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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875645

ABSTRACT

Actinidia latifolia is one of the very few kiwifruit genotypes with extremely high ascorbic acid (AsA) content. However, a transcriptome atlas of this species is lacking. The accumulation of AsA during fruit development and ripening and the associated molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Herein, dynamic changes in AsA content at six different stages of A. latifolia fruit development and ripening were determined. AsA content of A. latifolia fruit reached 1108.76 ± 35.26 mg 100 g-1 FW at full maturity. A high-quality, full-length (FL) transcriptome of A. latifolia was successfully constructed for the first time using third-generation sequencing technology. The transcriptome comprises 326,926 FL non-chimeric reads, 15,505 coding sequences, 2882 transcription factors, 18,797 simple sequence repeats, 3328 long noncoding RNAs, and 231 alternative splicing events. The genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways were identified and compared with those in different kiwifruit genotypes. The correlation between the AsA content and expression levels of key genes in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways was revealed. LncRNAs that participate in AsA-related gene expression regulation were also identified. Gene expression patterns in AsA biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited a trend similar to that of AsA accumulation. Overall, this study paves the way for genetic engineering to develop kiwifruits with super-high AsA content.


Subject(s)
Actinidia , Actinidia/genetics , Actinidia/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Fruit/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Transcriptome
2.
Libyan J Med ; 17(1): 2054111, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752028

ABSTRACT

Vitamins (Vit) C and D are widely used as immunogenic supplements among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. The SAR-CoV-2 virus enters into the pulmonary endothelial cells through attachment to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (Ace2) and the proteolytic activity of Cathepsin L (Ctsl) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (Tmprss2) enzymes. This study aimed to determine the influence of Vit C and D on the mRNA expression of Ace2, Tmprss2, and Ctsl genes in the mouse lungs. Vitamins C and D were administrated to different groups of mice through intra-peritoneal route in doses equivalent to human for 30 days. Then, the mRNA expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry gene was analyzed using qRT-PCR. It is found that Vit D, but not C, upregulated significantly (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of Ace2 by more than six folds, while downregulated the expression of Ctsl and Tmprss2 genes by 2.8 and 2.2 folds, respectively. It can be concluded from this study that Vit D alters the mRNA expression of Ace2, Tmprss, and Ctsl genes in the mouse lungs. This finding can help us in understanding, at least in part, the molecular influence of Vit D on genes involved in the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serine Proteases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Vitamins
3.
Virology ; 555: 10-18, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003121

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), turned out to be a global pandemic with unstoppable morbidity and mortality rate. However, till date there is no effective treatment found against SARS-CoV-2. We report on the major in-depth molecular and docking analysis by using antiretroviral (Lopinavir and ritonavir), antimalarial (Hydroxychloroquine), antibiotics (Azithromycin), and dietary supplements (Vitamin C and E) to provide new insight into drug repurposing molecular events involved in SARS-CoV-2. We constructed three drug-target-pathways-disease networks to predict the targets and drugs interactions as well as important pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2. The results suggested that by using the combination of Lopinavir, Ritonavir along with Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin C may turned out to be the effective line of treatment for SARS-CoV-2 as it shows the involvement of PARP-1, MAPK-8, EGFR, PRKCB, PTGS-2, and BCL-2. Gene ontology biological process analysis further confirmed multiple viral infection-related processes (P < 0.001), including viral life cycle, modulation by virus, C-C chemokine receptor activity, and platelet activation. KEGG pathway analysis involves multiple pathways (P < 0.05), including FoxO, GnRH, ErbB, Neurotrophin, Toll-like receptor, IL-17, TNF, Insulin, HIF-1, JAK-STAT, Estrogen, NF-kappa, Chemokine, VEGF, and Thyroid hormone signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2. Docking study was carried out to predict the molecular mechanism Thus, the potential drug combinations could reduce viral infectivity, viral replication, and abnormal host inflammatory responses and may be useful for multi-target drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Mapping , Protein Interaction Maps , Ritonavir/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242833, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967991

ABSTRACT

L-Ascorbic acid (ascorbate, Vitamin C) is an essential human micronutrient that is predominantly obtained from plants. It is known to work as the major antioxidant in plants, and it underpins several environmentally induced stresses due to its use as a co-factor by certain 2-oxoglutarate-dependent (2-OG) dioxygenases [2(OG)-dioxygenases]. It is important to understand the role of 2(OG)-dioxygenases in the biosynthesis of ascorbate. The present study examined contents of ascorbate and protein-protein interaction in nine T-DNA mutants of Arabidopsis containing an insert in their respective (2-OG) dioxygenase genes (At1g20270, At1g68080, At2g17720, At3g06290, At3g28490, At4g35810, At4g35820, At5g18900, At5g66060). In this study, the amount of ascorbate in five of the mutants was shown to be almost two-fold or more than two-fold higher than in the wild type. This result may be a consequence of the insertion of the T-DNA. The prediction of possible protein interactions between 2(OG)-dioxygenases and relevant ascorbate-function players may indicate the oxidative effects of certain dioxygenase proteins in plants. It is expected that certain dioxygenases are actively involved in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways of ascorbate. This involvement may be of importance to increase ascorbate amounts in plants for human nutrition, and to protect plant species against stress conditions.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Ketoglutaric Acids/metabolism , Arabidopsis/enzymology , Arabidopsis/genetics , Dioxygenases/genetics , Mutation , Protein Interaction Mapping
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