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2.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(5): 458-464, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901048

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the rate of primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and superficial surgical site infections (SSI) is currently unknown. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate any changes in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day SSI, including trends in microbiology of the infections, during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the three years prior. Patients and Methods: An Institutional Review Board-approved, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted with five participating academic institutions across two healthcare systems in the northeastern United States. Primary TJA patients from the years 2017-2019 were grouped as a pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and patients from the year 2020 were grouped as a COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Differences in patient demographics, PJI, SSI, and microbiology between the two cohorts were assessed. Results: A total of 14,844 TJAs in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and 5,453 TJAs in the COVID-19 pandemic cohort were evaluated. There were no substantial differences of the combined 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.35%) compared with the COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.26%; p = 0.303). Conclusions: This study did not find any change in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day superficial SSI in patients undergoing primary TJA between a pre-COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Larger national database studies may identify small but substantial differences in 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between these two time periods. Our data may support continued efforts to maintain high compliance with hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and limited hospital visitation whenever possible.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Prosthesis-Related Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
3.
Acta Orthop ; 93: 528-533, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elective total hip replacement (THR) was halted in our institution during the COVID-19 surge in March 2020. Afterwards, elective THR volume increased with emphasis on fast-track protocols, early discharge, and post-discharge virtual care. We compare early outcomes during this "return-to-normal period" with those of a matched pre-pandemic cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 757 patients undergoing THR from June to August 2020, who were matched 1:1 with a control cohort from June to August 2019. Length of stay (LOS) for the study cohort was lower than the control cohort (31 vs. 45 hours; p < 0.001). The time to first postoperative physical therapy (PT) was shorter in the study cohort (370 vs. 425 minutes; p < 0.001). More patients were discharged home in the study cohort (99% vs. 94%; p < 0.001). Study patients utilized telehealth office and rehabilitation services 14 times more frequently (39% vs. 2.8%; p < 0.001). Outcomes included post-discharge 90-day unscheduled office visits, emergency room (ER) visits, complications, readmissions, and PROMs (HOOS JR, and VR-12 mental/physical). Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests were used for group comparisons. RESULTS: Rates of 90-day unscheduled outpatient visits (5.0% vs. 7.3%), ER visits (5.0% vs. 4.8%), hospital readmissions (4.0% vs. 2.8%), complications (0.04% vs. 0.03%), and 3-month PROMs were similar between cohorts. There was no 90-day mortality. INTERPRETATION: A reduction in LOS and increased telehealth use for office and rehabilitation visits did not adversely influence 90-day clinical outcomes and PROMs. Our findings lend further support for the utilization of fast-track arthroplasty with augmentation of postoperative care delivery using telemedicine.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aftercare , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 17(1): 302, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879248

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: At present, concomitant avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head and septic arthritis (SA) as a sequel of COVID-19 infection has yet not been documented. By large-scale use of life-saving corticosteroids (CS) in COVID-19 cases, our aim is to warn of the occurrence of hip joint infection in these patients. METHODS: We report a series of five cases in which patients developed septic arthritis concomitant with AVN after being treated for COVID-19 infection. The mean dose of prednisolone used in these cases was 1695.2 mg. The time period of onset of hip symptoms in our cases from the beginning of the COVID-19 infection was 56 days in the first case, 43 days in the second case, 30 days in the third case, 29 days in the fourth case and 50 days in the last case, with an average time of 41.6 days. All patients underwent surgery depending on the extent of articular cartilage damage by direct anterior approach. RESULTS: Clinical and laboratory symptoms improved significantly in all patients. The mean visual analogue pain score of the patients decreased from 9.4 (9-10) before surgery to 2.8 (1-4) after 1 week of operation. CONCLUSION: In any patient with the history of COVID-19 infection specially those who have been treated with corticosteroid as one of the medications prescribed during the disease, any joint symptom specially in the hips should draw our attention to the joint infection, and with timely diagnosis and surgery, their hip joint can be saved.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Femur Head Necrosis , Arthritis, Infectious/complications , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Femur Head/surgery , Femur Head Necrosis/diagnostic imaging , Femur Head Necrosis/etiology , Femur Head Necrosis/surgery , Hip Joint/diagnostic imaging , Hip Joint/surgery , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Dan Med J ; 69(6)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876980

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus outbreak causes postponement of elective surgery. We evaluated how pain, function and general health were impacted by postponing elective knee and hip arthroplasty in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis with no known surgery rescheduling date due to the coronavirus outbreak. METHODS: This study included 194 patients from a Danish public hospital with postponed elective primary knee or hip arthroplasty due to the lockdown. Patients responded to questionnaires when their surgery was cancelled and before surgery. Changes in pain and function were evaluated with the Oxford Knee and Hip Scores (OKS, OHS) and their general health with the EuroQol 5-dimension scale (EQ5D). Additionally, we asked about the patients' concerns and whether they felt improved, unchanged or deteriorated during the waiting period. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained for 110 (57%) patients, 59 and 51 awaiting knee or hip arthroplasty (median age 71 years, 62% were female), respectively. Arthroplasty was postponed for a median (range) 98 (63-161) days. A total of 34% were concerned that the postponement would lead to a poorer outcome. Mean OKS and OHS differences were 0 (95% confidence interval (CI): -1-1) and -1 (95% CI: -2-0) from surgery cancellation to re-scheduled surgery. The mean EQ5D index difference was 0.0 (95% CI: 0.0-0.1) for both groups. A total of 75 (68%) patients felt an important deterioration of their condition. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operatively, patients worried about experiencing an altered treatment outcome due to postponed surgery and felt that their condition had deteriorated during the waiting period although this was not reflected in patient-reported outcome measures. FUNDING: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Osteoarthritis, Hip , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Osteoarthritis, Hip/surgery , Pain , Patient Reported Outcome Measures
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862797

ABSTRACT

The proximal fracture of the femur and hip is the most common reason for hospitalization in orthopedic departments. In Italy, 115,989 hip-replacement surgeries were performed in 2019, showing the economic relevance of studying this type of procedure. This study analyzed the data relating to patients who underwent hip-replacement surgery in the years 2010-2020 at the "San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona" University Hospital of Salerno. The multiple linear regression (MLR) model and regression and classification algorithms were implemented in order to predict the total length of stay (LOS). Lastly, using a statistical analysis, the impact of COVID-19 was evaluated. The results obtained from the regression analysis showed that the best model was MLR, with an R2 value of 0.616, compared with XGBoost, Gradient-Boosted Tree, and Random Forest, with R2 values of 0.552, 0.543, and 0.448, respectively. The t-test showed that the variables that most influenced the LOS, with the exception of pre-operative LOS, were gender, age, anemia, fracture/dislocation, and urinary disorders. Among the classification algorithms, the best result was obtained with Random Forest, with a sensitivity of the longest LOS of over 89%. In terms of the overall accuracy, Random Forest and Gradient-Boosted Tree achieved a value of 71.76% and an error of 28.24%, followed by Decision Tree, with an accuracy of 71.13% and an error of 28.87%, and, finally, Support Vector Machine, with an accuracy of 65.06% and an error of 34.94%. A significant difference in cardiovascular disease, fracture/dislocation, and post-operative LOS variables was shown by the chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney test in the comparison between 2019 (before COVID-19) and 2020 (in full pandemic emergency conditions).


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay
7.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(2): 385-396, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821173

ABSTRACT

This narrative review highlights the prevalence of osteoarthritis as a chronic disease that directly contributes to the ever-growing health care expenditure to treat this condition. The increasing demand of total joint arthroplasty globally is explained in conjunction with the importance of understanding candidate suitability for arthroplasty surgery in order to maximize surgical outcomes and self-reported patient satisfaction after the surgery. Rehabilitation care following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty, particularly the inappropriate use of inpatient rehabilitation service, is also explained, in addition to the enhanced recovery after surgery.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Osteoarthritis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/rehabilitation , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/rehabilitation , Humans , Motivation , Osteoarthritis/surgery , Patient Satisfaction
8.
Orthopade ; 51(5): 385-394, 2022 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802653

ABSTRACT

No appeal by a health politician, no matter how insistent, has ever forced all the operational structures of our health-care system to examine their own efficiencies and cost reduction potentials as has SARS-CoV­2. Fast-track surgery, developed long before the current pandemic, can become an indispensable element of modern hospital routines through the integration of interlocked care structures. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcome can be improved by significantly shortening hospital stays, decreasing complication rates, and by additionally strengthening the competence and motivation of the patients involved. Hospital staff could be relieved of heavy workloads, and overall costs could be reduced by involving external prehabilitation centers. It is now necessary to further develop standards for the establishment and implementation of appropriately coordinated prehabilitation and rehabilitation concepts for elective total hip and knee replacement surgery and, ideally, to save resources at the same time through regional networking and integration.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/rehabilitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Outpatients , Preoperative Exercise , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(4): 599-608, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787804

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Iliocapsularis (IC) overlies the anteromedial hip capsule and is an important landmark in anterior approaches to hip arthroplasty. Previously believed to be part of iliacus, few publications describe the prevalence, attachments, fibre direction, blood supply, innervation, and size of IC. This study was aimed to determine these anatomical features using embalmed bodies and whether they vary between sides, sex, and age. METHODS: Thirty-eight formalin-fixed adult bodies were dissected and the prevalence, presence of a connective tissue raphe, attachments, fibre direction, blood supply, and innervation, were documented. Length and width were measured, and significant differences were investigated with t tests. RESULTS: Iliocapsularis was present in all bodies examined, originating from the inferior border of the anterior inferior iliac spine, and inserting 20 mm distal to the lesser trochanter in 54 muscles (71%). Iliocapsularis was supplied by a thin branch from the femoral nerve and by branches of the lateral circumflex femoral and deep femoral arteries and veins. Muscle fibre direction was from superolateral to inferomedial. Mean length was 116.8 ± 11.2 mm and width was 12.8 ± 3.1 mm, with no significant differences between sides, sex, and age. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to document the venous drainage and compare the dimensions with sides, sex, and age, using adult bodies. However, the true function of IC is still unknown. Iliocapsularis is a constant muscle, distinct from iliacus, which is relevant to orthopaedic surgeons and physical rehabilitation specialists, particularly for postoperative patient care.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hip Joint , Adult , Cadaver , Femur/surgery , Hip , Hip Joint/surgery , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/surgery
10.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(8): 1640-1644.e2, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 created unprecedented challenges in surgical training especially in specialties with high elective case volume. We hypothesized that case volume during total joint arthroplasty fellowship training would decrease by 25% given widespread economic shutdowns encountered during the fourth quarter of the 2019-2020 academic year. METHODS: Case logs from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were obtained for accredited total joint arthroplasty fellowships (2017-2018 to 2020-2021). Case volumes were extracted and summarized as means ± SD. Student's t tests were used for inter-year comparisons. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty three arthroplasty fellows from 24 accredited fellowships were included. There was a 14% year-over-year decrease in total case volume during the 2019-2020 academic year (390 ± 108 vs 453 ± 128, P < .001). Case volume rebounded during the 2020-2021 academic year to 465 ± 93 (19% increase, P < .001). Case categories with the most significant percentage declines in 2019-2020 were primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA, -23%), revision total hip arthroplasty (THA, -19%), revision TKA (rTKA, -11%), and primary THA (-10%). CONCLUSION: There was a 14% overall decrease in arthroplasty case volume during the 2019-2020 academic year, which correlated with the widespread economic shutdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain elective case categories like primary TKA experienced the greatest negative impact. Results from this study may inform prospective trainees and faculty during future national emergencies.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
11.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7S): S408-S412, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shifts in demand, capacity, and site of service have impacted total hip arthroplasty (THA) volumes and revenues over the 2019-2021 time period. Moving THA off the inpatient-only (IPO) list and the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a shift in delivery away from inpatient services and a decrease in demand. METHODS: Medicare claims data were surveyed for the latest period available (April 1, 2020 to September 2020) and compared with a similar period in 2019 prior to THA removal from the IPO list and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Length of stay (LOS), admission status, site of service, discharge status, cost to CMS (Centers of Medicaid and Medicare Services), and racial disparities were analyzed. RESULTS: From 2019 to 2020, changes in primary THA metrics occurred (overall change in total joint arthroplasty [THA plus total knee arthroplasty metrics]): CMS THA volume decreased from 78,691 to 65,360, -16% (-22%); THA performed as an outpatient increased from 0% to 51% (141%); THA performed as same-day discharge increased from 3% to 12%, 325% (221%); overall LOS decreased from 1.91 to 1.46, -23% (-11%); inpatient LOS increased from 1.92 to 2.05, 7% (16%); outpatient LOS increased from 0.92 to 0.93, 1% (-12%); discharge home increased from 82% to 91%, 12.8% (11%); and CMS spending decreased from $1,033 million to $751 million, -27% (-27%). CONCLUSION: Medicare payments, LOS, discharge to facilities, and volume declined from 2019 to 2020 and were accelerated by IPO list changes and COVID-19 issues. Same-day discharge and hospital outpatient department cases also increased. THA metrics were not affected by race.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Aged , Benchmarking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Medicaid , Medicare , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(1)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hip and knee total joint arthroplasty (TJA) procedures are two of the most common inpatient surgical procedures worldwide. Outpatient TJA has emerged as a feasible option. COVID-19 caused significant constraints on inpatient surgical resources and contributed to a growing surgical backlog. We present a quality improvement (QI) initiative aimed at adding an outpatient TJA pathway to our pre-existing inpatient TJA programme, with the target of performing 25% of our primary TJA as outpatients. METHODS: This was a QI study at a tertiary level arthroplasty centre. To achieve our aim, a patient-centred needs analysis revealed the need to develop patient selection criteria, perform a specific and tailored anaesthetic, provide patient education and conduct virtual care follow-up. Based on these findings, an outpatient TJA intervention bundle was developed and implemented. RESULTS: After implementing the outpatient pathway, 65 patients were scheduled for outpatient TJA. Fifty-five (84.6%) patients were successfully discharged home on the day of surgery. Successful outpatient TJA accounted for 33.3% of all primary TJAs performed at our intuition throughout the study period. There was excellent adherence to the intervention protocols, with the success hinging on multidisciplinary team and supported QI culture. Thirty-day emergency department visits for inpatient and outpatient TJAs were 8.93% and 6.15%, respectively. No outpatient TJA patients required hospital readmission within 30 days. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that implementation of an outpatient TJA pathway in response to inpatient resource constraints during the COVID-19 pandemic is feasible. The findings of this report will be of interest to surgical centres facing surgical backlog and constraints on inpatient resources during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Quality Improvement
13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(13): e56, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite known surgical volume reductions in 2020 during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, no study has fully quantified the impact of the pandemic on the number of elective inpatient total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) cases. The purpose of the present study was to analyze THA and TKA case volumes in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The Premier Healthcare Database was utilized to identify adults undergoing primary elective THA or TKA from January 2017 to December 2020. The National Inpatient Sample was cross-referenced to provide nationwide representative sampling weights. Patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty (TJA) or non-elective surgery were excluded. Two quantitative models were created from both databases to estimate TJA case volume in 2020. Descriptive statistics were utilized to report monthly changes in elective TJA utilization throughout 2020. Univariate analyses were performed to compare differences between subgroups. RESULTS: From 2017 to 2019, it was estimated that 1,006,000 elective inpatient TJAs (64.2% TKA and 35.8% THA) were performed annually. In 2020, an estimated 526,000 to 538,000 cases (62.0% TKA and 38.0% THA) were performed, representing a 46.5% to 47.7% decrease in nationwide volume from the prior 3-year average. Moreover, the elective TJA case volume for April 2020 was 1.9% of the average for that month from 2017 through 2019. Subsequently, case volumes for May and June increased compared with the volumes for those months from 2017 through 2019. There was then a decrease in cases for July, corresponding with the "second wave" of COVID-19, followed by an additional steady monthly decline through December, corresponding with the "third wave." Finally, the elective TJA cases for December 2020 represented only 41.0% of the average case volume for that month from 2017 through 2019. CONCLUSIONS: In the midst of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, approximately 526,000 to 538,000 elective inpatient TJA cases were performed, representing a 46.5% to 47.7% decrease compared with the 3 previous years. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic persisted through the end of that year, with decreased case volume through December 2020.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e060000, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than 1 million elective total hip and knee replacements are performed annually in the USA with 2% risk of clinical pulmonary embolism (PE), 0.1%-0.5% fatal PE, and over 1000 deaths. Antithrombotic prophylaxis is standard of care but evidence is limited and conflicting. We will compare effectiveness of three commonly used chemoprophylaxis agents to prevent all-cause mortality (ACM) and clinical venous thromboembolism (VTE) while avoiding bleeding complications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention after HiP and KneE Replacement is a large randomised pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial with non-inferiority design and target enrolment of 20 000 patients comparing aspirin (81 mg two times a day), low-intensity warfarin (INR (International Normalized Ratio) target 1.7-2.2) and rivaroxaban (10 mg/day). The primary effectiveness outcome is aggregate of VTE and ACM, primary safety outcome is clinical bleeding complications, and patient-reported outcomes are determined at 1, 3 and 6 months. Primary data analysis is per protocol, as preferred for non-inferiority trials, with secondary analyses adherent to intention-to-treat principles. All non-fatal outcomes are captured from patient and clinical reports with independent blinded adjudication. Study design and oversight are by a multidisciplinary stakeholder team including a 10-patient advisory board. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Institutional Review Board of the Medical University of South Carolina provides central regulatory oversight. Patients aged 21 or older undergoing primary or revision hip or knee replacement are block randomised by site and procedure; those on chronic anticoagulation are excluded. Recruitment commenced at 30 North American centres in December 2016. Enrolment currently exceeds 13 500 patients, representing 33% of those eligible at participating sites, and is projected to conclude in July 2024; COVID-19 may force an extension. Results will inform antithrombotic choice by patients and other stakeholders for various risk cohorts, and will be disseminated through academic publications, meeting presentations and communications to advocacy groups and patient participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02810704.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e050877, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify patients at risk of mid-late term revision of hip replacement to inform targeted follow-up. DESIGN: Analysis of linked national data sets from primary and secondary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD-GOLD); National Joint Registry (NJR); English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES); Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs)). PARTICIPANTS: Primary elective total hip replacement (THR) aged≥18. EVENT OF INTEREST: Revision surgery≥5 years (mid-late term) after primary THR. STATISTICAL METHODS: Cox regression modelling to ascertain risk factors of mid-late term revision. HR and 95% CI assessed association of sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, medication, surgical variables and PROMs with mid-late term revision. RESULTS: NJR-HES-PROMs data were available from 2008 to 2011 on 142 275 THR; mean age 70.0 years and 61.9% female. CPRD GOLD-HES data covered 1995-2011 on 17 047 THR; mean age 68.4 years, 61.8% female. Patients had minimum 5 years postprimary surgery to end 2016. In NJR-HES-PROMS data, there were 3582 (2.5%) revisions, median time-to-revision after primary surgery 1.9 years (range 0.01-8.7), with 598 (0.4%) mid-late term revisions; in CPRD GOLD, 982 (5.8%) revisions, median time-to-revision 5.3 years (range 0-20), with 520 (3.1%) mid-late term revisions.Reduced risk of mid-late term revision was associated with older age at primary surgery (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.96); better 6-month postoperative pain/function scores (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.46); use of ceramic-on-ceramic (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.95) or ceramic-on-polyethylene (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.00) bearing surfaces.Increased risk of mid-late term revision was associated with the use of antidepressants (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.59), glucocorticoid injections (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.67) and femoral head size≥44 mm (HR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.09 to 6.02)No association of gender, obesity or Index of Multiple Deprivation was observed. CONCLUSION: The risk of mid-late term THR is associated with age at primary surgery, 6-month postoperative pain and function and implant factors. Further work is needed to explore the associations with prescription medications observed in our data.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hip Prosthesis , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Prosthesis Design , Prosthesis Failure , Registries , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(8): 1443-1447, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734201

ABSTRACT

Moving THA off of the Inpatient Only (IPO) List for Center of Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) beneficiaries and the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a shift in delivery away from inpatient services and a decrease in demand. Medicare payments dramatically declined from 2019 to 2020. LOS decreases and shift to outpatient designations were accelerated by IPO list changes and COVID-19 issues. The percentage of SDD cases also increased. Other metrics favorable to decreased spending by CMS were increased discharge to home and decreased volume. These changes have a profound impact on surgeon-hospital relationships and surgeon compensation.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Surgeons , Aged , Arthroplasty , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7): 1227-1232, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elective arthroplasty surgery in the United States came to a near-complete halt in the spring of 2019 as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Racial disparity has been a long-term concern in healthcare with increased focus during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 and race on arthroplasty utilization trends during the pandemic. METHODS: We used 2019 and 2020 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service fee-for-service claims data to compare arthroplasty volumes prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared overall arthroplasty utilization rates between 2019 and 2020 and then sought to determine the effect of race and COVID-19, both independently and combined. RESULTS: There was a decrease in primary total knee arthroplasty (-28%), primary total hip arthroplasty (-14%), primary total hip arthroplasty for fracture (-2%), and revision arthroplasty (-14%) utilization between 2019 and 2020. The highest decrease in overall arthroplasty utilization was in the Hispanic population (34% decrease vs 19% decrease in the White population). We found that a non-White patient was 39.9% (P < .001) less likely to receive a total joint arthroplasty prior to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the pre-existing racial differences in arthroplasty utilization by decreasing the probability of receiving a total joint arthroplasty for non-White patient by another 12.9% (P < .001). CONCLUSION: We found an overall decreased utilization rate of arthroplasty during the COVID-19 pandemic with further decrease noted in all non-White populations. This raises significant concern for worsening racial disparity in arthroplasty caused by the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
18.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 56(1): 14-19, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the evolution of patients admitted for elective orthopaedic surgery during the immediate post-COVID-19 peak of the pandemic. METHODS: This is a multi-center, observational study conducted in 8 high complexity hospitals of Catalonia, one of the highest COVID-19 incidence areas in Spain. We included patients ≥18 years of age undergoing elective surgery (total knee or hip arthroplasty, knee or hip revision arthroplasty, shoulder or knee arthroscopy, hand or wrist surgery, forefoot surgery, or hardware removal) after the COVID-19 peak (between May 5th and June 30th, 2020). The main exclusion criterion was a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 PCR within the 7 days before the surgery. The primary outcomes were postoperative complications within 60 days (+/-30) or hospital readmission due to a COVID-19 infection. Following the recommendations of the International Consensus Group (ICM), elective surgeries were re-started when the nationwide lockdown was lifted. Before the surgery, patients were contacted by phone to rule out any exposure to confirmed COVID-19 cases, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed in all patients 48-72 hours before hospital admission, and they were asked to maintain home confinement until the day of the surgery. RESULTS: 675 patients were included: 189 patients in the arthroplasty group (28%) and 486 in the ambulatory surgery group (72%). Mean [SD] age was 57.6 [15.3] years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index score was 2.21 (SD = 2.01, Min = 0, Max = 13). A total of 84 patients (12.75%) obtained an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥ 3, showing no association between the ASA score and the risk of developing COVID-19 symptoms at follow-up (χ 2 (4) = 0.77, P = 0.94). The mean occupation rate of hospital beds for COVID-19 patients was 13% and the mean occupation rate of critical care beds for COVID-19 patients was 27% at the time of re-introducing elective surgeries. These were important rates to consider to decide when to reintroduce elective surgeries after lockdown. Surgical time, time of ischemia and intra-operative bleeding were not related with a higher risk of developing COVID-19 post-operatively (χ 2 (1) = 0.00, P = 0.98); (χ 2 (2) = 2.05, P = 0.36); (χ 2 (2) = 0.37, P = 0.83). Only 2 patients (0.3 %) presented with a suspected COVID-19 infection at follow-up. None of them presented with pneumonia or required confirmation by a reverse transcription PCR assay. Hospital re-admission was not needed for these patients. CONCLUSION: The risk of developing COVID-19 during the immediate post-COVID-19 peak in a region with a high incidence of COVID-19 has not been proved. These data suggest that elective orthopaedic surgeries can be resumed when assertive and strict protocols are followed.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7S): S457-S464, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of a postoperative diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) remains unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of COVID-19 infection following TJA on perioperative complication rates. METHODS: The Mariner database was queried for patients undergoing total hip and total knee arthroplasty from January 2018 to April 2020. TJA patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 within 90 days postoperatively were matched in a 1:3 fashion based on age, gender, iron deficiency anemia, payer status, and Charlson Comorbidity Index with patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. Preoperative comorbidity profiles and complications within 3 months of surgery were compared. Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression with outcomes considered significant at P < .05. RESULTS: Of the 239 COVID-19 positive patients, 132 (55.2%) underwent total hip arthroplasty. On multivariate analysis, COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with increased odds of deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10-11.81, P < .001), pulmonary embolism (OR 6.27, 95% CI 2.57-16.71, P < .001), and all complications (OR 3.36, 95% CI 2.47-4.59, P < .001). Incidence of deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism was greater the closer in time the COVID-19 diagnosis was to the surgical procedure (10.24 times at 1 month, 7.87 times at 2 months, and 1.42 times at 3 months; P < .001). A similar relationship was observed with all complications. CONCLUSION: Postoperative COVID-19 infection is associated with higher rates of cardiopulmonary complications, thromboembolic disease, renal injury, and urinary tract infections in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. COVID-19 infection earlier in the postoperative period is associated with a higher risk of complications.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
20.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7S): S413-S415.e1, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, an emergency was declared in the province of Ontario owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. From March 19 to May 26, all elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures were deferred. The purpose of this study was to review the unit sales data of THA and TKA procedures in Ontario over this time period to identify any trends in surgical activity. METHODS: Unit sales data for all THA and TKA procedures performed in Ontario between January 2019 and December 2020 were reviewed. All orthopedic companies contributed to the data set. Femoral stems were considered an indicator of THA procedures, while primary femurs were considered an indicator of TKA procedures. Data were analyzed to determine trends in THA and TKA procedures during the deferral period and the relative change in THA and TKA activity following resumption. RESULTS: There was a 53% reduction in THA activity between March and May of 2020 when compared to the same interval in 2019. From June to September of 2019, THA sales activity was 87.3% that of TKA. From June to September of 2020, THA sales activity was 122.8% that of TKA. CONCLUSION: Provincial directives aimed at controlling the outbreak of COVID-19 contributed to a substantial reduction in THA and TKA activity in 2020. Compared to 2019, there was a disproportionate increase in THA compared to TKA activity in 2020 following resumption of surgical services. These data have implications in recovery planning for the surgical backlog of THA in Ontario.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
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