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1.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760908

ABSTRACT

After a two-year pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a serious public health problem and economic stability worldwide, particularly in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The objective of this study was to identify the wave periods, provide an accurate space-time forecast of COVID-19 disease and its relationship to vaccination rates. We combined a hierarchical Bayesian pure spatiotemporal model and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing techniques to identify the wave periods and to provide weekly COVID-19 forecasts for the period 15 December 2021 to 5 January 2022 and to identify the relationship between the COVID-19 risk and the vaccination rate. We discovered that each ASIAN country had a unique COVID-19 time wave and duration. Additionally, we discovered that the number of COVID-19 cases was quite low and that no weekly hotspots were identified during the study period. The vaccination rate showed a nonlinear relationship with the COVID-19 risk, with a different temporal pattern for each ASEAN country. We reached the conclusion that vaccination, in comparison to other interventions, has a large influence over a longer time span.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
2.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(4): 104-108, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673858

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of our civilization and reinforced the importance of living in harmony with nature, not rampaging it in a conquering mode. South and South-East Asia have a vital role to play in achieving the global goal of 'Health for All' as the regions have a significantly large share of global income and multidimensional poor compared to other regions. Clearly, the progress in health and development outcomes of these regions cannot be achieved without addressing social determinants of health and ensuring active public participation. These regions must collectively address the social determinants of health following a realistic health promotion model. It is indeed a favourable time to look beyond the so-called predominantly reductionist biomedical model of health care to a more holistic model of health, that places humans and the environment at the centre, and emphasizes the importance of promoting health and wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Income , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Community Participation , Far East , Humans
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24145, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585802

ABSTRACT

Recent studies suggest that coronaviruses circulate widely in Southeast Asian bat species and that the progenitors of the SARS-Cov-2 virus could have originated in rhinolophid bats in the region. Our objective was to assess the diversity and circulation patterns of coronavirus in several bat species in Southeast Asia. We undertook monthly live-capture sessions and sampling in Cambodia over 17 months to cover all phases of the annual reproduction cycle of bats and test specifically the association between their age and CoV infection status. We additionally examined current information on the reproductive phenology of Rhinolophus and other bat species presently known to occur in mainland southeast China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Results from our longitudinal monitoring (573 bats belonging to 8 species) showed an overall proportion of positive PCR tests for CoV of 4.2% (24/573) in cave-dwelling bats from Kampot and 4.75% (22/463) in flying-foxes from Kandal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PCR amplicon sequences of CoVs (n = 46) obtained clustered in Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus. Interestingly, Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato harbored viruses from both genera. Our results suggest an association between positive detections of coronaviruses and juvenile and immature bats in Cambodia (OR = 3.24 [1.46-7.76], p = 0.005). Since the limited data presently available from literature review indicates that reproduction is largely synchronized among rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats in our study region, particularly in its more seasonal portions (above 16° N), this may lead to seasonal patterns in CoV circulation. Overall, our study suggests that surveillance of CoV in insectivorous bat species in Southeast Asia, including SARS-CoV-related coronaviruses in rhinolophid bats, could be targeted from June to October for species exhibiting high proportions of juveniles and immatures during these months. It also highlights the need to develop long-term longitudinal surveys of bats and improve our understanding of their ecology in the region, for both biodiversity conservation and public health reasons.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Chiroptera/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Animals , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/virology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Geography , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Species Specificity
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1578-1583, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Globally South-East Asia reported 40% of SARS-CoV-2 infected cases in the fourth week of April 2021. It continued to show an increase with India accounting for 50% of cases worldwide and 30% of global deaths. Genomic surveillance should continue at a rapid pace because of the continuously evolving nature of the virus. The time period of sample collection from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data database was concurrent with the surge in new cases seen in the Indian subcontinent. METHODOLOGY: 7,415 sequences were downloaded from Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data between January and April 2021; out of which 4,411 were high coverage genome sequences and were considered for analysis. Phylogenetic analysis were carried out using Nextstrain. RESULTS: 21A or B.1.617 or delta was the most prevalent lineage in India accounting for 67.7% of the genomes. Next important clades were 20A, 20B and 20I accounting for 23.6%, 11.8% and 12.1% respectively collected between January 2021 and April 2021. The remaining sequences were assigned to clade 20H, 20J, 20D, 20C, 20G,20E,19A and 19B.The spike mutation frequencies of L452R, E484Q and P681R in Indian state of Maharashtra were 62.4%, 66.5% and 61.5% respectively. Two unique N-terminal domain deletion of spike protein were found at position 67 and 68. CONCLUSIONS: The phylogenomics of the delta variant or 21A emerged in neighboring Asian countries of Thailand, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Japan. We analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 genomes from India for mutation characterization of the spike glycoprotein and the nucleocapsid protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 2001192, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559108

ABSTRACT

This systematic review aims to summarize the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general adult population and healthcare workers (HCWs) in several key regions worldwide during the first year of the COVID pandemic. Several literature databases were systemically searched for meta-analyses published by 22 September 2021 on the prevalence rates of mental health symptoms worldwide. The prevalence rates of mental health symptoms were summarized based on 388 empirical studies with a total of 1,067,021 participants from six regions and four countries. Comparatively, Africa and South Asia had the worse overall mental health symptoms, followed by Latin America. The research effort on mental health during COVID-19 has been highly skewed in terms of the scope of countries and mental health outcomes. The mental health symptoms are highly prevalent yet differ across regions, and such evidence helps to enable prioritization of mental health assistance efforts to allocate attention and resources based on the regional differences in mental health.


El objetivo de esa revisión sistemática es el de resumir la prevalencia de la ansiedad, la depresión y el insomnio, tanto en la población general adulta como en los trabajadores de salud de diferentes regiones clave alrededor del mundo durante el primer año de la pandemia por la COVID-19. Se revisaron de manera sistemática diversas bases de datos científicas buscando metaanálisis sobre la prevalencia de síntomas en salud mental alrededor del mundo, publicados hasta el 22 de setiembre del 2021. Se resumió la prevalencia de los síntomas de salud mental sobre la base de 388 estudios empíricos, comprendiendo a 1.067.021 participantes de cuatro países y de seis regiones. África y Asia meridional tuvieron, de manera general, los peores síntomas de salud mental, seguidas por Latinoamérica. El esfuerzo por realizar investigación en salud mental durante la pandemia por la COVID-19 ha estado altamente sesgado en torno a la envergadura de los países y de las medidas de resultado empleadas en salud mental. Los síntomas de salud mental son altamente prevalentes; no obstante, difieren a lo largo de diferentes regiones. Esta evidencia ayuda a permitir la priorización de los esfuerzos de atención en salud mental asignando la atención y recursos basados sobre las diferencias regionales en salud mental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Europe, Eastern/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Prevalence , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6223, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510592

ABSTRACT

In 2016 the World Health Organization set the goal of eliminating hepatitis B globally by 2030. Horizontal transmission has been greatly reduced in most countries by scaling up coverage of the infant HBV vaccine series, and vertical transmission is therefore becoming increasingly dominant. Here we show that scaling up timely hepatitis B birth dose vaccination to 90% of new-borns in 110 low- and middle-income countries by 2030 could prevent 710,000 (580,000 to 890,000) deaths in the 2020 to 2030 birth cohorts compared to status quo, with the greatest benefits in Africa. Maintaining this could lead to elimination by 2030 in the Americas, but not before 2059 in Africa. Drops in coverage due to disruptions in 2020 may lead to 15,000 additional deaths, mostly in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. Delays in planned scale-up could lead to an additional 580,000 deaths globally in the 2020 to 2030 birth cohorts.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Africa/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis Viruses/genetics , Hepatitis Viruses/immunology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Vaccination , World Health Organization
8.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(5): 382-387, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502726

ABSTRACT

In September 2018, all countries made a commitment at the first ever United Nations High-Level Meeting (UNHLM) on TB, to provide TB preventive treatment (TPT) to at least 30 million people at high-risk of TB disease between 2018 and 2022. In the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEA Region), which accounts for 44% of the global TB burden, only 1.2 million high-risk individuals (household contacts and people living with HIV) were provided TPT (11% of the 10.8 million regional UNHLM TPT target) in 2018 and 2019. By 2020, almost all 11 countries of the SEA Region had revised their policies on TPT target groups and criteria to assess TPT eligibility, and had adopted at least one shorter TPT regimen recommended in the latest WHO TPT guidelines. The major challenges for TPT scale-up in the SEA Region are resource shortages, knowledge and service delivery/uptake gaps among providers and service recipients, and the lack of adequate quantities of rifapentine for use in shorter TPT regimens. There are several regional opportunities to address these gaps and countries of the SEA Region must make use of these opportunities to scale up TPT services rapidly to reduce the TB burden in the SEA Region.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Far East , Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , United Nations , World Health Organization
9.
J Clin Apher ; 36(6): 849-863, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for neuroimmunological disorders has played an increasingly important role within the Southeast Asian (SEA) region. The South East Asian Therapeutic Plasma exchange Consortium (SEATPEC) was formed in 2018 to promote education and research on TPE within the region. The advent of the Covid-19 pandemic has produced challenges for the development and expansion of this service. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative and semi-quantitative questionnaire-based survey was conducted by SEATPEC member countries from January to June 2020 (Phase 1) and then from July 2020 to January 2021 in (Phase 2) to assess the impact of Covid-19 on regional TPE. OBJECTIVES: The study's main objectives were to explore the challenges experienced and adaptations/adjustments taken by SEATPEC countries in order to continue safe and efficient TPE during the Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The pandemic was found to disrupt the delivery of TPE services in all SEATPEC countries. Contributing factors were multifactorial due to overstretched medical services, staff shortages, quarantines and redeployments, fear of acquiring Covid-19, movement restriction orders, and patient's psychological fear of attending hospitals/testing for Covid-19. All SEATPEC countries practiced careful stratification of cases for TPE (electives vs emergencies, Covid-19 vs non-Covid-19 cases). SEATPEC countries had to modify TPE treatment protocols to include careful preprocedure screening of patient's for Covid-19, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and post-TPE sanitization of machines and TPE suites. CONCLUSION: Based on the responses of the survey, SEATPEC countries produced a consensus statement with five recommendations for safe and effective TPE within the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Consensus , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurologists , Pandemics , Plasma Exchange/methods , Plasma Exchange/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Virol J ; 18(1): 203, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya fever, caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has become a major global health concern, causing unexpected large outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. CHIKV is not indigenous to China, and its origin in the country is poorly understood. In particular, there is limited understanding of the recent global spread of CHIKV in the context of the CHIKV epidemic. METHODS: Here we investigated a novel Chikungunya patient who came from Myanmar to China in August, 2019. Direct genome sequencing was performed via combined MinION sequencing and BGISEQ-500 sequencing. A complete CHIKV genome dataset, including 727 CHIKV genomes retrieved from GenBank and the genome sequenced in this study, was constructed. An updated and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis was conducted to understand the virus's origin, evolution, transmission routes and genetic adaptation. RESULTS: All globally distributed CHIKV genomes were divided into West Africa, East/Central/South African and Asian genotypes. The genome sequenced in this study was located in the Indian Ocean lineage, and was closely related to a strain isolated from an Australian patient who returned from Bangladesh in 2017. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis showed that the Chinese strains mainly originated from the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Further analyses indicated that the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia may act as major hubs for the recent global spread of CHIKV, leading to multiple outbreaks and epidemics. Moreover, we identified 179 distinct sites, including some undescribed sites in the structural and non-structural proteins, which exhibited apparent genetic variations associated with different CHIKV lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Here we report a novel CHIKV isolate from a chikungunya patient who came from Myanmar to China in 2019, and summarize the source and evolution of Chinese CHIKV strains. Our present findings provide a better understanding of the recent global evolution of CHIKV, highlighting the urgent need for strengthened surveillance against viral diversity.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Australia , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Phylogeny
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20339, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467132

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the environmental spatial heterogeneity of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and spatial and temporal changes among the top-20 metropolitan cities of the Asia-Pacific. Remote sensing-based assessment is performed to analyze before and during the lockdown amid COVID-19 lockdown in the cities. Air pollution and mobility data of each city (Bangkok, Beijing, Busan, Dhaka, Delhi, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Karachi, Mumbai, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Tokyo, Wuhan, and few others) have been collected and analyzed for 2019 and 2020. Results indicated that almost every city was impacted positively regarding environmental emissions and visible reduction were found in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations before and during lockdown periods of 2020 as compared to those of 2019. The highest NO2 emission reduction (~ 50%) was recorded in Wuhan city during the lockdown of 2020. AOD was highest in Beijing and lowest in Colombo (< 10%). Overall, 90% movement was reduced till mid-April, 2020. A 98% reduction in mobility was recorded in Delhi, Seoul, and Wuhan. This analysis suggests that smart mobility and partial shutdown policies could be developed to reduce environmental pollutions in the region. Wuhan city is one of the benchmarks and can be replicated for the rest of the Asian cities wherever applicable.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , Cities/epidemiology , Far East/epidemiology , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406755

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is frequently associated with various health issues and is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly with its recent relevance to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To combat its increasing prevalence in Southeast Asia, numerous intervention programs have been implemented. We conducted a scoping review on recent interventions to manage MetS among Southeast Asians using standard methodologies. Cochrane, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus databases were systematically searched to yield peer-reviewed articles published between 2010-2020. We included 13 articles describing 11 unique interventions in four Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam. These interventions were broadly categorized into four groups: (i) nutrition (n = 4); (ii) physical activity (n = 2); (iii) nutrition and physical activity (n = 2); and (iv) multi-intervention (n = 3). Most studies investigated the effects of an intervention on components of MetS, which are anthropometry, blood pressure, glucose-related parameters, and lipid profile. Significant improvements ranged from 50% of studies reporting serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels to 100% for waist circumference. Evidence on interventions for individuals with MetS remains limited in Southeast Asia. More studies from other countries in this region are needed, especially on the effects of dietary interventions, to effectively address gaps in knowledge and provide sufficient data to design the ideal intervention for Southeast Asian populations.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Life Style , Lipids/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 685315, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359257

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to public health in Southeast Asia, a tropical region with limited resources. This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary dynamics and spatiotemporal patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the region. Materials and Methods: A total of 1491 complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from 10 Southeast Asian countries were downloaded from the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) database on November 17, 2020. The evolutionary relationships were assessed using maximum likelihood (ML) and time-scaled Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, and the phylogenetic clustering was tested using principal component analysis (PCA). The spatial patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread within Southeast Asia were inferred using the Bayesian stochastic search variable selection (BSSVS) model. The effective population size (Ne) trajectory was inferred using the Bayesian Skygrid model. Results: Four major clades (including one potentially endemic) were identified based on the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree. Similar clustering was yielded by PCA; the first three PCs explained 46.9% of the total genomic variations among the samples. The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Southeast Asia were estimated to be November 28, 2019 (September 7, 2019 to January 4, 2020) and 1.446 × 10-3 (1.292 × 10-3 to 1.613 × 10-3) substitutions per site per year, respectively. Singapore and Thailand were the two most probable root positions, with posterior probabilities of 0.549 and 0.413, respectively. There were high-support transmission links (Bayes factors exceeding 1,000) in Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia; Malaysia involved the highest number (7) of inferred transmission links within the region. A twice-accelerated viral population expansion, followed by a temporary setback, was inferred during the early stages of the pandemic in Southeast Asia. Conclusions: With available genomic data, we illustrate the phylogeography and phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Southeast Asia. Continuous genomic surveillance and enhanced strategic collaboration should be listed as priorities to curb the pandemic, especially for regional communities dominated by developing countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14276, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307342

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in four bat species: Rhinolophus acuminatus, Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus malayanus, and Rhinolophus shameli. Here, we analysed 343 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) from georeferenced bats of the four Rhinolophus species identified as reservoirs of viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2. Haplotype networks were constructed in order to investigate patterns of genetic diversity among bat populations of Southeast Asia and China. No strong geographic structure was found for the four Rhinolophus species, suggesting high dispersal capacity. The ecological niche of bat viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 was predicted using the four localities in which bat viruses were recently discovered and the localities where bats showed the same CO1 haplotypes than virus-positive bats. The ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV was deduced from the localities where bat viruses were previously detected. The results show that the ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV2 includes several regions of mainland Southeast Asia whereas the ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV is mainly restricted to China. In agreement with these results, human populations in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand appear to be much less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic than other countries of Southeast Asia. In the climatic transitional zone between the two ecological niches (southern Yunnan, northern Laos, northern Vietnam), genomic recombination between highly divergent viruses is more likely to occur. Considering the limited data and the risk of recombinant bat-CoVs emergence as the source of new pandemics in humans, the bat populations in these regions should be under surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Phylogeography , Viruses/genetics , Animals , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viruses/pathogenicity
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 662842, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295720

ABSTRACT

Background: When a new pathogen emerges, consistent case reporting is critical for public health surveillance. Tracking cases geographically and over time is key for understanding the spread of an infectious disease and effectively designing interventions to contain and mitigate an epidemic. In this paper we describe the reporting systems on COVID-19 in Southeast Asia during the first wave in 2020, and highlight the impact of specific reporting methods. Methods: We reviewed key epidemiological variables from various sources including a regionally comprehensive dataset, national trackers, dashboards, and case bulletins for 11 countries during the first wave of the epidemic in Southeast Asia. We recorded timelines of shifts in epidemiological reporting systems and described the differences in how epidemiological data are reported across countries and timepoints. Results: Our findings suggest that countries in Southeast Asia generally reported precise and detailed epidemiological data during the first wave of the pandemic. Changes in reporting rarely occurred for demographic data, while reporting shifts for geographic and temporal data were frequent. Most countries provided COVID-19 individual-level data daily using HTML and PDF, necessitating scraping and extraction before data could be used in analyses. Conclusion: Our study highlights the importance of more nuanced analyses of COVID-19 epidemiological data within and across countries because of the frequent shifts in reporting. As governments continue to respond to impacts on health and the economy, data sharing also needs to be prioritised given its foundational role in policymaking, and in the implementation and evaluation of interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Humans , Information Dissemination , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Exp Dermatol ; 30 Suppl 1: 23-26, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290136

ABSTRACT

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) in South-East Asia and East Asia shows distinct clinical, environmental, physiological and likely genetic differences compared with the West. A male predominance is present, which may be due to differences in smoking habits. Involvement of the buttocks is common in East Asian patients, while the axillae are most commonly affected in South-East Asian patients. Metabolic comorbidities are prevalent in South-East Asian and East Asian HS patients. A family history of HS is less common than noted in Western populations. Asian ethnic subgroups deserve further study.


Subject(s)
Hidradenitis Suppurativa/epidemiology , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Far East/epidemiology , Female , Hidradenitis Suppurativa/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology
18.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(11): 3056-3068, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has impacted gastroenterology practices worldwide; however, its protracted effects within Southeast Asia were unknown. The primary aim of the study was to determine the impact of the pandemic on clinical demands including burnout among gastroenterologists within the region. The secondary aim was to identify risk factors for burnout and determine regional stressors. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study. Gastroenterologists were surveyed electronically between September 1 and December 7, 2020, via gastroenterology and endoscopy societies of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) was used to detect burnout. Quantitative data were non-parametric; non-parametric methods were used for statistical comparisons. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for burnout. Content analysis method was used to analyze qualitative data. Ethical approval was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 73.0% reported that they were still significantly affected by the pandemic. Of these, 40.5% reported increased workload and 59.5% decreased workload. Statistically significant differences in weekly working hours, endoscopy, and inpatient volumes were present. No differences were observed in outpatient volumes, likely because of telemedicine. Burnout was common; however, 50.1% of gastroenterologists were unaware of or did not have access to mental health support. This, as well as depression, being a trainee, and public sector work, increased burnout risk significantly. CONCLUSION: The effects of the pandemic are multifaceted, and burnout is common among Southeast Asian gastroenterologists. Safeguards for mental health are suboptimal, and improvements are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Gastroenterologists/psychology , Adult , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 413-420, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270185

ABSTRACT

There is a scarcity of data regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in children from southeast and south Asia. This study aims to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease among children in the region. This is an observational study of children with COVID-19 infection in hospitals contributing data to the Pediatric Acute and Critical Care COVID-19 Registry of Asia. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included in this registry. The primary outcome was severity of COVID-19 infection as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (mild, moderate, severe, or critical). Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcomes of children with COVID-19 are described. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for severe/critical disease. A total of 260 COVID-19 cases from eight hospitals across seven countries (China, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, and Pakistan) were included. The common clinical manifestations were similar across countries: fever (64%), cough (39%), and coryza (23%). Approximately 40% of children were asymptomatic, and overall mortality was 2.3%, with all deaths reported from India and Pakistan. Using the multivariable model, the infant age group, presence of comorbidities, and cough on presentation were associated with severe/critical COVID-19. This epidemiological study of pediatric COVID-19 infection demonstrated similar clinical presentations of COVID-19 in children across Asia. Risk factors for severe disease in children were age younger than 12 months, presence of comorbidities, and cough at presentation. Further studies are needed to determine whether differences in mortality are the result of genetic factors, cultural practices, or environmental exposures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Asia/epidemiology , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Risk Factors
20.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 29, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on infant feeding in the context of COVID-19 uphold standing recommendations for breastfeeding, non-separation, and skin-to-skin contact, including the use of donor human milk when mother's own milk is not available. INSUFFICIENT GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF DONOR HUMAN MILK AND THE ROLE OF HUMAN MILK BANKS IN THE PANDEMIC RESPONSE: COVID-19 clinical management guidelines in seven countries in Southeast Asia are not aligned with WHO recommendations despite the lack of evidence of transmission through either breastmilk or breastfeeding. The use of safe donor human milk accessed through human milk banks is also insufficiently recommended, even in countries with an existing human milk bank, leading to a gap in evidence-based management of COVID-19. This highlights long-standing challenges as well as opportunities in the safe, equitable, and resilient implementation of human milk banks in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This statement reflects the expert opinion of the Regional Human Milk Bank Network for Southeast Asia and Beyond on the need to revisit national guidelines based on the best evidence for breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic, to incorporate human milk bank services in national obstetric and newborn care guidelines for COVID-19 where possible, and to ensure that operations of human milk banks are adapted to meet the needs of the current pandemic and to sustain donor human milk supply in the long-term. The Network also recommends sustained engagement with the global human milk bank community.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Milk Banks/organization & administration , Milk Banks/standards , Milk, Human , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Humans , World Health Organization
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