Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
AAPS J ; 24(1): 19, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605878

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have become the breakthrough technology most anticipated to have a transformative effect on pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). This is partially driven by revolutionary advances in computational technology and the parallel dissipation of previous constraints to the collection/processing of large volumes of data. Meanwhile, the cost of bringing new drugs to market and to patients has become prohibitively expensive. Recognizing these headwinds, AI/ML techniques are appealing to the pharmaceutical industry due to their automated nature, predictive capabilities, and the consequent expected increase in efficiency. ML approaches have been used in drug discovery over the past 15-20 years with increasing sophistication. The most recent aspect of drug development where positive disruption from AI/ML is starting to occur, is in clinical trial design, conduct, and analysis. The COVID-19 pandemic may further accelerate utilization of AI/ML in clinical trials due to an increased reliance on digital technology in clinical trial conduct. As we move towards a world where there is a growing integration of AI/ML into R&D, it is critical to get past the related buzz-words and noise. It is equally important to recognize that the scientific method is not obsolete when making inferences about data. Doing so will help in separating hope from hype and lead to informed decision-making on the optimal use of AI/ML in drug development. This manuscript aims to demystify key concepts, present use-cases and finally offer insights and a balanced view on the optimal use of AI/ML methods in R&D.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computational Biology , Drug Development , Machine Learning , Pharmaceutical Research , Research Design , Animals , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Computational Biology/trends , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Development/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Machine Learning/trends , Pharmaceutical Research/trends , Research Design/trends
4.
Per Med ; 18(6): 573-582, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456228

ABSTRACT

Advancing frontiers of clinical research, we discuss the need for intelligent health systems to support a deeper investigation of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the convergence of the healthcare data and staggering developments in artificial intelligence have the potential to elevate the recovery process with diagnostic and predictive analysis to identify major causes of mortality, modifiable risk factors and actionable information that supports the early detection and prevention of COVID-19. However, current constraints include the recruitment of COVID-19 patients for research; translational integration of electronic health records and diversified public datasets; and the development of artificial intelligence systems for data-intensive computational modeling to assist clinical decision making. We propose a novel nexus of machine learning algorithms to examine COVID-19 data granularity from population studies to subgroups stratification and ensure best modeling strategies within the data continuum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Precision Medicine/methods , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Data Analysis , Data Science/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e383-e396, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221078

ABSTRACT

Health information technology can support the development of national learning health and care systems, which can be defined as health and care systems that continuously use data-enabled infrastructure to support policy and planning, public health, and personalisation of care. The COVID-19 pandemic has offered an opportunity to assess how well equipped the UK is to leverage health information technology and apply the principles of a national learning health and care system in response to a major public health shock. With the experience acquired during the pandemic, each country within the UK should now re-evaluate their digital health and care strategies. After leaving the EU, UK countries now need to decide to what extent they wish to engage with European efforts to promote interoperability between electronic health records. Major priorities for strengthening health information technology in the UK include achieving the optimal balance between top-down and bottom-up implementation, improving usability and interoperability, developing capacity for handling, processing, and analysing data, addressing privacy and security concerns, and encouraging digital inclusivity. Current and future opportunities include integrating electronic health records across health and care providers, investing in health data science research, generating real-world data, developing artificial intelligence and robotics, and facilitating public-private partnerships. Many ethical challenges and unintended consequences of implementation of health information technology exist. To address these, there is a need to develop regulatory frameworks for the development, management, and procurement of artificial intelligence and health information technology systems, create public-private partnerships, and ethically and safely apply artificial intelligence in the National Health Service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Learning Health System , Medical Informatics , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Contact Tracing/methods , Health Information Interoperability , Humans , Mobile Applications , Population Surveillance/methods , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Robotics/trends , Systems Integration , United Kingdom
6.
Pharmacology ; 106(5-6): 244-253, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206096

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to one of the most critical and boundless waves of publications in the history of modern science. The necessity to find and pursue relevant information and quantify its quality is broadly acknowledged. Modern information retrieval techniques combined with artificial intelligence (AI) appear as one of the key strategies for COVID-19 living evidence management. Nevertheless, most AI projects that retrieve COVID-19 literature still require manual tasks. METHODS: In this context, we pre-sent a novel, automated search platform, called Risklick AI, which aims to automatically gather COVID-19 scientific evidence and enables scientists, policy makers, and healthcare professionals to find the most relevant information tailored to their question of interest in real time. RESULTS: Here, we compare the capacity of Risklick AI to find COVID-19-related clinical trials and scientific publications in comparison with clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed in the field of pharmacology and clinical intervention. DISCUSSION: The results demonstrate that Risklick AI is able to find COVID-19 references more effectively, both in terms of precision and recall, compared to the baseline platforms. Hence, Risklick AI could become a useful alternative assistant to scientists fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/trends , COVID-19/therapy , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Drug Development/trends , Evidence-Based Medicine/trends , Pharmacology/trends , Artificial Intelligence/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Drug Development/statistics & numerical data , Evidence-Based Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pharmacology/statistics & numerical data , Registries
7.
OMICS ; 25(4): 249-254, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165315

ABSTRACT

Digital health is a rapidly emerging field that offers several promising potentials: health care delivery remotely, in urban and rural areas, in any time zone, and in times of pandemics and ecological crises. Digital health encompasses electronic health, computing science, big data, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things, to name but a few technical components. Digital health is part of a vision for systems medicine. The advances in digital health have been, however, uneven and highly variable across communities, countries, medical specialties, and societal contexts. This article critically examines the determinants of digital health (DDH). DDH describes and critically responds to inequities and differences in digital health theory and practice across people, places, spaces, and time. DDH is not limited to studying variability in design and access to digital technologies. DDH is situated within a larger context of the political determinants of health. Hence, this article presents an analysis of DDH, as seen through political science, and the feminist studies of technology and society. A feminist lens would strengthen systems-driven, historically and critically informed governance for DDH. This would be a timely antidote against unchecked destructive/extractive governance narratives (e.g., technocracy and patriarchy) that produce and reproduce the health inequities. Moreover, feminist framing of DDH can help cultivate epistemic competence to detect and reject false equivalences in how we understand the emerging digital world(s). False equivalence, very common in the current pandemic and post-truth era, is a type of flawed reasoning in decision-making where equal weight is given to arguments with concrete material evidence, and those that are conjecture, untrue, or unjust. A feminist conceptual lens on DDH would help remedy what I refer to in this article as "the normative deficits" in science and technology policy that became endemic with the rise of neoliberal governance since the 1980s in particular. In this context, it is helpful to recall the feminist writer Ursula K. Le Guin. Le Guin posed "what if?" questions, to break free from oppressive narratives such as patriarchy and re-imagine technology futures. It is time to envision an emancipated, equitable, and more democratic world by asking "what if we lived in a feminist world?" That would be truly awesome, for everyone, women and men, children, youth, and future generations, to steer digital technologies and the new field of DDH toward broadly relevant, ethical, experiential, democratic, and socially responsive health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Digital Technology/organization & administration , Feminism , Healthcare Disparities/ethics , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Big Data , Delivery of Health Care/ethics , Female , Humans , Politics , Public Health/trends
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(2): 1120, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153607

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020 and has affected a growing number of people in the past few months. In this context, advanced artificial intelligence techniques are brought to the forefront as a response to the ongoing fight toward reducing the impact of this global health crisis. In this study, potential use-cases of intelligent speech analysis for COVID-19 identification are being developed. By analyzing speech recordings from COVID-19 positive and negative patients, we constructed audio- and symptomatic-based models to automatically categorize the health state of patients, whether they are COVID-19 positive or not. For this purpose, many acoustic features were established, and various machine learning algorithms are being utilized. Experiments show that an average accuracy of 80% was obtained estimating COVID-19 positive or negative, derived from multiple cough and vowel /a/ recordings, and an average accuracy of 83% was obtained estimating COVID-19 positive or negative patients by evaluating six symptomatic questions. We hope that this study can foster an extremely fast, low-cost, and convenient way to automatically detect the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Cues , Surveys and Questionnaires , Voice/physiology , Artificial Intelligence/trends , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Cough/physiopathology , Cough/psychology , Humans
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1631-1636, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With no approved vaccines for treating COVID-19 as of August 2020, many health systems and governments rely on contact tracing as one of the prevention and containment methods. However, there have been instances when the infected person forgets his/her contact-persons and does not have their contact details. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing possible opportunities and challenges of integrating emerging technologies into COVID-19 contact tracing. METHODS: The study applied literature search from Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, IEEE and WHO COVID-19 reports and guidelines analyzed. RESULTS: While the integration of technology-based contact tracing applications to combat COVID-19 and break transmission chains promise to yield better results, these technologies face challenges such as technical limitations, dealing with asymptomatic individuals, lack of supporting ICT infrastructure and electronic health policy, socio-economic inequalities, deactivation of mobile devices' WIFI, GPS services, interoperability and standardization issues, security risks, privacy issues, political and structural responses, ethical and legal risks, consent and voluntariness, abuse of contact tracing apps, and discrimination. CONCLUSION: Integrating emerging technologies into COVID-19 contact tracing is seen as a viable option that policymakers, health practitioners and IT technocrats need to seriously consider in mitigating the spread of coronavirus. Further research is also required on how best to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the utilisation of emerging technologies in contact tracing while observing the security and privacy of people in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/trends , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Biomedical Technology/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Contact Tracing/methods , Geographic Information Systems/trends , Humans
12.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 99(2): 168-176, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751690

ABSTRACT

Big data has become a central part of medical research, as well as modern life generally. "Omics" technologies include genomics, proteomics, microbiomics and increasingly other omics. These have been driven by rapid advances in laboratory techniques and equipment. Crucially, improved information handling capabilities have allowed concepts such as artificial intelligence and machine learning to enter the research world. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown how quickly information can be generated and analyzed using such approaches, but also showed its limitations. This review will look at how "omics" has begun to be translated into clinical practice. While there appears almost limitless potential in using big data for "precision" or "personalized" medicine, the reality is that this remains largely aspirational. Oncology is the only field of medicine that is widely adopting such technologies, and even in this field uptake is irregular. There are practical and ethical reasons for this lack of translation of increasingly affordable techniques into the clinic. Undoubtedly, there will be increasing use of large data sets from traditional (e.g. tumor samples, patient genomics) and nontraditional (e.g. smartphone) sources. It is perhaps the greatest challenge of the health-care sector over the coming decade to integrate these resources in an effective, practical and ethical way.


Subject(s)
Genomics/trends , Metabolomics/trends , Precision Medicine/trends , /trends , Artificial Intelligence/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics/methods , Humans , Medical Oncology/methods , Medical Oncology/trends , Metabolomics/methods , Pandemics , Precision Medicine/methods , Proteomics/methods , Proteomics/trends , Time Factors , /methods
13.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 82: 100900, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745955

ABSTRACT

The simultaneous maturation of multiple digital and telecommunications technologies in 2020 has created an unprecedented opportunity for ophthalmology to adapt to new models of care using tele-health supported by digital innovations. These digital innovations include artificial intelligence (AI), 5th generation (5G) telecommunication networks and the Internet of Things (IoT), creating an inter-dependent ecosystem offering opportunities to develop new models of eye care addressing the challenges of COVID-19 and beyond. Ophthalmology has thrived in some of these areas partly due to its many image-based investigations. Tele-health and AI provide synchronous solutions to challenges facing ophthalmologists and healthcare providers worldwide. This article reviews how countries across the world have utilised these digital innovations to tackle diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, refractive error correction, cataract and other anterior segment disorders. The review summarises the digital strategies that countries are developing and discusses technologies that may increasingly enter the clinical workflow and processes of ophthalmologists. Furthermore as countries around the world have initiated a series of escalating containment and mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the delivery of eye care services globally has been significantly impacted. As ophthalmic services adapt and form a "new normal", the rapid adoption of some of telehealth and digital innovation during the pandemic is also discussed. Finally, challenges for validation and clinical implementation are considered, as well as recommendations on future directions.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/trends , Digital Technology/methods , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/therapy , Ophthalmology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Global Health , Humans , Inventions , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Med Image Anal ; 66: 101800, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720644

ABSTRACT

In this position paper, we provide a collection of views on the role of AI in the COVID-19 pandemic, from clinical requirements to the design of AI-based systems, to the translation of the developed tools to the clinic. We highlight key factors in designing system solutions - per specific task; as well as design issues in managing the disease at the national level. We focus on three specific use-cases for which AI systems can be built: early disease detection, management in a hospital setting, and building patient-specific predictive models that require the combination of imaging with additional clinical data. Infrastructure considerations and population modeling in two European countries will be described. This pandemic has made the practical and scientific challenges of making AI solutions very explicit. A discussion concludes this paper, with a list of challenges facing the community in the AI road ahead.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/trends , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(5): 447-453, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659298

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight artificial intelligence applications in ophthalmology during the COVID-19 pandemic that can be used to: describe ocular findings and changes correlated with COVID-19; extract information from scholarly articles on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 specific to ophthalmology; and implement efficient patient triage and telemedicine care. RECENT FINDINGS: Ophthalmology has been leading in artificial intelligence and technology applications. With medical imaging analysis, pixel-annotated distinguishable features on COVID-19 patients may help with noninvasive diagnosis and severity outcome predictions. Using natural language processing (NLP) and data integration methods, topic modeling on more than 200 ophthalmology-related articles on COVID-19 can summarize ocular manifestations, viral transmission, treatment strategies, and patient care and practice management. Artificial intelligence for telemedicine applications can address the high demand, prioritize and triage patients, as well as improve at home-monitoring devices and secure data transfers. SUMMARY: COVID-19 is significantly impacting the way we are delivering healthcare. Given the already successful implementation of artificial intelligence applications and telemedicine in ophthalmology, we expect that these systems will be embraced more as tools for research, education, and patient care.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/trends , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Ophthalmology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/trends
16.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(3): 2-6, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607664

ABSTRACT

An estimated 792 million people live with mental health disorders worldwide-more than one in ten people-and this number is expected to grow in the shadow of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Unfortunately, there aren't enough mental health professionals to treat all these people. Can artificial intelligence (AI) help? While many psychiatrists have different views on this question, recent developments suggest AI may change the practice of psychiatry for both clinicians and patients.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/trends , Psychiatry/trends , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychotherapy/methods , Psychotherapy/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL