, cellular and clinical signals of early and undifferentiated disease in order to identify novel drug targets. There remains a strong need to develop therapies and therapeutic strategies for those with treatment-refractory disease. Increasingly it is clear that we need to better understand the natural history of these diseases, including their 'predisease' states, and identify molecular signatures, including at a tissue level, which can facilitate disease diagnosis and treatment. As these unmet needs in the field of rheumatic diseases have been identified based on consensus of expert clinicians and scientists in the field, this document may serve individual researchers, institutions and industry to help prioritise their scientific activities.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy
20.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(4): 595-602, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2168108

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases are known to be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection. This is the first case series of patients with autoimmune disease suffering from COVID-19 infection in Jakarta, Indonesia. There were 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection in autoimmune patients from March 2020 until February 2021. We select 5 patients in this case series. Three of them had systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), one of them had rheumatoid arthritis, and one of them had ankylosing spondylitis. Three of them had high BSR Risk Stratification. Most of them had used daily steroid therapy. Fatigue, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and cough were the common symptoms found.  None of the patients were admitted to ICU, used mechanical ventilators, and all of them survived. Most of the patients were prescribed anti-coagulant therapy. This first comprehensive case series can provide valuable information regarding the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in the Indonesian autoimmune disorder patient population.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/epidemiology
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