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1.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 480(5): 867-869, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840074
2.
Nature ; 604(7904): 21, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766964
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 753338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775946

ABSTRACT

Monitoring progress toward green economy has been a key policy focus globally. The purpose of our study is to assess Asian countries' green development performance and also the progress toward green economy overtime. To achieve this goal, we propose a green development index (GDI) to assess the level and ranking of green development for Asian countries, and then we measure the progress toward green economy by the method based on the compound annual growth rate (CAGR). The result shows that the northeast Asian countries together with Singapore and Israel are leaders in green development performance across Asia, but the most progress toward green economy has been achieved by some medium green development level countries, like China. Countries with the fastest movement away from green economy are some laggard countries with poor green development performance, such as Syria and Yemen. More generally, the leading countries have reached a high green development level, and the medium ones move fast toward green economy, whereas some laggards get worse. We also discuss the implications for public health in environmental protection, green consumption, and green production.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Asia , China , Conservation of Energy Resources , Humans
4.
Hypertens Res ; 45(4): 555-572, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773972

ABSTRACT

Despite the challenges associated with the coronavirus pandemic, the last 2 years have been active periods for hypertension research and initiatives in Asia. There are new hypertension guidelines from the World Health Organization that can be interpreted and applied locally. This is also the case for data from the latest Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis, which showed that greater reductions in systolic blood pressure (BP) are associated with lower risks of cardiovascular events. The randomized controlled Strategy of Blood Pressure Intervention in the Elderly Hypertensive study and the Salt Substitute and Stroke Study provide local data to inform practice. Other initiatives to help reduce high salt intake in Asia are also underway. Both drug-resistant and nocturnal hypertension are appropriate areas of focus in Asia, and there are an increasing number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for these conditions. Digital therapeutics to promote uptake and implementation of lifestyle interventions are showing promise, and other digital-based strategies such as telemedicine, wearable BP monitors to detect beat-by-beat BP and artificial intelligence will no doubt become integral parts of future strategies to reduce the burden of hypertension and hypertension-related disease. A number of initiatives from the Hypertension Cardiovascular Outcome Prevention and Evidence in Asia Network and Japanese Society of hypertension are underway, and there is good reason for optimism regarding the ongoing and future management of hypertension in Asia based on these and the active research activities in the region.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Aged , Artificial Intelligence , Asia/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy
6.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 863-867, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763253

ABSTRACT

With multiple virus epicenters, COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Consequently, many countries have implemented different policies to manage this crisis including curfew and lockdown. However, the efficacy of individual policies remains unclear with respect to COVID-19 case development. We analyzed available data on COVID-19 cases of eight majorly affected countries, including China, Italy, Iran, Germany, France, Spain, South Korea, and Japan. Growth rates and doubling time of cases were calculated for the first 6 weeks after the initial cases were declared for each respective country and put into context with implemented policies. Although the growth rate of total confirmed COVID-19 cases in China has decreased, those for Japan have remained constant. For European countries, the growth rate of COVID-19 cases considerably increased during the second time interval. Interestingly, the rates for Germany, Spain, and France are the highest measured in the second interval and even surpass the numbers in Italy. Although the initial data in Asian countries are encouraging with respect to case development at the initial stage, the opposite is true for European countries. Based on our data, disease management in the 2 weeks following the first reported cases is of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , World Health Organization
7.
8.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt B): 47-56, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to synthesize the extant literature reporting the effects of COVID-19 pandemic based on the pooled prevalence of depression among affected populations in Asia Pacific, as well as its risk factors. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis approach was adopted as per the PRISMA guidelines, targeting articles published in PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus from January 2021 to March 30, 2021. The screening resulted in 82 papers. RESULTS: The overall pooled depression prevalence among 201,953 respondents was 34% (95%CI, 29-38, 99.7%), with no significant differences observed between the cohorts, timelines, and regions (p > 0.05). Dominant risk factors found were fear of COVID-19 infection (13%), gender (i.e., females; 12%) and deterioration of underlying medical conditions (8.3%), regardless of the sub-groups. Specifically, fear of COVID-19 infection was the most reported risk factor among general population (k = 14) and healthcare workers (k = 8). Gender (k = 7) and increased workload (k = 7) were reported among healthcare workers whereas education disruption among students (k = 7). LIMITATION: The review is limited to articles published in three electronic databases. Conclusion The pandemic has caused depression among the populations across Asia Pacific, specifically among the general population, healthcare workers and students. Immediate attention and interventions from the concerned authorities are needed in addressing this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Asia/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 766, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to overwhelm the capacity of a vulnerable healthcare system in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). We aimed to evaluate the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the level of preparedness among HCWs in the oPt. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated online questionnaire distributed through convenient sampling between March 30, 2020 and April 12, 2020. Outcomes were availability of PPE, healthcare workers (HCWs) preparedness in oPt for COVID-19 pandemic, and regional and hospital differences in oPt in terms of availability of PPE and HCWs preparedness. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were used in this study. RESULTS: Of 138 respondents, only 38 HCWs (27.5%) always had access to facemasks and 15 (10.9%) always had access to isolation gowns. Most HCWs did not find eye protection (n = 128, 92.8%), N95 respirators (n = 132, 95.7%), and face shields (n = 127, 92%) always available. Compared to HCWs in West Bank, those in the Gaza Strip were significantly less likely to have access to alcohol sanitizers (p = 0.03) and gloves (p < 0.001). On average, governmental hospitals were significantly less likely to have all appropriate PPE than non-governmental institutions (p = 0.001). Only 16 (11.6%) surveyed felt confident in dealing with a potential COVID-19 case, 57 (41.3%) having received any COVID-19-related training, and 57 (41.3%) not having a local hospital protocol. CONCLUSION: HCWs in oPt appear to be underprepared and severely lacking adequate PPE provision. The lack of PPE provision will exacerbate spread of COVID-19 and deepen the crisis, whilst putting HCWs at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Arabs , Asia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Middle East/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(3): 217-220, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722664

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pneumonia, Viral , Asia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715373

ABSTRACT

Websites content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) ensure that websites should be perceivable, understandable, navigable, and interactive. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the importance of accessible websites and online content grew throughout the world. Therefore, in this study, we examined COVID-19-related official government websites. This research covered 21 government websites, with 13 websites from European countries and 8 websites from Asian countries, to evaluate their accessibility following WCAG 2.0 and WCAG 2.1 guidelines. The overall goal of this study was to identify the frequent accessibility problems that might help the website owners to identify the shortcomings of their websites. The target websites were evaluated in two steps: in step-1, evaluation was performed through four automatic web accessibility testing tools such as Mauve++, Nibbler, WAVE, and WEB accessibility tools; in step-2, evaluation went through human observation, such as system usability testing and expert testing. The automatic evaluation results showed that few of the websites were accessible; a significant number of websites were not accessible for people with disabilities. In addition, system usability testing found some complexity in website organization, short explanations, and outdated information. The expert testing suggested improving the color of the websites, organization of links, buttons, and font size. This study might be helpful for associated authorities to improve the quality of the websites in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703135

ABSTRACT

Since the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been reports of increased violence against women globally. We aimed to explore factors associated with reported increases in gender-based violence (GBV) during the pandemic in the Asia-Pacific region. We conducted 47 semi-structured interviews with experts working in sexual and reproductive health in 12 countries in the region. We analysed data thematically, using the socio-ecological framework of violence. Risks associated with increased GBV included economic strain, alcohol use and school closures, together with reduced access to health and social services. We highlight the need to address heightened risk factors, the importance of proactively identifying instances of GBV and protecting women and girls through establishing open and innovative communication channels, along with addressing underlying issues of gender inequality and social norms. Violence is exacerbated during public health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying and supporting women at risk, as well as preventing domestic violence during lockdowns and movement restrictions is an emerging challenge. Our findings can help inform the adoption of improved surveillance and research, as well as innovative interventions to prevent violence and detect and protect victims.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Gender-Based Violence , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nature ; 604(7905): 330-336, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692583

ABSTRACT

The animal reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown despite reports of SARS-CoV-2-related viruses in Asian Rhinolophus bats1-4, including the closest virus from R. affinis, RaTG13 (refs. 5,6), and pangolins7-9. SARS-CoV-2 has a mosaic genome, to which different progenitors contribute. The spike sequence determines the binding affinity and accessibility of its receptor-binding domain to the cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and is responsible for host range10-12. SARS-CoV-2 progenitor bat viruses genetically close to SARS-CoV-2 and able to enter human cells through a human ACE2 (hACE2) pathway have not yet been identified, although they would be key in understanding the origin of the epidemic. Here we show that such viruses circulate in cave bats living in the limestone karstic terrain in northern Laos, in the Indochinese peninsula. We found that the receptor-binding domains of these viruses differ from that of SARS-CoV-2 by only one or two residues at the interface with ACE2, bind more efficiently to the hACE2 protein than that of the SARS-CoV-2 strain isolated in Wuhan from early human cases, and mediate hACE2-dependent entry and replication in human cells, which is inhibited by antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2. None of these bat viruses contains a furin cleavage site in the spike protein. Our findings therefore indicate that bat-borne SARS-CoV-2-like viruses that are potentially infectious for humans circulate in Rhinolophus spp. in the Indochinese peninsula.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Asia , Caves , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
15.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(1): 127-134, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683497

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 lockdown imposes many challenges to patients with diabetes. We aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on health-related behavior and disease control among patients with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults with diabetes attending a diabetes clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka in June-July 2020. Lifestyle and disease control changes before and during the lockdown, were determined using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and review of medical records. RESULTS: Among 1727 participants mean HbA1c decreased by 0.30% (95% CI 0.24-0.36, p < 0.001). HbA1c improved in 37.6% but deteriorated in 18.8%. Male sex (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.67), better education (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and being employed (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.16) were sociodemographic predictors of improved control. Better dietary adherence (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.12), night-time sleep (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.13-1.88) and indoor exercise (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.07) were behavioural determinants of improved glycaemia. Decreases in self-monitoring of blood glucose (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.93), exercise (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.32-2.20), medication use (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.37-2.78), dietary adherence (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.32-2.26) and family income (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.12-1.88) predicted worsening glycaemia. Only 4.1% used telehealth services; 83.1% of them reported good satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Mean HbA1c improved during the lockdown. Overall, 37.6% of participants improved their glycaemic control. Well-educated employed men were more likely to improve glycaemic status. Improving diabetes control through healthy lifestyle practices and self-monitoring are feasible even in resource limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Asia/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 25(3): 247-258, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629480

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid and widespread adoption of telemedicine in rheumatology care. The Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology (APLAR) working group was tasked with developing evidence-based recommendations for rheumatology practice to guide maintenance of the highest possible standards of clinical care and to enable broad patient reach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of English-language articles related to telehealth in rheumatology was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, Web Of Science and Scopus. The strength of the evidence was graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach as well as the Oxford Levels of Evidence. The recommendations were developed using a modified Delphi technique to establish consensus. RESULTS: Three overarching principles and 13 recommendations were developed based on identified literature and consensus agreement. The overarching principles address telemedicine frameworks, decision-making, and modality. Recommendations 1-4 address patient suitability, triage, and when telemedicine should be offered to patients. Recommendations 5-10 cover the procedure, including the means, data safety, fail-safe mechanisms, and treat-to-target approach. Recommendations 11-13 focus on training and education related to telerheumatology. CONCLUSION: These recommendations provide guidance for the approach and use of telemedicine in rheumatology care to guide highest possible standards of clinical care and to enable equitable patient reach. However, since evidence in telemedicine care in rheumatology is limited and emerging, most recommendations will need further consideration when more data are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatology/standards , Telemedicine/standards , Asia , Consensus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2014296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624515

ABSTRACT

In this 13th annual installment of the annual 'Antibodies to Watch' article series, we discuss key events in commercial antibody therapeutics development that occurred in 2021 and forecast events that might occur in 2022. Regulatory review of antibody therapeutics that target the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus proceeded at an unprecedented pace in 2021, resulting in both emergency use authorizations and full approvals for sotrovimab, regdanvimab, REGEN-COV2, as well as others, in numerous countries. As of November 1, a total of 11 antibody therapeutics had been granted first approvals in either the United States or European Union in 2021 (evinacumab, dostarlimab loncastuximab tesirine, amivantamab, aducanumab, tralokinumab, anifrolumab, bimekizumab, tisotumab vedotin, regdanvimab, REGEN-COV2). The first global approvals of seven products, however, were granted elsewhere, including Japan (pabinafusp alfa), China (disitamab vedotin, penpulimab, zimberelimab), Australia (sotrovimab, REGEN-COV2), or the Republic of Korea (regdanvimab). Globally, at least 27 novel antibody therapeutics are undergoing review by regulatory agencies. First actions by the Food and Drug Administration on the biologics license applications for faricimab, sutimlimab, tebentafusp, relatlimab, sintilimab, ublituximab and tezepelumab are expected in the first quarter of 2022. Finally, our data show that, with antibodies for COVID-19 excluded, the late-stage commercial clinical pipeline of antibody therapeutics grew by over 30% in the past year. Of those in late-stage development, marketing applications for at least 22 may occur by the end of 2022.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antibody Specificity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Asia , Australia , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Compassionate Use Trials , Drug Approval , European Union , Forecasting , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
19.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S103-S106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587741

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted people's normal life as a result of strict policies applied to slow down the pandemic. To find out how extensive the virus spread is, most countries increase their daily testing rates. METHOD: This simple modelling work uses stringency index and daily testing (including the lagged version up to the previous 14 days) to predict daily COVID-19 cases in India and Indonesia. A Stepwise Multiple Regression (SWMR) subroutine is used in this modelling to select factors based on a 0.01 significant level affecting daily COVID-19 cases before the epidemic peaks. RESULT: The models have high predictability close to 94% (Indonesia) and 99% (India). Increasing number of daily COVID-19 cases in Indonesia is associated with the country's increased testing capacity. On the other hand, stringency indices play more important role in determining India's daily COVID-19 cases. CLOCLUSION: Our finding shows that one question remains to be answered as to why testing and strict policy differ in determining daily cases in both Asian countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown has had a significant impact on mental health. Patients with eating disorders (ED) have been particularly vulnerable. AIMS: (1) To explore changes in eating-related symptoms and general psychopathology during lockdown in patients with an ED from various European and Asian countries; and (2) to assess differences related to diagnostic ED subtypes, age, and geography. METHODS: The sample comprised 829 participants, diagnosed with an ED according to DSM-5 criteria from specialized ED units in Europe and Asia. Participants were assessed using the COVID-19 Isolation Scale (CIES). RESULTS: Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) experienced the highest impact on weight and ED symptoms in comparison with other ED subtypes during lockdown, whereas individuals with other specified feeding and eating disorders (OFSED) had greater deterioration in general psychological functioning than subjects with other ED subtypes. Finally, Asian and younger individuals appeared to be more resilient. CONCLUSIONS: The psychopathological changes in ED patients during the COVID-19 lockdown varied by cultural context and individual variation in age and ED diagnosis. Clinical services may need to target preventive measures and adapt therapeutic approaches for the most vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Asia , Child , Europe , Female , Humans , Internationality , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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