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1.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(5): 458-464, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901048

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the rate of primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and superficial surgical site infections (SSI) is currently unknown. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate any changes in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day SSI, including trends in microbiology of the infections, during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the three years prior. Patients and Methods: An Institutional Review Board-approved, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted with five participating academic institutions across two healthcare systems in the northeastern United States. Primary TJA patients from the years 2017-2019 were grouped as a pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and patients from the year 2020 were grouped as a COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Differences in patient demographics, PJI, SSI, and microbiology between the two cohorts were assessed. Results: A total of 14,844 TJAs in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and 5,453 TJAs in the COVID-19 pandemic cohort were evaluated. There were no substantial differences of the combined 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.35%) compared with the COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.26%; p = 0.303). Conclusions: This study did not find any change in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day superficial SSI in patients undergoing primary TJA between a pre-COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Larger national database studies may identify small but substantial differences in 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between these two time periods. Our data may support continued efforts to maintain high compliance with hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and limited hospital visitation whenever possible.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Prosthesis-Related Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
2.
Acta Orthop ; 93: 528-533, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elective total hip replacement (THR) was halted in our institution during the COVID-19 surge in March 2020. Afterwards, elective THR volume increased with emphasis on fast-track protocols, early discharge, and post-discharge virtual care. We compare early outcomes during this "return-to-normal period" with those of a matched pre-pandemic cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 757 patients undergoing THR from June to August 2020, who were matched 1:1 with a control cohort from June to August 2019. Length of stay (LOS) for the study cohort was lower than the control cohort (31 vs. 45 hours; p < 0.001). The time to first postoperative physical therapy (PT) was shorter in the study cohort (370 vs. 425 minutes; p < 0.001). More patients were discharged home in the study cohort (99% vs. 94%; p < 0.001). Study patients utilized telehealth office and rehabilitation services 14 times more frequently (39% vs. 2.8%; p < 0.001). Outcomes included post-discharge 90-day unscheduled office visits, emergency room (ER) visits, complications, readmissions, and PROMs (HOOS JR, and VR-12 mental/physical). Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests were used for group comparisons. RESULTS: Rates of 90-day unscheduled outpatient visits (5.0% vs. 7.3%), ER visits (5.0% vs. 4.8%), hospital readmissions (4.0% vs. 2.8%), complications (0.04% vs. 0.03%), and 3-month PROMs were similar between cohorts. There was no 90-day mortality. INTERPRETATION: A reduction in LOS and increased telehealth use for office and rehabilitation visits did not adversely influence 90-day clinical outcomes and PROMs. Our findings lend further support for the utilization of fast-track arthroplasty with augmentation of postoperative care delivery using telemedicine.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aftercare , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies
3.
Dan Med J ; 69(6)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876980

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus outbreak causes postponement of elective surgery. We evaluated how pain, function and general health were impacted by postponing elective knee and hip arthroplasty in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis with no known surgery rescheduling date due to the coronavirus outbreak. METHODS: This study included 194 patients from a Danish public hospital with postponed elective primary knee or hip arthroplasty due to the lockdown. Patients responded to questionnaires when their surgery was cancelled and before surgery. Changes in pain and function were evaluated with the Oxford Knee and Hip Scores (OKS, OHS) and their general health with the EuroQol 5-dimension scale (EQ5D). Additionally, we asked about the patients' concerns and whether they felt improved, unchanged or deteriorated during the waiting period. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained for 110 (57%) patients, 59 and 51 awaiting knee or hip arthroplasty (median age 71 years, 62% were female), respectively. Arthroplasty was postponed for a median (range) 98 (63-161) days. A total of 34% were concerned that the postponement would lead to a poorer outcome. Mean OKS and OHS differences were 0 (95% confidence interval (CI): -1-1) and -1 (95% CI: -2-0) from surgery cancellation to re-scheduled surgery. The mean EQ5D index difference was 0.0 (95% CI: 0.0-0.1) for both groups. A total of 75 (68%) patients felt an important deterioration of their condition. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operatively, patients worried about experiencing an altered treatment outcome due to postponed surgery and felt that their condition had deteriorated during the waiting period although this was not reflected in patient-reported outcome measures. FUNDING: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Osteoarthritis, Hip , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Osteoarthritis, Hip/surgery , Pain , Patient Reported Outcome Measures
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e061373, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a behaviour change physiotherapy intervention to increase physical activity compared with usual rehabilitation after total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR). DESIGN: Multicentre, pragmatic, two-arm, open, randomised controlled, superiority trial. SETTING: National Health Service providers in nine English hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 224 individuals aged ≥18 years, undergoing a primary THR or TKR deemed 'moderately inactive' or 'inactive'. INTERVENTION: Participants received either six, 30 min, weekly, group-based exercise sessions (usual care) or the same six weekly, group-based, exercise sessions each preceded by a 30 min cognitive behaviour discussion group aimed at challenging barriers to physical inactivity following surgery (experimental). RANDOMISATION AND BLINDING: Initial 75 participants were randomised 1:1 before changing the allocation ratio to 2:1 (experimental:usual care). Allocation was based on minimisation, stratifying on comorbidities, operation type and hospital. There was no blinding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Activity Score at 12 months. Secondary: 6 and 12-month assessed function, pain, self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, psychological distress and quality of life. RESULTS: Of the 1254 participants assessed for eligibility, 224 were included (139 experimental: 85 usual care). Mean age was 68.4 years (SD: 8.7), 63% were women, 52% underwent TKR. There was no between-group difference in UCLA score (mean difference: -0.03 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.45, p=0.89)). There were no differences observed in any of the secondary outcomes at 6 or 12 months. There were no important adverse events in either group. The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the reduced intended sample size (target 260) and reduced intervention compliance. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to suggest attending usual care physiotherapy sessions plus a group-based behaviour change intervention differs to attending usual care physiotherapy alone. As the trial could not reach its intended sample size, nor a proportion of participants receive their intended rehabilitation, this should be interpreted with caution. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN29770908.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Physical Therapy Modalities , Quality of Life , State Medicine
5.
Medwave ; 22(4): e8731, 2022 May 12.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847604

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The need for beds and health personnel to treat coronavirus (COVID- 19) patients has led to the suspension of many elective sur-geries in Chile, including knee arthroplasties. This study aims to determine the incidence of knee arthroplasty in 2020, reflecting the effect of the COVID- 19 pandemic, and estimate the cost and time it would take to recover the waiting list prior to March 2020. Methods: A cross- sectional study was designed. We analyzed databases from The Department of Statistics and Health Information databases from Chile for 2019 and 2020, identifying patients with surgical discharges associated with knee arthroplasty codes. We estimated the time it would take to recover the surgeries unperformed in 2020 by simulating a monthly workload increase from the 2019 baseline. The costs of knee arthroplasty paid by the National Health Fund to institutions were estimated by diagnosis-related groups. Results: We found that the incidence rate of knee arthroplasty in 2020 decreased by 64% compared with 2019. The impact was higher in the public system (68%) and the National Health Found (63%). A simulated increase in knee arthroplasty productivity by 30% would allow recovering the postponed knee arthroplasty surgeries in 27 months, at a monthly cost to the public system of 318 million Chilean pesos (378 thousand US dollars). Conclusions: The incidence rate of knee arthroplasty during 2020 decreased by 64%, revealing the extensive waiting line for people with knee osteoarthritis. An increase between 20- 40% in productivity compared with 2019 would allow recovering the unperformed surgeries in 20 to 41 months, at a monthly cost to the public network between 210 and 425 million Chilean pesos (250 to 506 thousand US dollars).


Introducción: Debido a la respuesta de los servicios de salud a la pandemia por COVID- 19, se han suspendido cirugías electivas como la artroplastía de rodilla. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la incidencia de artroplastías de rodilla en 2020 reflejando el efecto de la pandemia, y estimar el tiempo y el costo para recuperar la situación de lista de espera previa a marzo de 2020. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Se analizaron las bases de datos del Departamento de Estadística e Información en Salud de Chile de 2019 y 2020, identificando pacientes asociados a códigos de artroplastía de rodilla. Se calculó el número mensual de artroplastias realizadas durante 2019 para estimar el tiempo que tomará recuperar las cirugías no realizadas en 2020. El costo asociado a artroplastía de rodilla se hizo según el método de pago utilizado por el Fondo Nacional de Salud estimado por grupos relacionados por diagnóstico. Resultados: En 2020 la tasa de incidencia de artroplastía de rodilla por 100 000 habitantes disminuyó 64% comparado con 2019. El impacto fue mayor en el sistema público (68%) y en beneficiarios del Fondo Nacional de Salud (63%). Un aumento en la productividad en 30% respecto a 2019 haría que en 27 meses se recuperen las cirugías no realizadas en 2020, significando un costo adicional mensual en el sistema público de 318 262 530 pesos chilenos (equivalentes a 378 mil dólares americanos, USD). Conclusiones: Hubo una importante disminución de la tasa de artroplastías de rodilla en 2020, estimándose una caída del 64% en la incidencia por 100 000 habitantes. Esto muestra un incremento importante de personas que esperan la resolución a la artrosis de rodilla. Un aumento entre 20 y 40% respecto de 2019 permitiría recuperar las cirugías no realizadas en un plazo entre 20 y 41 meses, a un costo mensual en el sistema público que varía entre 210 y 425 millones pesos chilenos (de 250 a 506 mil dólares americanos, USD).


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Registries
6.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(2): 385-396, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821173

ABSTRACT

This narrative review highlights the prevalence of osteoarthritis as a chronic disease that directly contributes to the ever-growing health care expenditure to treat this condition. The increasing demand of total joint arthroplasty globally is explained in conjunction with the importance of understanding candidate suitability for arthroplasty surgery in order to maximize surgical outcomes and self-reported patient satisfaction after the surgery. Rehabilitation care following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty, particularly the inappropriate use of inpatient rehabilitation service, is also explained, in addition to the enhanced recovery after surgery.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Osteoarthritis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/rehabilitation , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/rehabilitation , Humans , Motivation , Osteoarthritis/surgery , Patient Satisfaction
7.
Orthopade ; 51(5): 385-394, 2022 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802653

ABSTRACT

No appeal by a health politician, no matter how insistent, has ever forced all the operational structures of our health-care system to examine their own efficiencies and cost reduction potentials as has SARS-CoV­2. Fast-track surgery, developed long before the current pandemic, can become an indispensable element of modern hospital routines through the integration of interlocked care structures. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcome can be improved by significantly shortening hospital stays, decreasing complication rates, and by additionally strengthening the competence and motivation of the patients involved. Hospital staff could be relieved of heavy workloads, and overall costs could be reduced by involving external prehabilitation centers. It is now necessary to further develop standards for the establishment and implementation of appropriately coordinated prehabilitation and rehabilitation concepts for elective total hip and knee replacement surgery and, ideally, to save resources at the same time through regional networking and integration.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/rehabilitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Outpatients , Preoperative Exercise , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7): 1253-1259, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty who are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive at the time of surgery have a high risk of mortality. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Care Excellence and the British Orthopaedic Association advise self-isolation for 14 days preoperatively in patients at a high risk of adverse outcomes due to COVID-19. The aim of the study is to assess whether preoperative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 could be performed at between 48 and 72 hours preoperatively with specific advice about minimizing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 restricted to between PCR and admission. METHODS: A multicentre, international, observational cohort study of 1,000 lower limb arthroplasty cases was performed. The dual primary outcomes were 30-day conversion to SARS-CoV-2 positive and 30-day SARS-CoV-2 mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-day SARS-CoV-2 morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 1,000 cases, 935 (94%) had a PCR between 48 and 72 hours preoperatively. All cases were admitted to and had surgery through a COVID-free pathway. Primary knee arthroplasty was performed in 41% of cases, primary hip arthroplasty in 40%, revision knee arthroplasty in 11%, and revision hip arthroplasty in 9%. Six percent of operations were emergency operations. No cases of SARS-CoV-2 were identified within the first 30 days. CONCLUSION: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test between 48 and 72 hours preoperatively with advice about minimizing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 restricted to between PCR and admission in conjunction with a COVID-free pathway is safe for patients undergoing primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty. Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test alone may be safe but further adequately powered studies are required. This information is important for shared decision making with patients during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(8S): S814-S818.e2, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although telemedicine visits were essential and adopted by providers and patients alike, few studies have been conducted evaluating orthopedic patient perception of the care delivered during these visits. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated specific factors that affected patient satisfaction with telemedicine and the receptiveness to continue virtual visits post COVID-19 in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients. Thus, the purposes of our study are to determine the following: (1) patient satisfaction with using TJA telemedicine services, (2) whether patient characteristics might be associated with satisfaction, and (3) whether virtual clinic visits may be used post-COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional survey study was completed by 126 TJA patients who participated in telemedicine visits with TJA surgeons from May 1, 2020 to August 31, 2020. The survey consisted of questions regarding demographics, satisfaction, and telemedicine experiences. RESULTS: One hundred one (80.2%) patients were satisfied with their telemedicine visit, with patients <80 years old (P = .008) and those with a longer commute time (P = .01) being more satisfied P = .01. There was a significant preference for in-person visits when meeting arthroplasty surgeons for the first time (P < .001), but patients were equally amenable to follow-up telemedicine visits once there was an established relationship with the surgeon. CONCLUSION: Younger patients, patients with longer commute distances, and patients who had established relationships with their provider expressed higher satisfaction with telemedicine arthroplasty visits. Although >80% of patients were satisfied with their telemedicine visit, an established patient-provider relationship may be integral to the success of an arthroplasty telemedicine practice.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 825408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776025

ABSTRACT

Objective: During total knee arthroplasty (TKA), tourniquet may negatively impact post-operative functional recovery. This study aimed at investigating the effects of tourniquet on pain and return to function. Methods: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 15th, 2020. Search terms included; total knee arthroplasty, tourniquet, and randomized controlled trial. RCTs evaluating the efficacies of tourniquet during and after operation were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Effect estimates with 95% CIs were pooled using the random-effects model. Dichotomous data were calculated as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean differences (MD) with 95% CI were used to measure the impact of consecutive results. Primary outcomes were the range of motion (ROM) and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Results: Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 2,393 patients were included in this study. The mean age is 65.58 years old. Compared to no tourniquet group, the use of a tourniquet resulted in suppressed ROM on the 3rd post-operative day [MD, -4.67; (95% CI, -8.00 to -1.35)] and the 1st post-operative month [MD, -3.18; (95% CI, -5.92 to -0.44)]. Pain increased significantly when using tourniquets on the third day after surgery [MD, 0.39; (95% CI, -0.19 to 0.59)]. Moreover, tourniquets can reduce intra-operative blood loss [MD, -127.67; (95% CI, -186.83 to -68.50)], shorter operation time [MD, -3.73; (95% CI, -5.98 to -1.48)], lower transfusion rate [RR, 0.85; (95% CI, 0.73-1.00)], higher superficial wound infection rates RR, 2.43; [(5% CI, 1.04-5.67)] and higher all complication rates [RR, 1.98; (95% CI, 1.22-3.22)]. Conclusion: Moderate certainty evidence shows that the use of a tourniquet was associated with an increased risk of higher superficial wound infection rates and all complication rates. Therefore, the findings did not support the routine use of a tourniquet during TKA.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Pain, Postoperative , Tourniquets , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Humans , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Range of Motion, Articular , Tourniquets/adverse effects
11.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(8): 1640-1644.e2, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 created unprecedented challenges in surgical training especially in specialties with high elective case volume. We hypothesized that case volume during total joint arthroplasty fellowship training would decrease by 25% given widespread economic shutdowns encountered during the fourth quarter of the 2019-2020 academic year. METHODS: Case logs from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were obtained for accredited total joint arthroplasty fellowships (2017-2018 to 2020-2021). Case volumes were extracted and summarized as means ± SD. Student's t tests were used for inter-year comparisons. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty three arthroplasty fellows from 24 accredited fellowships were included. There was a 14% year-over-year decrease in total case volume during the 2019-2020 academic year (390 ± 108 vs 453 ± 128, P < .001). Case volume rebounded during the 2020-2021 academic year to 465 ± 93 (19% increase, P < .001). Case categories with the most significant percentage declines in 2019-2020 were primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA, -23%), revision total hip arthroplasty (THA, -19%), revision TKA (rTKA, -11%), and primary THA (-10%). CONCLUSION: There was a 14% overall decrease in arthroplasty case volume during the 2019-2020 academic year, which correlated with the widespread economic shutdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain elective case categories like primary TKA experienced the greatest negative impact. Results from this study may inform prospective trainees and faculty during future national emergencies.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
12.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(6S): S297-S300, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Airborne biologic particles (ABPs) can be measured intraoperatively to evaluate operating room (OR) sterility. Particulate matter (PM) up to 2.5 microns can contain microbial species which may increase infection risk. Our study examines the differences in air quality and ABP count in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and revision TKA (rTKA). METHODS: We analyzed primary and rTKAs in a single OR at an academic institution from January 2020 to December 2020. Procedures from March 15, 2020, to May 4, 2020, were excluded to avoid COVID-related confounding. Temperature, humidity, and ABP count per minute were recorded with a particle counter intraoperatively and cross-referenced with surgical data from the electronic health records using procedure start and end times. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the differences in variables. P values were calculated using t-test and chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 107 TKA cases were included: 79 (73.8%) primary TKAs and 28 (26.2%) rTKAs. Time spent in an OR was significantly higher for rTKAs (primary: 176 ± 46.7 minutes vs revision: 220 ± 47.1 minutes, P < .0001). Compared to primary TKAs, rTKAs had significant percent increases in ABP rates for particles measuring 0.3 µm (+70.4%, P < .001), 0.5 µm (+97.2%, P < .0001), 1.0 µm (+53.2%, P = .001), and 2.5 µm (+30.3%, P = .017) and for PM 2.5 (+108.3%, P < .001) and PM 5.0 (+105.6%, P < .001). CONCLUSION: rTKAs had significantly longer time spent in an OR and significant percent increases in ABP rates for particles measuring 0.3 µm, 0.5 µm, and 1.0 µm compared to primary TKAs. Measurements of PM 2.5 and 5.0 (which can contain large numbers of microbes) were also significantly greater in rTKAs. Further research is needed to determine whether the size and quantity of ABPs translate to higher infection rates after rTKA.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Knee Prosthesis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Humans , Operating Rooms , Particulate Matter , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(6S): S350-S354, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, there has been a marked rise in the use of telemedicine to evaluate patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of our study was to assess a novel stem with an embedded sensor that can remotely and objectively monitor a patient's mobility after TKA. METHODS: A single anatomically designed knee system was implanted in concert with an interconnected tibial stem extension containing 3D accelerometers, 3D gyroscopes, a power source, and a telemetry transmission capability in 3 cadaveric pelvis to toe specimens. The legs were moved by hand to preset tibial positions at full knee extension, midflexion, flexion, and back to midflexion and extension for a total of 16 trials across 6 knees. RESULTS: Sensor data were successfully transmitted with good quality of signal to an external base station. Good correlation to the range of motion of the tibia was found (mean error 0.1 degrees; root mean square error 3.8 degrees). The signal from the heel drop tests suggests the sensor could detect heel strike during activities of daily living in vivo and the potential for additional signal processing to analyze vibratory and motion patterns detected by the sensors. A frequency domain analysis of a properly cemented and poorly cemented implant during the heel drop test suggests a difference in accelerometer signal in these implant states. CONCLUSION: The results confirm signals generated from an embedded TKA sensor can transmit through bone and cement, providing accurate range of motion data and may be capable of detecting changes in prosthesis fixation remotely.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Knee Prosthesis , Activities of Daily Living , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Biomechanical Phenomena , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cadaver , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Knee Joint/surgery , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pandemics , Range of Motion, Articular , Tibia/surgery
14.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(13): e56, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite known surgical volume reductions in 2020 during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, no study has fully quantified the impact of the pandemic on the number of elective inpatient total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) cases. The purpose of the present study was to analyze THA and TKA case volumes in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The Premier Healthcare Database was utilized to identify adults undergoing primary elective THA or TKA from January 2017 to December 2020. The National Inpatient Sample was cross-referenced to provide nationwide representative sampling weights. Patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty (TJA) or non-elective surgery were excluded. Two quantitative models were created from both databases to estimate TJA case volume in 2020. Descriptive statistics were utilized to report monthly changes in elective TJA utilization throughout 2020. Univariate analyses were performed to compare differences between subgroups. RESULTS: From 2017 to 2019, it was estimated that 1,006,000 elective inpatient TJAs (64.2% TKA and 35.8% THA) were performed annually. In 2020, an estimated 526,000 to 538,000 cases (62.0% TKA and 38.0% THA) were performed, representing a 46.5% to 47.7% decrease in nationwide volume from the prior 3-year average. Moreover, the elective TJA case volume for April 2020 was 1.9% of the average for that month from 2017 through 2019. Subsequently, case volumes for May and June increased compared with the volumes for those months from 2017 through 2019. There was then a decrease in cases for July, corresponding with the "second wave" of COVID-19, followed by an additional steady monthly decline through December, corresponding with the "third wave." Finally, the elective TJA cases for December 2020 represented only 41.0% of the average case volume for that month from 2017 through 2019. CONCLUSIONS: In the midst of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, approximately 526,000 to 538,000 elective inpatient TJA cases were performed, representing a 46.5% to 47.7% decrease compared with the 3 previous years. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic persisted through the end of that year, with decreased case volume through December 2020.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e060000, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than 1 million elective total hip and knee replacements are performed annually in the USA with 2% risk of clinical pulmonary embolism (PE), 0.1%-0.5% fatal PE, and over 1000 deaths. Antithrombotic prophylaxis is standard of care but evidence is limited and conflicting. We will compare effectiveness of three commonly used chemoprophylaxis agents to prevent all-cause mortality (ACM) and clinical venous thromboembolism (VTE) while avoiding bleeding complications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention after HiP and KneE Replacement is a large randomised pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial with non-inferiority design and target enrolment of 20 000 patients comparing aspirin (81 mg two times a day), low-intensity warfarin (INR (International Normalized Ratio) target 1.7-2.2) and rivaroxaban (10 mg/day). The primary effectiveness outcome is aggregate of VTE and ACM, primary safety outcome is clinical bleeding complications, and patient-reported outcomes are determined at 1, 3 and 6 months. Primary data analysis is per protocol, as preferred for non-inferiority trials, with secondary analyses adherent to intention-to-treat principles. All non-fatal outcomes are captured from patient and clinical reports with independent blinded adjudication. Study design and oversight are by a multidisciplinary stakeholder team including a 10-patient advisory board. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Institutional Review Board of the Medical University of South Carolina provides central regulatory oversight. Patients aged 21 or older undergoing primary or revision hip or knee replacement are block randomised by site and procedure; those on chronic anticoagulation are excluded. Recruitment commenced at 30 North American centres in December 2016. Enrolment currently exceeds 13 500 patients, representing 33% of those eligible at participating sites, and is projected to conclude in July 2024; COVID-19 may force an extension. Results will inform antithrombotic choice by patients and other stakeholders for various risk cohorts, and will be disseminated through academic publications, meeting presentations and communications to advocacy groups and patient participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02810704.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
16.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7): 1227-1232, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elective arthroplasty surgery in the United States came to a near-complete halt in the spring of 2019 as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Racial disparity has been a long-term concern in healthcare with increased focus during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 and race on arthroplasty utilization trends during the pandemic. METHODS: We used 2019 and 2020 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service fee-for-service claims data to compare arthroplasty volumes prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared overall arthroplasty utilization rates between 2019 and 2020 and then sought to determine the effect of race and COVID-19, both independently and combined. RESULTS: There was a decrease in primary total knee arthroplasty (-28%), primary total hip arthroplasty (-14%), primary total hip arthroplasty for fracture (-2%), and revision arthroplasty (-14%) utilization between 2019 and 2020. The highest decrease in overall arthroplasty utilization was in the Hispanic population (34% decrease vs 19% decrease in the White population). We found that a non-White patient was 39.9% (P < .001) less likely to receive a total joint arthroplasty prior to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the pre-existing racial differences in arthroplasty utilization by decreasing the probability of receiving a total joint arthroplasty for non-White patient by another 12.9% (P < .001). CONCLUSION: We found an overall decreased utilization rate of arthroplasty during the COVID-19 pandemic with further decrease noted in all non-White populations. This raises significant concern for worsening racial disparity in arthroplasty caused by the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(8S): S716-S720, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The two-year minimum follow-up after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) required by most academic journals is based on implant survivorship studies rather than patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic placed an unprecedented burden on patients and staff and halted asymptomatic surveillance clinic visits to minimize exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically meaningful differences were observed in PROMs beyond one year after TKA. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on prospectively collected PROMs after 1093 primary TKAs at a suburban academic center. PROMs related to pain, function, activity level, and satisfaction were compared by subsequent follow-up intervals preoperatively, at 4 months, 1 year, and minimum 2 years using paired data analysis techniques. RESULTS: Pain with level walking and while climbing stairs improved from preoperative levels to 4-month, 1-year, and minimum 2-year follow-up. The University of California Los Angeles activity level and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement improved over the same intervals. Patient satisfaction improved over postoperative follow-up intervals (84.0%, 87.3%, and 90.9%). While PROMs improved with statistical and clinical significance preoperatively to 4-month to 1-year follow-up, improvements from 1-year to minimum 2-year follow-up were small and did not reach minimum clinically important differences for nearly all PROMs, demonstrating significant overlap of the 95% confidence intervals. CONCLUSION: While long-term follow-up after TKA remains important for implant survivorship, it appears that one-year PROMs are as clinically reliable and meaningful as two-year PROMs. Therefore, it is reasonable to question the currently accepted 2-year minimum follow-up requirement used in peer-reviewed research involving PROMs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Awards and Prizes , COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Humans , Knee Joint/surgery , Osteoarthritis, Knee/surgery , Pain/surgery , Pandemics , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Treatment Outcome
18.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 56(1): 14-19, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the evolution of patients admitted for elective orthopaedic surgery during the immediate post-COVID-19 peak of the pandemic. METHODS: This is a multi-center, observational study conducted in 8 high complexity hospitals of Catalonia, one of the highest COVID-19 incidence areas in Spain. We included patients ≥18 years of age undergoing elective surgery (total knee or hip arthroplasty, knee or hip revision arthroplasty, shoulder or knee arthroscopy, hand or wrist surgery, forefoot surgery, or hardware removal) after the COVID-19 peak (between May 5th and June 30th, 2020). The main exclusion criterion was a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 PCR within the 7 days before the surgery. The primary outcomes were postoperative complications within 60 days (+/-30) or hospital readmission due to a COVID-19 infection. Following the recommendations of the International Consensus Group (ICM), elective surgeries were re-started when the nationwide lockdown was lifted. Before the surgery, patients were contacted by phone to rule out any exposure to confirmed COVID-19 cases, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed in all patients 48-72 hours before hospital admission, and they were asked to maintain home confinement until the day of the surgery. RESULTS: 675 patients were included: 189 patients in the arthroplasty group (28%) and 486 in the ambulatory surgery group (72%). Mean [SD] age was 57.6 [15.3] years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index score was 2.21 (SD = 2.01, Min = 0, Max = 13). A total of 84 patients (12.75%) obtained an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥ 3, showing no association between the ASA score and the risk of developing COVID-19 symptoms at follow-up (χ 2 (4) = 0.77, P = 0.94). The mean occupation rate of hospital beds for COVID-19 patients was 13% and the mean occupation rate of critical care beds for COVID-19 patients was 27% at the time of re-introducing elective surgeries. These were important rates to consider to decide when to reintroduce elective surgeries after lockdown. Surgical time, time of ischemia and intra-operative bleeding were not related with a higher risk of developing COVID-19 post-operatively (χ 2 (1) = 0.00, P = 0.98); (χ 2 (2) = 2.05, P = 0.36); (χ 2 (2) = 0.37, P = 0.83). Only 2 patients (0.3 %) presented with a suspected COVID-19 infection at follow-up. None of them presented with pneumonia or required confirmation by a reverse transcription PCR assay. Hospital re-admission was not needed for these patients. CONCLUSION: The risk of developing COVID-19 during the immediate post-COVID-19 peak in a region with a high incidence of COVID-19 has not been proved. These data suggest that elective orthopaedic surgeries can be resumed when assertive and strict protocols are followed.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7S): S457-S464, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of a postoperative diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) remains unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of COVID-19 infection following TJA on perioperative complication rates. METHODS: The Mariner database was queried for patients undergoing total hip and total knee arthroplasty from January 2018 to April 2020. TJA patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 within 90 days postoperatively were matched in a 1:3 fashion based on age, gender, iron deficiency anemia, payer status, and Charlson Comorbidity Index with patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. Preoperative comorbidity profiles and complications within 3 months of surgery were compared. Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression with outcomes considered significant at P < .05. RESULTS: Of the 239 COVID-19 positive patients, 132 (55.2%) underwent total hip arthroplasty. On multivariate analysis, COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with increased odds of deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10-11.81, P < .001), pulmonary embolism (OR 6.27, 95% CI 2.57-16.71, P < .001), and all complications (OR 3.36, 95% CI 2.47-4.59, P < .001). Incidence of deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism was greater the closer in time the COVID-19 diagnosis was to the surgical procedure (10.24 times at 1 month, 7.87 times at 2 months, and 1.42 times at 3 months; P < .001). A similar relationship was observed with all complications. CONCLUSION: Postoperative COVID-19 infection is associated with higher rates of cardiopulmonary complications, thromboembolic disease, renal injury, and urinary tract infections in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. COVID-19 infection earlier in the postoperative period is associated with a higher risk of complications.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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